Abstract

The results of an experimental study of electro-optic modulators and waveguides based on polymeric materials are presented. Included are the design, fabrication, and testing of integrated Mach–Zehnder modulators, which are based on polymer films that contain a novel, nonlinear electro-optic chromophore. Studies also show the efficacy of photolithography or photobleaching by the use of this chromophore to form passive, branching waveguides, which are operated at the 1300-nm wavelength.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, R. E. Van Eck, S. L. Kwiatkowski, D. G. Girton, “Developments in organic electro-optic devices at Lockheed,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 23–34 (1990).
  2. G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).
  3. K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1147, 233–244 (1989).
  4. G. H. Cross, A. Donaldson, R. W. Gymer, S. Mann, N. J. Parsons, “Polymeric integrated electro-optic modulators,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, L. McCaughan, M. A. Mentzer, S. Peng, H. J. Wojtunik, K. Wong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1177, 79–91 (1989).
  5. C. C. Teng, “Traveling-wave polymeric optical intensity modulator with more than 40 GHz of 3-dB electrical bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1538–1540 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Izutsu, Y. Nakai, T. Sueta, “Operation mechanism of the single-mode optical-waveguide Y junction,” Opt. Lett. 7, 136–138 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031–1033 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Technol. J. 48, 2071–2102 (1969).
  9. T. Kurokawa, N. Takato, Y. Katayama, “Polymer optical circuits for multimode optical fiber systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3124–3129 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Technol. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).
  11. K. T. Koai, P.-L. Liu, “Modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide devices: part II–S-shaped channel waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1016–1021 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Y. Wang, Y. K. Tu, “Waveguide bending loss analysis using beam propagation method,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.994, 217–223 (1988).
  13. K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. W. Beeson, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, A. Nahata, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric materials for guided-wave devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 195–202 (1990).
  15. P. R. Ashley, T. A. Tumolillo, “New poling technique for electro-optic polymer devices,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 9–11.
  16. C. P. J. M. Van der Vorst, R. A. Huijts, “Measurements of electro-optic coefficients in a novel side-chain polymer,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castera, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1126, 6–11 (1989).
  17. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985), Chap. 9.
  18. M. A. Hubbard, N. Minami, C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, “Poled polymeric second harmonic generation materials: chemical manipulation of the temporal characteristics of electric field-induced noncentrosymmetry,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanurian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 136–143 (1988).
  19. D. R. Dai, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, P. M. Lundquist, G. K. Wong, “Polyphenylene ether based thin-film nonlinear optical materials having high chromophore densities and alignment stability,” Macromolecules 23, 1891–1894 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Calculation of radiation loss in integrated-optic tapers and Y-junctions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1972–1978 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

C. C. Teng, “Traveling-wave polymeric optical intensity modulator with more than 40 GHz of 3-dB electrical bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1538–1540 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. R. Dai, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, P. M. Lundquist, G. K. Wong, “Polyphenylene ether based thin-film nonlinear optical materials having high chromophore densities and alignment stability,” Macromolecules 23, 1891–1894 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

K. T. Koai, P.-L. Liu, “Modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide devices: part II–S-shaped channel waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1016–1021 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031–1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

1980 (1)

1969 (2)

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Technol. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Technol. J. 48, 2071–2102 (1969).

Ashley, P. R.

P. R. Ashley, T. A. Tumolillo, “New poling technique for electro-optic polymer devices,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 9–11.

Baets, R.

Baquero, P.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Beeson, K. W.

K. W. Beeson, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, A. Nahata, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric materials for guided-wave devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 195–202 (1990).

Copeland, M. J.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Cross, G. H.

G. H. Cross, A. Donaldson, R. W. Gymer, S. Mann, N. J. Parsons, “Polymeric integrated electro-optic modulators,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, L. McCaughan, M. A. Mentzer, S. Peng, H. J. Wojtunik, K. Wong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1177, 79–91 (1989).

Dai, D. R.

D. R. Dai, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, P. M. Lundquist, G. K. Wong, “Polyphenylene ether based thin-film nonlinear optical materials having high chromophore densities and alignment stability,” Macromolecules 23, 1891–1894 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M. B. J.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Donaldson, A.

G. H. Cross, A. Donaldson, R. W. Gymer, S. Mann, N. J. Parsons, “Polymeric integrated electro-optic modulators,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, L. McCaughan, M. A. Mentzer, S. Peng, H. J. Wojtunik, K. Wong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1177, 79–91 (1989).

Duchet, C.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Fabre, P.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Girton, D. G.

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, R. E. Van Eck, S. L. Kwiatkowski, D. G. Girton, “Developments in organic electro-optic devices at Lockheed,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 23–34 (1990).

Gong, Q.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gymer, R. W.

G. H. Cross, A. Donaldson, R. W. Gymer, S. Mann, N. J. Parsons, “Polymeric integrated electro-optic modulators,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, L. McCaughan, M. A. Mentzer, S. Peng, H. J. Wojtunik, K. Wong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1177, 79–91 (1989).

Holland, W. R.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1147, 233–244 (1989).

Horn, K. A.

K. W. Beeson, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, A. Nahata, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric materials for guided-wave devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 195–202 (1990).

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Hubbard, M. A.

M. A. Hubbard, N. Minami, C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, “Poled polymeric second harmonic generation materials: chemical manipulation of the temporal characteristics of electric field-induced noncentrosymmetry,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanurian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 136–143 (1988).

Huijts, R. A.

C. P. J. M. Van der Vorst, R. A. Huijts, “Measurements of electro-optic coefficients in a novel side-chain polymer,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castera, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1126, 6–11 (1989).

Izutsu, M.

Katayama, Y.

Katz, H. E.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1147, 233–244 (1989).

Koai, K. T.

K. T. Koai, P.-L. Liu, “Modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide devices: part II–S-shaped channel waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1016–1021 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

Kuzyk, M. G.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1147, 233–244 (1989).

Kwiatkowski, S. L.

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, R. E. Van Eck, S. L. Kwiatkowski, D. G. Girton, “Developments in organic electro-optic devices at Lockheed,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 23–34 (1990).

Lagasse, P. E.

Lipscomb, G. F.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031–1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, R. E. Van Eck, S. L. Kwiatkowski, D. G. Girton, “Developments in organic electro-optic devices at Lockheed,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 23–34 (1990).

Liu, P.-L.

K. T. Koai, P.-L. Liu, “Modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide devices: part II–S-shaped channel waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1016–1021 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lundquist, P. M.

D. R. Dai, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, P. M. Lundquist, G. K. Wong, “Polyphenylene ether based thin-film nonlinear optical materials having high chromophore densities and alignment stability,” Macromolecules 23, 1891–1894 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lytel, R.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031–1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lytel, R. S.

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, R. E. Van Eck, S. L. Kwiatkowski, D. G. Girton, “Developments in organic electro-optic devices at Lockheed,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 23–34 (1990).

Mann, S.

G. H. Cross, A. Donaldson, R. W. Gymer, S. Mann, N. J. Parsons, “Polymeric integrated electro-optic modulators,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, L. McCaughan, M. A. Mentzer, S. Peng, H. J. Wojtunik, K. Wong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1177, 79–91 (1989).

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Technol. J. 48, 2071–2102 (1969).

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Technol. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).

Marks, T. J.

D. R. Dai, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, P. M. Lundquist, G. K. Wong, “Polyphenylene ether based thin-film nonlinear optical materials having high chromophore densities and alignment stability,” Macromolecules 23, 1891–1894 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hubbard, N. Minami, C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, “Poled polymeric second harmonic generation materials: chemical manipulation of the temporal characteristics of electric field-induced noncentrosymmetry,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanurian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 136–143 (1988).

McDonach, A.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

McFarland, M.

K. W. Beeson, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, A. Nahata, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric materials for guided-wave devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 195–202 (1990).

Minami, N.

M. A. Hubbard, N. Minami, C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, “Poled polymeric second harmonic generation materials: chemical manipulation of the temporal characteristics of electric field-induced noncentrosymmetry,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanurian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 136–143 (1988).

Mohlmann, G. R.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Nahata, A.

K. W. Beeson, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, A. Nahata, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric materials for guided-wave devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 195–202 (1990).

Nakai, Y.

Parsons, N. J.

G. H. Cross, A. Donaldson, R. W. Gymer, S. Mann, N. J. Parsons, “Polymeric integrated electro-optic modulators,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, L. McCaughan, M. A. Mentzer, S. Peng, H. J. Wojtunik, K. Wong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1177, 79–91 (1989).

Rochford, K. B.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M. L.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1147, 233–244 (1989).

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1147, 233–244 (1989).

Stegeman, G. I.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, M. A.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031–1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sueta, T.

Suyten, F. M. M.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Takato, N.

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng, “Traveling-wave polymeric optical intensity modulator with more than 40 GHz of 3-dB electrical bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1538–1540 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thackara, J. I.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031–1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ticknor, A. J.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031–1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, R. E. Van Eck, S. L. Kwiatkowski, D. G. Girton, “Developments in organic electro-optic devices at Lockheed,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 23–34 (1990).

Trommel, E. S.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Tu, Y. K.

C. Y. Wang, Y. K. Tu, “Waveguide bending loss analysis using beam propagation method,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.994, 217–223 (1988).

Tumolillo, T. A.

P. R. Ashley, T. A. Tumolillo, “New poling technique for electro-optic polymer devices,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 9–11.

Van Daele, P.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Van der Vorst, C. P. J. M.

C. P. J. M. Van der Vorst, R. A. Huijts, “Measurements of electro-optic coefficients in a novel side-chain polymer,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castera, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1126, 6–11 (1989).

Van Eck, R. E.

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, R. E. Van Eck, S. L. Kwiatkowski, D. G. Girton, “Developments in organic electro-optic devices at Lockheed,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 23–34 (1990).

Van Tomme, E.

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

Wang, C. Y.

C. Y. Wang, Y. K. Tu, “Waveguide bending loss analysis using beam propagation method,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.994, 217–223 (1988).

Wolk, G. L.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1147, 233–244 (1989).

Wong, G. K.

D. R. Dai, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, P. M. Lundquist, G. K. Wong, “Polyphenylene ether based thin-film nonlinear optical materials having high chromophore densities and alignment stability,” Macromolecules 23, 1891–1894 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hubbard, N. Minami, C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, “Poled polymeric second harmonic generation materials: chemical manipulation of the temporal characteristics of electric field-induced noncentrosymmetry,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanurian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 136–143 (1988).

Wu, C.

K. W. Beeson, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, A. Nahata, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric materials for guided-wave devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 195–202 (1990).

Yang, J.

D. R. Dai, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, P. M. Lundquist, G. K. Wong, “Polyphenylene ether based thin-film nonlinear optical materials having high chromophore densities and alignment stability,” Macromolecules 23, 1891–1894 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hubbard, N. Minami, C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, “Poled polymeric second harmonic generation materials: chemical manipulation of the temporal characteristics of electric field-induced noncentrosymmetry,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanurian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 136–143 (1988).

Yardley, J. T.

K. W. Beeson, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, A. Nahata, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric materials for guided-wave devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 195–202 (1990).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985), Chap. 9.

Ye, C.

M. A. Hubbard, N. Minami, C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, “Poled polymeric second harmonic generation materials: chemical manipulation of the temporal characteristics of electric field-induced noncentrosymmetry,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanurian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 136–143 (1988).

Zanoni, R.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Teng, “Traveling-wave polymeric optical intensity modulator with more than 40 GHz of 3-dB electrical bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1538–1540 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031–1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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K. T. Koai, P.-L. Liu, “Modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide devices: part II–S-shaped channel waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1016–1021 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

D. R. Dai, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, P. M. Lundquist, G. K. Wong, “Polyphenylene ether based thin-film nonlinear optical materials having high chromophore densities and alignment stability,” Macromolecules 23, 1891–1894 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (10)

G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel, A. J. Ticknor, R. E. Van Eck, S. L. Kwiatkowski, D. G. Girton, “Developments in organic electro-optic devices at Lockheed,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 23–34 (1990).

G. R. Mohlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, “Optically nonlinear polymeric switches and modulators,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 215–225 (1990).

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1147, 233–244 (1989).

G. H. Cross, A. Donaldson, R. W. Gymer, S. Mann, N. J. Parsons, “Polymeric integrated electro-optic modulators,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, L. McCaughan, M. A. Mentzer, S. Peng, H. J. Wojtunik, K. Wong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1177, 79–91 (1989).

C. Y. Wang, Y. K. Tu, “Waveguide bending loss analysis using beam propagation method,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.994, 217–223 (1988).

K. W. Beeson, K. A. Horn, M. McFarland, A. Nahata, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric materials for guided-wave devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials III, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1337, 195–202 (1990).

P. R. Ashley, T. A. Tumolillo, “New poling technique for electro-optic polymer devices,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 9–11.

C. P. J. M. Van der Vorst, R. A. Huijts, “Measurements of electro-optic coefficients in a novel side-chain polymer,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castera, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1126, 6–11 (1989).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985), Chap. 9.

M. A. Hubbard, N. Minami, C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, “Poled polymeric second harmonic generation materials: chemical manipulation of the temporal characteristics of electric field-induced noncentrosymmetry,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanurian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 136–143 (1988).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ground-state and excited-state molecular structures of the EO chromophore P-1: (a) ground-state canonical structure, (b) excited-state canonical structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microphotograph of a photobleached Y-branch waveguide in a P-10 polymer film. The waveguides shown are 8–10 μm wide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Decay of the EO coefficient, r 33 (proportional to 1/V π), in a 6.4% P-10 polymer film, contact poled in a M–Z interferometer modulator device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

1300-nm-light throughput-intensity profile for a 9-μm-wide branching waveguide with 200-μm separation. The waveguides were formed by the use of photobleaching of the Y-branch into a P-10 polymer film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

1300-nm-light throughput-intensity profile for a 9-μm-wide branching waveguide with 32-μm center-to-center separation. The waveguides were formed by the use of photobleaching of the Y-branch into a P-10 polymer film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the 1300-nm-light throughput-intensity profiles for straight waveguides with and without an 8:1 linear taper at the input. The waveguides were formed by the use of photolithography and photobleaching of a P-10 polymer film.

Equations (3)

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Δ n p q = n p q r 3 33 E / 2 ,
Φ p q = L ( 2 π / λ ) Δ n p q = L ( 2 π / λ ) n p q r 3 33 E / 2 ,
R > 24 π 2 q 3 3 / λ 1 2 ,

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