Abstract

A very large radial graded-index (GRIN) polymer was successfully prepared for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, by two methods: the curved mold method and the diffusion copolymerization method. Both methods gave a radial GRIN polymer with a diameter of 70 mm and a Δn value greater than 0.02. Ray tracing through these radial GRIN polymers was used to predict that such a GRIN polymer could be a promising candidate for thinner ophthalmic lenses with no spherical aberration or multifocusing characteristics.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Koike, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fibre,” Polymer 32, 1737–1745 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Koike, “GRIN plastic lenses and fibers,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems (University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain, 1992), p. 158.
  3. Y. Nanjo, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “The multifocal GRIN contact lens,” Polym. Prepr. Jpn. (Society of Polymer Science, Japan) 42, 2800–2802 (1993).
  4. D. T. Moore, “Design of optical systems with negative gradient-index dispersion,” in Microoptics/Graded-Index Conference, '93 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kawasaki, Japan, 1993), pp. 14–16.
  5. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, “Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. IX. Chemical composition of the copolymer rod— diethylene glycol bis(allyl carbonate) with 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl methacrylate,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907–2915 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. 15: GRIN rod prepared by photocopolymerization of a ternary monomer system,” Appl. Opt. 22, 418–423 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Ogura, “Application of gradient index fiber array to copying machine,” Kogaku 10, 111–117 (1981).
  8. Y. Koike, E. Nihei, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Graded-index plastic optical fiber composed of methyl methacrylate and vinyl phenylacetate copolymers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2686–2691 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Koike, “Graded index materials and components,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1992), Chap. 3, pp. 71–104.
  10. Registered trade name of Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany.
  11. A. Sharma, D. V. Kumar, A. K. Ghatak, “Tracing rays through graded-index media: a new method,” Appl. Opt. 21, 984–987 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Y. Koike, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fibre,” Polymer 32, 1737–1745 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (2)

Y. Ogura, “Application of gradient index fiber array to copying machine,” Kogaku 10, 111–117 (1981).

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, “Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. IX. Chemical composition of the copolymer rod— diethylene glycol bis(allyl carbonate) with 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl methacrylate,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907–2915 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A. K.

Koike, Y.

Y. Koike, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fibre,” Polymer 32, 1737–1745 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, E. Nihei, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Graded-index plastic optical fiber composed of methyl methacrylate and vinyl phenylacetate copolymers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2686–2691 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. 15: GRIN rod prepared by photocopolymerization of a ternary monomer system,” Appl. Opt. 22, 418–423 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, “Graded index materials and components,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1992), Chap. 3, pp. 71–104.

Y. Koike, “GRIN plastic lenses and fibers,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems (University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain, 1992), p. 158.

Y. Nanjo, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “The multifocal GRIN contact lens,” Polym. Prepr. Jpn. (Society of Polymer Science, Japan) 42, 2800–2802 (1993).

Kumar, D. V.

Moore, D. T.

D. T. Moore, “Design of optical systems with negative gradient-index dispersion,” in Microoptics/Graded-Index Conference, '93 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kawasaki, Japan, 1993), pp. 14–16.

Nanjo, Y.

Y. Nanjo, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “The multifocal GRIN contact lens,” Polym. Prepr. Jpn. (Society of Polymer Science, Japan) 42, 2800–2802 (1993).

Nihei, E.

Y. Koike, E. Nihei, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Graded-index plastic optical fiber composed of methyl methacrylate and vinyl phenylacetate copolymers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2686–2691 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nanjo, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “The multifocal GRIN contact lens,” Polym. Prepr. Jpn. (Society of Polymer Science, Japan) 42, 2800–2802 (1993).

Ogura, Y.

Y. Ogura, “Application of gradient index fiber array to copying machine,” Kogaku 10, 111–117 (1981).

Ohtsuka, Y.

Sharma, A.

Tanio, N.

Terao, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, “Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. IX. Chemical composition of the copolymer rod— diethylene glycol bis(allyl carbonate) with 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl methacrylate,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907–2915 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, “Studies on the light-focusing plastic rod. IX. Chemical composition of the copolymer rod— diethylene glycol bis(allyl carbonate) with 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl methacrylate,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907–2915 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kogaku (1)

Y. Ogura, “Application of gradient index fiber array to copying machine,” Kogaku 10, 111–117 (1981).

Polymer (1)

Y. Koike, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fibre,” Polymer 32, 1737–1745 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

Y. Koike, “GRIN plastic lenses and fibers,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems (University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain, 1992), p. 158.

Y. Nanjo, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “The multifocal GRIN contact lens,” Polym. Prepr. Jpn. (Society of Polymer Science, Japan) 42, 2800–2802 (1993).

D. T. Moore, “Design of optical systems with negative gradient-index dispersion,” in Microoptics/Graded-Index Conference, '93 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kawasaki, Japan, 1993), pp. 14–16.

Y. Koike, “Graded index materials and components,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1992), Chap. 3, pp. 71–104.

Registered trade name of Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive index of the MMA–BzMA copolymer: broken line, Eq. (1); solid line, Eq. (2); circles, experimental data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Curved mold method for preparing the large GRIN polymer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the M1 gel plate in the diffusion copolymerization method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steps to form a radial GRIN lens by the diffusion copolymerization method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refractive-index distribution of the large radial GRIN polymers prepared by A, the curved mold method; B, the diffusion method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of EDMA on the index profile.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of the image formed through the large GRIN polymer plate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diopter of large radial GRIN polymer lenses with varying Δn, assuming a quadratic index profile: R 1 = 117.6 mm, R 2 = 69 mm, d = 1.5 mm.

Equations (5)

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n 2 1 n 2 + 2 = n 1 2 1 n 1 2 + 2 υ 1 + n 1 2 1 n 1 2 + 2 υ 2 ,
n = n 1 υ 1 + n 2 υ 2 ,
d d s [ n ( r ) d r d s ] = n ( r ) ,
t = d s n .
n ( r ) = n 0 + A r 2 ,

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