Abstract

Optical thin films of MgF2 and NdF3 have been made by molecular-beam deposition in ultrahigh vacuum. The film packing density was calculated from the water amount that filled the cavities of the films in air. For that the transmission in the IR spectral region with a characteristic water absorption band at a wave number of 3400 cm−1 was measured. The influence on the packing density of a modification of thin-film morphology by stratification of very thin sublayers of different crystallizing fluorides is tested.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. J. Taylor, R. B. Gibson, J. P. Roberts, “Two-photon absorption at 248 nm in ultraviolet window materials,” Opt. Lett. 13, 814–816 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, E. Hacker, “Initial layer growth in thin MgF2, LaF3, CaF2, and LiF films,” Vide Couches Mines Suppl. 259, 104–106 (1991).
  4. E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Mueller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, 1986), p. 399.
  6. S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 film-evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vital, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H.-J. Kuehn, A. Duppare, W. Richter, A. Lehmann, U. Bergner, “Physical properties of evaporated PbF2 optical films,” Thin Solid Films 201, 281–292 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. H. Guenther, “Enhanced physical vapor deposition and resulting microstructure of thin films,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Optical Coatings (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 8–12.
  13. J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 115–122 (1986).
  14. F. Flory, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, Y. Hu, “Surface optical coatings by ion assisted deposition techniques: study of uniformity,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2952–2959 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, “Ion-assisted laser deposition of CaF2 thin films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2983–2987 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, “Ion-assisted deposition of magnesium fluoride films on substrates at ambient temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1732–1733 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. L. Lewis, J. A. Savage, “A fundamental approach toward improved optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 1983 Boulder Laser Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1983), pp. 1–7.
  19. C. C. H. Hale, I. T. Muirhead, S. P. Fisher, G. J. H. Mathew, “The evolution of molecular beam deposition (MBD) from laboratory to production stage,” in Proceedings of the Boulder Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1989), pp. 455–470.
  20. A. Lehmann, “Infrarotspektroskopische Charakterisierung Dünner Schichten,” Phys. Halbleiteroberfläche 19, 153–160 (1988).
  21. M. Born, K. Huang, Dynamical Theory of Crystall Lattices (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1954), p. 112.
  22. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, 1986), p. 50.

1992

H.-J. Kuehn, A. Duppare, W. Richter, A. Lehmann, U. Bergner, “Physical properties of evaporated PbF2 optical films,” Thin Solid Films 201, 281–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, E. Hacker, “Initial layer growth in thin MgF2, LaF3, CaF2, and LiF films,” Vide Couches Mines Suppl. 259, 104–106 (1991).

1990

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

F. Flory, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, Y. Hu, “Surface optical coatings by ion assisted deposition techniques: study of uniformity,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2952–2959 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, “Ion-assisted laser deposition of CaF2 thin films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2983–2987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. J. Taylor, R. B. Gibson, J. P. Roberts, “Two-photon absorption at 248 nm in ultraviolet window materials,” Opt. Lett. 13, 814–816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Mueller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Lehmann, “Infrarotspektroskopische Charakterisierung Dünner Schichten,” Phys. Halbleiteroberfläche 19, 153–160 (1988).

1987

1985

1979

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vital, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969

K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 film-evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

Bergner, U.

H.-J. Kuehn, A. Duppare, W. Richter, A. Lehmann, U. Bergner, “Physical properties of evaporated PbF2 optical films,” Thin Solid Films 201, 281–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, K. Huang, Dynamical Theory of Crystall Lattices (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1954), p. 112.

Dohle, R.

A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Duppare, A.

H.-J. Kuehn, A. Duppare, W. Richter, A. Lehmann, U. Bergner, “Physical properties of evaporated PbF2 optical films,” Thin Solid Films 201, 281–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, S. P.

C. C. H. Hale, I. T. Muirhead, S. P. Fisher, G. J. H. Mathew, “The evolution of molecular beam deposition (MBD) from laboratory to production stage,” in Proceedings of the Boulder Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1989), pp. 455–470.

Flory, F.

Gibson, R. B.

Gluck, N. S.

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, “Ion-assisted laser deposition of CaF2 thin films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2983–2987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, “Enhanced physical vapor deposition and resulting microstructure of thin films,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Optical Coatings (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 8–12.

Gunning, W. J.

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, “Ion-assisted laser deposition of CaF2 thin films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2983–2987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hacker, E.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, E. Hacker, “Initial layer growth in thin MgF2, LaF3, CaF2, and LiF films,” Vide Couches Mines Suppl. 259, 104–106 (1991).

A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hale, C. C. H.

C. C. H. Hale, I. T. Muirhead, S. P. Fisher, G. J. H. Mathew, “The evolution of molecular beam deposition (MBD) from laboratory to production stage,” in Proceedings of the Boulder Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1989), pp. 455–470.

Harris, M.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vital, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Heerdegen, W.

A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hiraga, R.

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Huang, K.

M. Born, K. Huang, Dynamical Theory of Crystall Lattices (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1954), p. 112.

Kaiser, N.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, E. Hacker, “Initial layer growth in thin MgF2, LaF3, CaF2, and LiF films,” Vide Couches Mines Suppl. 259, 104–106 (1991).

Kaiser, U.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, E. Hacker, “Initial layer growth in thin MgF2, LaF3, CaF2, and LiF films,” Vide Couches Mines Suppl. 259, 104–106 (1991).

Kinosita, K.

K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 film-evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, H.-J.

H.-J. Kuehn, A. Duppare, W. Richter, A. Lehmann, U. Bergner, “Physical properties of evaporated PbF2 optical films,” Thin Solid Films 201, 281–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lehan, J. P.

J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 115–122 (1986).

Lehmann, A.

H.-J. Kuehn, A. Duppare, W. Richter, A. Lehmann, U. Bergner, “Physical properties of evaporated PbF2 optical films,” Thin Solid Films 201, 281–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Lehmann, “Infrarotspektroskopische Charakterisierung Dünner Schichten,” Phys. Halbleiteroberfläche 19, 153–160 (1988).

Lewis, K. L.

K. L. Lewis, J. A. Savage, “A fundamental approach toward improved optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 1983 Boulder Laser Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1983), pp. 1–7.

Macleod, H. A.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vital, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, 1986), p. 399.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 115–122 (1986).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, 1986), p. 50.

Mademann, D.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, E. Hacker, “Initial layer growth in thin MgF2, LaF3, CaF2, and LiF films,” Vide Couches Mines Suppl. 259, 104–106 (1991).

Mademann, U.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

Mathew, G. J. H.

C. C. H. Hale, I. T. Muirhead, S. P. Fisher, G. J. H. Mathew, “The evolution of molecular beam deposition (MBD) from laboratory to production stage,” in Proceedings of the Boulder Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1989), pp. 455–470.

Messerly, M. J.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 115–122 (1986).

Mueller, H.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Mueller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Muirhead, I. T.

C. C. H. Hale, I. T. Muirhead, S. P. Fisher, G. J. H. Mathew, “The evolution of molecular beam deposition (MBD) from laboratory to production stage,” in Proceedings of the Boulder Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1989), pp. 455–470.

Mutschke, H.

A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

Nishibori, M.

K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 film-evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, S.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vital, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

F. Flory, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, Y. Hu, “Surface optical coatings by ion assisted deposition techniques: study of uniformity,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2952–2959 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vital, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Potoff, R. H.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 115–122 (1986).

Richter, W.

H.-J. Kuehn, A. Duppare, W. Richter, A. Lehmann, U. Bergner, “Physical properties of evaporated PbF2 optical films,” Thin Solid Films 201, 281–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. P.

Sankur, H.

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, “Ion-assisted laser deposition of CaF2 thin films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2983–2987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Savage, J. A.

K. L. Lewis, J. A. Savage, “A fundamental approach toward improved optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 1983 Boulder Laser Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1983), pp. 1–7.

Schaefer, D.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Mueller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, G.

A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Spann, J. F.

Sugawara, N.

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Targove, J. D.

J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 115–122 (1986).

Taylor, A. J.

Torr, D. G.

Torr, M. R.

Vital, B.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vital, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H. G.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Mueller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weissbrodt, P.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, E. Hacker, “Initial layer growth in thin MgF2, LaF3, CaF2, and LiF films,” Vide Couches Mines Suppl. 259, 104–106 (1991).

Welsch, E.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Mueller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weng, C. C.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 115–122 (1986).

Wolf, R.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Mueller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zukic, M.

Appl. Opt.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 film-evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, “Ion-assisted laser deposition of CaF2 thin films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2983–2987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Halbleiteroberfläche

A. Lehmann, “Infrarotspektroskopische Charakterisierung Dünner Schichten,” Phys. Halbleiteroberfläche 19, 153–160 (1988).

Phys. Status Solidi A

A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Mueller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vital, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Kuehn, A. Duppare, W. Richter, A. Lehmann, U. Bergner, “Physical properties of evaporated PbF2 optical films,” Thin Solid Films 201, 281–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vide Couches Mines Suppl

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, E. Hacker, “Initial layer growth in thin MgF2, LaF3, CaF2, and LiF films,” Vide Couches Mines Suppl. 259, 104–106 (1991).

Other

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, 1986), p. 399.

K. H. Guenther, “Enhanced physical vapor deposition and resulting microstructure of thin films,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Optical Coatings (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 8–12.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 115–122 (1986).

K. L. Lewis, J. A. Savage, “A fundamental approach toward improved optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 1983 Boulder Laser Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1983), pp. 1–7.

C. C. H. Hale, I. T. Muirhead, S. P. Fisher, G. J. H. Mathew, “The evolution of molecular beam deposition (MBD) from laboratory to production stage,” in Proceedings of the Boulder Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1989), pp. 455–470.

M. Born, K. Huang, Dynamical Theory of Crystall Lattices (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1954), p. 112.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, 1986), p. 50.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the UHV apparatus for MBD of fluorides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission curve with the absorption band in the IR region illustrating the numerical evaluation of measured spectra. T, transmission of the NdF3 films; T ref, reference; A(ν), absorption as a function of wave number ν; ∫ A(ν), integral I in Eq. (12).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Infrared transmission spectra of NdF3 films and the single-layer and the stratified layer stack with 30× (10-nm NdF3 + 1-nm MgF2) (T, transmission of the films; T ref, reference).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of packing densities of NdF3 single films, calculated from IR absorption (p1) and from a refractive-index shift (p2).

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p = volume of solid part of film ( i . e . , columns ) total volume of film ( i . e . , pores plus columns )
n = p n S + ( 1 p ) n V ,
ω 2 ( ω ) d ω = π z H 2 ( + 2 ) 2 54 0 M H N H ,
1 A ( ν ) = exp ( 4 π k ν d ) ,
ω = 2 π c ν = 2 π c / λ ,
2 = 2 n k ,
1 A = R + T = ( n 2 / n 0 ) τ a 2 τ b 2 exp ( 2 β ) + ρ a 2 + ρ b 2 exp ( 4 β ) + 2 ρ a 2 ρ b 2 exp ( 2 β ) cos α 1 + ρ a 2 ρ b 2 exp ( 4 β ) + 2 ρ a 2 ρ b 2 exp ( 2 β ) cos α ,
ρ a = n 0 n 1 n 0 + n 1 , ρ b = n 1 n 2 n 1 + n 2 ,
τ a = 2 n 0 n 0 + n 1 , τ b = 2 n 1 n 1 + n 2 ,
α = 2 π n d / λ , β = 2 π k d / λ .
2 π c 2 n W d ln 1 1 A ( ν ) d ν = π z H 2 ( + 2 ) 2 54 0 M H N H .
N H 108 n W c 2 0 M H z H 2 d ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 × I ,
I = A ( ν ) d ν .
p = 1 N H N H * .

Metrics