Abstract

Some structural improvements in the 1:1 Wynne–Dyson catadioptric system are described. The improvements make the 1:1 Wynne–Dyson system usable in the deep-UV regime and broad bands and high numerical apertures become possible.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. F. W. Pease, “Nanolithography and its prospects as a manufacturing technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 278–285 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).
  3. S. G. Olson, C. Sparkes, “Advances in deep UV lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 486–491 (1990).
  4. S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography, III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 534–547 (1990).
  5. R. F. Hollman, F. Cleveland, E. M. Da Silveira, R. W. McCleary, R. W. Strauten, “Design and performance of a production-oriented deep UV wafer stepper,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 548–555 (1990).
  6. A. Tanimoto, A. Miyaji, Y. Ichihara, T. Uemura, I. Tanaka, “Excimer laser stepper for sub-half micron lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 434–440 (1989).
  7. J. D. Buckley, C. Karatzas, “Step and scan: a system overview of a new lithography tool,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 424–433 (1989).
  8. C. G. Wynne, “Monocentric telescopes for microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 300–303 (1987).
  9. B. Ruff, E. Tai, R. Brown, “Broadband deep-UV high NA photolithography system,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 441–446 (1989).
  10. J. Dyson, “Unit magnification optical system without Seidel aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 713–716 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Wang, Theoretical Basis of Optical Design, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1985), Chap. 3, p. 79.
  12. X. Yuan, Optical design, 1st ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 3, p. 212.
  13. Ref. 12, Chap. 5, p. 350.
  14. Ref. 11, Chap. 7, p. 239.
  15. A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. F. W. Pease, “Nanolithography and its prospects as a manufacturing technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 278–285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. G. Wynne, “Monocentric telescopes for microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 300–303 (1987).

1959 (1)

Bennewitz, J. H.

V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).

Brown, R.

B. Ruff, E. Tai, R. Brown, “Broadband deep-UV high NA photolithography system,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 441–446 (1989).

Buckley, J. D.

J. D. Buckley, C. Karatzas, “Step and scan: a system overview of a new lithography tool,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 424–433 (1989).

Clemens, J. T.

V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).

Cleveland, F.

R. F. Hollman, F. Cleveland, E. M. Da Silveira, R. W. McCleary, R. W. Strauten, “Design and performance of a production-oriented deep UV wafer stepper,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 548–555 (1990).

Da Silveira, E. M.

R. F. Hollman, F. Cleveland, E. M. Da Silveira, R. W. McCleary, R. W. Strauten, “Design and performance of a production-oriented deep UV wafer stepper,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 548–555 (1990).

Dyson, J.

Escher, G.

V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).

Feldman, M.

V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).

Firtion, V.

V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).

Grinville, A.

A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hollman, R. F.

R. F. Hollman, F. Cleveland, E. M. Da Silveira, R. W. McCleary, R. W. Strauten, “Design and performance of a production-oriented deep UV wafer stepper,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 548–555 (1990).

Hsieh, R. L.

A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ichihara, Y.

A. Tanimoto, A. Miyaji, Y. Ichihara, T. Uemura, I. Tanaka, “Excimer laser stepper for sub-half micron lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 434–440 (1989).

Jewell, T.

V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).

Karatzas, C.

J. D. Buckley, C. Karatzas, “Step and scan: a system overview of a new lithography tool,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 424–433 (1989).

Lee, Y.-H.

A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Linders, H.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography, III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 534–547 (1990).

Markle, D. A.

A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Martens, J. W. D.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography, III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 534–547 (1990).

McCleary, R. W.

R. F. Hollman, F. Cleveland, E. M. Da Silveira, R. W. McCleary, R. W. Strauten, “Design and performance of a production-oriented deep UV wafer stepper,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 548–555 (1990).

Miyaji, A.

A. Tanimoto, A. Miyaji, Y. Ichihara, T. Uemura, I. Tanaka, “Excimer laser stepper for sub-half micron lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 434–440 (1989).

Olson, S. G.

S. G. Olson, C. Sparkes, “Advances in deep UV lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 486–491 (1990).

Owen, G.

A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pease, R. F. W.

R. F. W. Pease, “Nanolithography and its prospects as a manufacturing technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 278–285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pol, V.

V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).

Ritchie, D.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography, III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 534–547 (1990).

Ruff, B.

B. Ruff, E. Tai, R. Brown, “Broadband deep-UV high NA photolithography system,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 441–446 (1989).

Sparkes, C.

S. G. Olson, C. Sparkes, “Advances in deep UV lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 486–491 (1990).

Stoeldrayer, J.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography, III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 534–547 (1990).

Strauten, R. W.

R. F. Hollman, F. Cleveland, E. M. Da Silveira, R. W. McCleary, R. W. Strauten, “Design and performance of a production-oriented deep UV wafer stepper,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 548–555 (1990).

Tai, E.

B. Ruff, E. Tai, R. Brown, “Broadband deep-UV high NA photolithography system,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 441–446 (1989).

Tanaka, I.

A. Tanimoto, A. Miyaji, Y. Ichihara, T. Uemura, I. Tanaka, “Excimer laser stepper for sub-half micron lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 434–440 (1989).

Tanimoto, A.

A. Tanimoto, A. Miyaji, Y. Ichihara, T. Uemura, I. Tanaka, “Excimer laser stepper for sub-half micron lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 434–440 (1989).

Uemura, T.

A. Tanimoto, A. Miyaji, Y. Ichihara, T. Uemura, I. Tanaka, “Excimer laser stepper for sub-half micron lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 434–440 (1989).

van den Brink, M.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography, III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 534–547 (1990).

von Bunau, R.

A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Theoretical Basis of Optical Design, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1985), Chap. 3, p. 79.

Wilcomb, B.

V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).

Wittekoek, S.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography, III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 534–547 (1990).

Wynne, C. G.

C. G. Wynne, “Monocentric telescopes for microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 300–303 (1987).

Yuan, X.

X. Yuan, Optical design, 1st ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 3, p. 212.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

R. F. W. Pease, “Nanolithography and its prospects as a manufacturing technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 278–285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Grinville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, Y.-H. Lee, D. A. Markle, G. Owen, R. F. W. Pease, “Markle–Dyson optics for 0.25 μm lithography and beyond,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3108–3112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. G. Wynne, “Monocentric telescopes for microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 300–303 (1987).

Other (11)

B. Ruff, E. Tai, R. Brown, “Broadband deep-UV high NA photolithography system,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 441–446 (1989).

V. Pol, J. H. Bennewitz, G. Escher, M. Feldman, V. Firtion, T. Jewell, B. Wilcomb, J. T. Clemens, “Excimer laser-based lithography: a deep ultraviolet wafer stepper,” in Optical Microlithography V, H. L. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.633, 6–16 (1986).

S. G. Olson, C. Sparkes, “Advances in deep UV lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 486–491 (1990).

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography, III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 534–547 (1990).

R. F. Hollman, F. Cleveland, E. M. Da Silveira, R. W. McCleary, R. W. Strauten, “Design and performance of a production-oriented deep UV wafer stepper,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography III, V. Pol, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1264, 548–555 (1990).

A. Tanimoto, A. Miyaji, Y. Ichihara, T. Uemura, I. Tanaka, “Excimer laser stepper for sub-half micron lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 434–440 (1989).

J. D. Buckley, C. Karatzas, “Step and scan: a system overview of a new lithography tool,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1088, 424–433 (1989).

Z. Wang, Theoretical Basis of Optical Design, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1985), Chap. 3, p. 79.

X. Yuan, Optical design, 1st ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 3, p. 212.

Ref. 12, Chap. 5, p. 350.

Ref. 11, Chap. 7, p. 239.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Unit magnification of the Wynne–Dyson optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unit magnification catadioptric optical system with a correction plano–parallel plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Unit magnification catadioptric optical system with a plano–parallel plate inserted into the menicus lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spherical aberration curve of design case 1 at 248 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Field curvature of design case 1 at 248 and 546 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Unit magnification catadioptric optical system with a correction lens between the doublet lens and the mirror.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spherical aberration curve of design case 2 at 248 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Field curvature of design case 2 at 248 and 546 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Unit magnification catadioptric optical system with an air correction lens.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spherical aberration curve of design case 3 at 248 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Field curvature of design case 3 at 248 and 546 nm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Construction Parameters of Design Case 1a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Construction Parameters of Design Case 2a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Construction Parameters of Design Case 3a

Equations (16)

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δ L a = - 1 2 sin 2 U ( Σ S 1 + Σ S 1 I ) ,
Σ S 1 = Σ l u n i ( i - i ) ( i - u ) .
Σ S 1 a = - ( n 2 - 1 ) u 1 4 d n 3 ,
Σ S 1 I = Σ S 1 [ ( i - u ) 2 + ( i + u ) 2 + ( i + i ) 2 ] .
Σ S 1 a I = u 1 2 8 n 2 [ ( n - 1 ) 2 + 2 ( n + 1 ) 2 ] Σ S 1 .
D = ( n a 2 - 1 ) n s 3 n a n s 2 - 1 ( 1 + M a 8 ) ( 1 + M s 8 ) d ,
M a = 1 + 2 NA 2 ( 1 + 1 n a ) 2 + NA 2 ( 1 - 1 n a ) 2 ,
M s = 1 + 2 ( NA n a ) 2 ( 1 + 1 n s ) 2 + ( NA n a ) 2 ( 1 - 1 n s ) 2 .
δ L 0.707 = NA 2 d 64 n a 3 [ ( n a 2 - 1 ) M a + n s 2 - 1 n s 3 n a N M s ] = H d ,
N = n a 2 - 1 n s 2 - 1 1 + M a 8 1 + M s 8 n s 3 n a .
δ L 0.707 6 λ NA 2 .
d 6 λ H NA 2 .
D m = n m 3 n ( n 2 - 1 ) ( n m 2 - n 1 2 ) n 1 2 d ,
D = δ - ν C 1 u ( 1 + D - u ) , r 1 = 1 1 - n ( 1 - u ) n - 1 , r 2 = ( 1 - u + ν C 1 ) ( n - 1 ) ( 1 - u - δ ) ( n u - 1 - δ ) ,
D c = δ - C 1 ( 1 n 1 - 1 n c ) n c - 1 n c ν c - n 1 - 1 n 1 ν 1 u ( 1 + δ - u ) , r 1 = n c - n 1 n c u - n 1 , r 2 = ( n 1 - n c ) ( 1 - D c u ) n 1 ( 1 + δ ) - u ,
D a = δ 1 - C 1 ν 1 u a ( 1 + δ - u a ) , r a 1 = 1 1 - u a - 1 n 1 - 1 , r a 2 = ( n 1 - 1 ) ( 1 - u a + ν 1 C 1 ) [ n 1 ( 1 + δ 1 ) - u a ] ( 1 + δ 1 - u a ) ,

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