Abstract

We used double electron-beam coevaporation to fabricate TiO2–SiO2 mixed films. The deposition process included oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature, and deposition rate, all of which were real-time computer controlled. The optical properties of the mixed films varied from pure SiO2 to pure TiO2 as the composition of the films varied accordingly. X-ray diffraction showed that the mixed films all have amorphous structure with a SiO2 content of as low as 11%. Atomic force microscopy showed that the mixed film has a smoother surface than pure TiO2 film because of its amorphous structure.

Linear and Bruggeman's effective medium approximation models fit the experimental data better than other models.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, “Refractive index and attenuation characteristics of SiO2–Ta2O5, optical waveguide film,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3121–3127 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Muraka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol A. 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. E. Aspnes, “Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: a microscopic perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 50, 704–709 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
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1992

H-W. Zhang, S-X Liu, “Optical compound film deposited by a double e-gun,” Thin Solid Films 209, 148–149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, D. Vincent, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Chao, C-K. Chang, J-S. Chen, “TiO2–SiO2 mixed films prepared by the fast alternating sputter method,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3233–3237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

1989

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, N. S. Gluck, “Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2945–2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Sorbed water and intrinsic stress in composite TiO2–SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 807–812 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Muraka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol A. 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

1983

M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, “Refractive index and attenuation characteristics of SiO2–Ta2O5, optical waveguide film,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3121–3127 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: a microscopic perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 50, 704–709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

Apfel, J. H.

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: a microscopic perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 50, 704–709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bartholomew, C. S.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Muraka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol A. 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, R. W.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, D. Vincent, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Betz, H. T.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Muraka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol A. 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, G.

Carniglia, C. K.

Chang, C-K.

Chao, S.

Chen, J-S.

Demiryont, H.

Doolittle, L. R.

L. R. Doolittle, M. Thompson, Computer Code RUMP (Computer Graphics Service, Ithaca, N.Y., 1988).

Farabaugh, E. N.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, A.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Feldman, “Modeling refractive index in mixed component systems,” in Modeling of Optical Thin Films, M. R. Jackson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.821, 129–132 (1987).

Gluck, N. S.

Grieser, J. L.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Muraka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol A. 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Gunning, W.

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Sorbed water and intrinsic stress in composite TiO2–SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 807–812 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W. J.

Hall, R. L.

Haller, W. K.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, P. P.

P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsson, R.

R. Jacobsson, “Inhomogeneous and coevaporated homogeneous films for optical applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, R. W. Hoffman, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 8, pp. 51–98.

Kobayashi, M.

Lang, R. V.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, D. Vincent, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C-C.

Lin, J-F.

Lin, Y-F.

Liu, S-X

H-W. Zhang, S-X Liu, “Optical compound film deposited by a double e-gun,” Thin Solid Films 209, 148–149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morrow, M. D.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Muraka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol A. 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Muraka, N. P.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Muraka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol A. 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, M. F.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, D. Vincent, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Owles, R. S.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, D. Vincent, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, D. M.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Sorbed water and intrinsic stress in composite TiO2–SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 807–812 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Sankur, W. H. Southwell, “Broadband gradient-index antireflection coating for ZnSe,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2770–2773 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southwell, W. H.

Spence, R. A.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Muraka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol A. 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stempniak, R. A.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

St-Germain, D.

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

Thompson, M.

L. R. Doolittle, M. Thompson, Computer Code RUMP (Computer Graphics Service, Ithaca, N.Y., 1988).

Vincent, D.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, D. Vincent, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wildmann, D.

P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Woodberry, F. J.

Yan, K. L.

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, D. Vincent, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H-W.

H-W. Zhang, S-X Liu, “Optical compound film deposited by a double e-gun,” Thin Solid Films 209, 148–149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys.

D. E. Aspnes, “Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: a microscopic perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 50, 704–709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Sorbed water and intrinsic stress in composite TiO2–SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 807–812 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. E

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol A

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Muraka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol A. 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, D. Vincent, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, R. A. Stempniak, “Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969–2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

H-W. Zhang, S-X Liu, “Optical compound film deposited by a double e-gun,” Thin Solid Films 209, 148–149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

Crystal Data Determination Tables, Vol. 2,3rd ed. (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1973), pp. T-163.

M. Bass, ed., Handbook of Optics, Vol. 2, 2nd ed. (McGraw-HillNew York, 1995), Chap. 33, Table 9.

A. Feldman, “Modeling refractive index in mixed component systems,” in Modeling of Optical Thin Films, M. R. Jackson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.821, 129–132 (1987).

R. Jacobsson, “Inhomogeneous and coevaporated homogeneous films for optical applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, R. W. Hoffman, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 8, pp. 51–98.

L. R. Doolittle, M. Thompson, Computer Code RUMP (Computer Graphics Service, Ithaca, N.Y., 1988).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the Balzers BAP800 coating chamber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RBS backscatter energy spectrum for four mixed films with TiO2:SiO2 mole fractions of (a) 36:64, (b) 59:41, (c) 74:26, (d) 89:11.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical structureless x-ray diffraction results of the mixed films of Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM pictures of a pure TiO2 film surface with (a) 1 μm × 1 μm and (b) 10 μm × 10 μm scanning areas and mixed film with (c) a 1 μm × 1 μm scanning area.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra of the mixed films and a bare substrate. The ratios are the TiO2:SiO2 mole fractions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission spectra of the mixed films and a bare substrate. The ratios are the TiO2:SiO2 mole fractions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive index versus wavelength for the mixed films. The ratios are the TiO2:SiO2 mole fractions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflection spectra of the silicon wafer substrate with and without the single-layer mixed film (TiO2:SiO2 = 59:41) antireflection coating.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mole Fraction and Volume Fraction for the Mixed Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Calculated and Measured Film Thicknesses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Coefficients of the Cauchy Dispersion Formula of Four Mixed Films and Two Pure Films

Tables Icon

Table 4 Results of Least-Squares Fit for Each Model a

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( λ ) = A + B λ 2 + C λ 4 .
n 2 = f 1 n 1 2 + f 2 n 2 2 ,
n = f 1 n 1 + f 2 n 2 ,
f 1 n 1 2 n 2 n 1 2 + 2 n 2 + f 2 n 2 2 n 2 n 2 2 + 2 n 2 = 0 ,
n 2 1 n 2 + 2 = f 1 n 1 2 1 n 1 2 + 2 + f 2 n 2 2 1 n 2 2 + 2 ,
n 2 = ( f 1 n 1 2 + f 2 n 2 2 ) 1 .
Δ Q = all sample ( n exp n model ) 2 .

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