Abstract

We report on the operation and performance of a matrix array topology for multiplexing reflective interferometric sensors that uses (a) frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) and (b) a combination of frequency-division and time-division multiplexing. The use of reflective sensors in this FDM topology illuminated by a cw source imposes a power limitation not encountered with the use of transmissive sensors. Combining FDM with time-division multiplexing improves the multiplexing gain of the network and improves the level of isolation of the lasers from the signal of the reflective sensors.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. D. Kersey, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber sensors,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, S. Rashleigh, ed. (IREE, Sydney, Australia, 1990), pp. 313–319.
  2. A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Ten-element time-division multiplexed interferometric fiber sensor array,” Opt. Fiber Sensors 44, 486–490 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, “Multiplexing of interferometric sensors using phase carrier techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 947–952 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Yurek, “Status of fiber optic acoustic sensing,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, F. Leonberger, ed. (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society/OSA, Monterey, Calif., 1992), pp. 338–341.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Signal processing for optical fibre sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.798, 158–165 (1987).
  6. A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Overview of multiplexing techniques for interferometric fiber sensors,” R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.838, 184–193 (1987).
  7. N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Birefringence effects suppression in optical fiber sensor circuits,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, S. Rashleigh, ed. (IREE, Sydney, Australia, 1990), pp. 125–128.
  8. N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarisation fading in fibre interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, “Visibility limits in fibre-optic Michelson interferometer with birefringence compensation,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1422–1424 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarisation fading and source feedback isolation,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, F. Leonberger, ed. (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society/OSA, Monterey, Calif., 1992), pp. 69–72.
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, eds., Optical Fibre Sensors (Artech, Boston, 1988), Chap. 5, p. 176.
  12. T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, “Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 346–351 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. A. Villaruel, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1803–1804 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647–1653 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarisation control for coherent optical systems,” Br. Telecom. Technol. J. 5, 63–76 (1987).
  16. J. P. Dakin, P. B. Withers, “Progress towards a low phase noise source for fibre optic sensors,” in Fibre Optics ‘86, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.630, 214–219 (1986).
  17. C. McGarrity, D. A. Jackson, “Time division multiplexed topology for Michelson interferometer sensors to measure low frequency measurands,” Opt. Commun. 104, 280–284 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Manufacturers Data Sheet, Crystal Technology, Palo Alto, Calif. 94303 (1992).
  19. C. E. Krohn, S. T. Chen, “Comparison of downhole geophones and hydrophones,” Geophysics 57, 841–847 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. McGarrity, D. A. Jackson, “Time division multiplexed topology for Michelson interferometer sensors to measure low frequency measurands,” Opt. Commun. 104, 280–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. E. Krohn, S. T. Chen, “Comparison of downhole geophones and hydrophones,” Geophysics 57, 841–847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. A. Villaruel, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1803–1804 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, “Visibility limits in fibre-optic Michelson interferometer with birefringence compensation,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1422–1424 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Ten-element time-division multiplexed interferometric fiber sensor array,” Opt. Fiber Sensors 44, 486–490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, “Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 346–351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, “Multiplexing of interferometric sensors using phase carrier techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 947–952 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarisation control for coherent optical systems,” Br. Telecom. Technol. J. 5, 63–76 (1987).

1984 (1)

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarisation fading in fibre interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Carr, E. C.

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, “Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 346–351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. T.

C. E. Krohn, S. T. Chen, “Comparison of downhole geophones and hydrophones,” Geophysics 57, 841–847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, P. B. Withers, “Progress towards a low phase noise source for fibre optic sensors,” in Fibre Optics ‘86, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.630, 214–219 (1986).

Dandridge, A.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. A. Villaruel, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1803–1804 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Ten-element time-division multiplexed interferometric fiber sensor array,” Opt. Fiber Sensors 44, 486–490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, “Multiplexing of interferometric sensors using phase carrier techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 947–952 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarisation fading in fibre interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarisation fading and source feedback isolation,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, F. Leonberger, ed. (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society/OSA, Monterey, Calif., 1992), pp. 69–72.
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Overview of multiplexing techniques for interferometric fiber sensors,” R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.838, 184–193 (1987).

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Signal processing for optical fibre sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.798, 158–165 (1987).

Frigo, N. J.

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarisation fading in fibre interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

C. McGarrity, D. A. Jackson, “Time division multiplexed topology for Michelson interferometer sensors to measure low frequency measurands,” Opt. Commun. 104, 280–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, B. L.

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, “Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 346–351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. A. Villaruel, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1803–1804 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, “Visibility limits in fibre-optic Michelson interferometer with birefringence compensation,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1422–1424 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Ten-element time-division multiplexed interferometric fiber sensor array,” Opt. Fiber Sensors 44, 486–490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, “Multiplexing of interferometric sensors using phase carrier techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 947–952 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Signal processing for optical fibre sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.798, 158–165 (1987).

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Overview of multiplexing techniques for interferometric fiber sensors,” R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.838, 184–193 (1987).

A. D. Kersey, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber sensors,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, S. Rashleigh, ed. (IREE, Sydney, Australia, 1990), pp. 313–319.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarisation fading and source feedback isolation,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, F. Leonberger, ed. (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society/OSA, Monterey, Calif., 1992), pp. 69–72.
[CrossRef]

Kirkendall, C. K.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. A. Villaruel, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1803–1804 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krohn, C. E.

C. E. Krohn, S. T. Chen, “Comparison of downhole geophones and hydrophones,” Geophysics 57, 841–847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, “Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 346–351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marrone, M. J.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. A. Villaruel, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1803–1804 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, “Visibility limits in fibre-optic Michelson interferometer with birefringence compensation,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1422–1424 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarisation fading and source feedback isolation,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, F. Leonberger, ed. (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society/OSA, Monterey, Calif., 1992), pp. 69–72.
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Birefringence effects suppression in optical fiber sensor circuits,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, S. Rashleigh, ed. (IREE, Sydney, Australia, 1990), pp. 125–128.

McGarrity, C.

C. McGarrity, D. A. Jackson, “Time division multiplexed topology for Michelson interferometer sensors to measure low frequency measurands,” Opt. Commun. 104, 280–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pistoni, N. C.

N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Birefringence effects suppression in optical fiber sensor circuits,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, S. Rashleigh, ed. (IREE, Sydney, Australia, 1990), pp. 125–128.

Tveten, A. B.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, “Multiplexing of interferometric sensors using phase carrier techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 947–952 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarisation fading in fibre interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Overview of multiplexing techniques for interferometric fiber sensors,” R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.838, 184–193 (1987).

Villaruel, C. A.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. A. Villaruel, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1803–1804 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. R.

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarisation control for coherent optical systems,” Br. Telecom. Technol. J. 5, 63–76 (1987).

Walker, N. G.

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarisation control for coherent optical systems,” Br. Telecom. Technol. J. 5, 63–76 (1987).

Withers, P. B.

J. P. Dakin, P. B. Withers, “Progress towards a low phase noise source for fibre optic sensors,” in Fibre Optics ‘86, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.630, 214–219 (1986).

Wood, T. H.

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, “Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 346–351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yurek, A. M.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, “Multiplexing of interferometric sensors using phase carrier techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 947–952 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Yurek, “Status of fiber optic acoustic sensing,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, F. Leonberger, ed. (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society/OSA, Monterey, Calif., 1992), pp. 338–341.
[CrossRef]

Br. Telecom. Technol. J. (1)

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarisation control for coherent optical systems,” Br. Telecom. Technol. J. 5, 63–76 (1987).

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. A. Villaruel, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1803–1804 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarisation fading in fibre interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, “Visibility limits in fibre-optic Michelson interferometer with birefringence compensation,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1422–1424 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geophysics (1)

C. E. Krohn, S. T. Chen, “Comparison of downhole geophones and hydrophones,” Geophysics 57, 841–847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. Giallorenzi, “Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647–1653 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, “Multiplexing of interferometric sensors using phase carrier techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 947–952 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, “Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 346–351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. McGarrity, D. A. Jackson, “Time division multiplexed topology for Michelson interferometer sensors to measure low frequency measurands,” Opt. Commun. 104, 280–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Sensors (1)

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Ten-element time-division multiplexed interferometric fiber sensor array,” Opt. Fiber Sensors 44, 486–490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

A. D. Kersey, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber sensors,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, S. Rashleigh, ed. (IREE, Sydney, Australia, 1990), pp. 313–319.

Manufacturers Data Sheet, Crystal Technology, Palo Alto, Calif. 94303 (1992).

J. P. Dakin, P. B. Withers, “Progress towards a low phase noise source for fibre optic sensors,” in Fibre Optics ‘86, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.630, 214–219 (1986).

A. M. Yurek, “Status of fiber optic acoustic sensing,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, F. Leonberger, ed. (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society/OSA, Monterey, Calif., 1992), pp. 338–341.
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Signal processing for optical fibre sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.798, 158–165 (1987).

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Overview of multiplexing techniques for interferometric fiber sensors,” R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.838, 184–193 (1987).

N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Birefringence effects suppression in optical fiber sensor circuits,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, S. Rashleigh, ed. (IREE, Sydney, Australia, 1990), pp. 125–128.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarisation fading and source feedback isolation,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, F. Leonberger, ed. (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society/OSA, Monterey, Calif., 1992), pp. 69–72.
[CrossRef]

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, eds., Optical Fibre Sensors (Artech, Boston, 1988), Chap. 5, p. 176.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Matrix-array topology for four Michelson interferometer sensor simulators: ω1, ω2, modulation frequencies of the drive currents of the diode lasers. DCM’s, DCM demodulation circuits.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Functional schematic of DCM demodulation circuit (after Ref. 14).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MDS or sensitivity measured as a function of the average power at detector 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample of demodulated output of matrix array. Signal is 100 mrad at 1 kHz and represents a sensitivity of ( 18 ± 1 ) μ rad / Hz ; BW, bandwidth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output of the DCM circuit showing the cross talk present as a sideband of the difference frequency; BW, bandwidth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Modified matrix-array topology, incorporating TDM. Outlined sensors have been implemented to give results appearing at detector 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Timing arrangement to use the AOM for isolation of the laser from the pulses returning from the reflective sensors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output at detector 1. Note the asymmetry in time required to use the AOM as an isolator. Duty cycle of illumination is ~33%.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Demodulated output from sensor 5. The signal at 1 kHz corresponds to a MDS of 18.3 μ rad / Hz at 1 kHz. The smaller signal at 1.6 kHz is due to cross talk with sensor 1; BW, bandwidth.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = A + B cos [ C cos ω 1 t + ϕ 1 ( t ) ] ,
I = A + B { [ J 0 ( C ) + 2 k = 1 ( - 1 ) k J 2 k ( C ) cos 2 k ω 1 t ] × cos ϕ 1 ( t ) - [ 2 k = 0 ( - 1 ) k J 2 k + 1 ( C ) cos ( 2 k + 1 ) ω 1 t ] × sin ϕ 1 ( t ) } .
I = 2 A + B cos [ C cos ω 1 t + ϕ 1 ( t ) ] + B cos [ C cos ω 2 t + ϕ 2 ( t ) ] ,
f 0 = ( 2 N 0 - 1 ) Δ f ,

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