Abstract

A new-channel-waveguide-fabrication process for use with polyimide is described. The new technique uses an electron-beam-induced effect to alter the refractive index of the polyimides directly. Channel waveguides with an 8-μm-wide, 8-μm-deep core have been fabricated on a polyimide film by the use of electron-beam irradiation. Only one kind of polyimide (6FDA/TFDB) was used in this waveguide. The difference in refractive index between the core and the cladding was approximately 0.30% for both TE-and TM-polarized incident light when the dose was 1500 μC/cm2, which was sufficient to produce waveguides. The optical properties of the waveguide are also demonstrated.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated optical waveguides in polyimide for wafer scale integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1034–1044 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Kurokawa, N. Takato, Y. Katayama, “Polymer optical circuits for multimode optical fiber systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3124–3129 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. H. Hartman, G. R. Lalk, J. W. Howse, R. R. Krchnavek, “Radiant cured polymer optical waveguides on printed circuit boards for photonic interconnection use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 40–47 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. H. Hartman, “Digital high speed interconnects: a study of the optical alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086–1102 (1986).
  5. P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical interconnects for high speed computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).
  6. M. R. Feldman, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Comparison between optical and electrical interconnects based on power and speed considerations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1742–1751 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Franke, J. D. Crow “Optical waveguiding in polyimide,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering III, R. T. Kersten, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.651, 102–107 (1986).
  8. M. J. Rooks, H. V. Roussell, L. M. Johnson, “Polyimide optical waveguides fabricated with electron beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3880–3882 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Kaino, “Preparation of plastic optical fibers for near-IR region transmission,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 25, 37–46 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Galawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.836, 359–363 (1987).
  13. C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-board interconnection,” in Optoelectronics Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.994, 92–100 (1988).
  14. R. Reuter, H. Franke, C. Feger, “Evaluating polyimides as lightguide materials,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4565–4571 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2232–L2235 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Matsuura, M. Ishizawa, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 2.,” Macromolecules 25, 3540–3545 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3.” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant single mode optical waveguides using fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. A. Chandross, C. A. Pryde, W. J. Tomlinson, H. P. Wever, “Photolocking—a new technique for fabricating optical waveguide circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 72–74 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Franke, “Optical recording of refractive index patterns in doped poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2729–2733 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Schriever, H. Franke, H. G. Festl, E. Kratzig, “Optical waveguiding in doped poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 26, 1423–1427 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-loss single-mode plastic waveguides fabricated by photopolymerization,” in Integrated Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 5 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), pp. 58–61.
  25. W. Heuer, H. Franke, “Characterization of polymer strip waveguides by leaky-mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 185–188 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. Okamoto, S. Tashiro, “Optical waveguides of polymethylmethacrylate doped with Benzophenon and Coumarin,” Opt. Commun 66, 93–96 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  27. N. Takato, T. Kurokawa, “Polymer waveguide star coupler,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1940–1942 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. C. P. Chien, K. K. Chakravorty, “Dependence of precusor chemistry and curing conditions on optical loss characteristic of polyimide waveguide,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Instrum. Eng.1323, 338–346 (1990).
  29. K. K. Chakravorty, C. P. Chien, “Waveguiding characteristic in polyimide films with different chemistry formation,” in Microelectronic Interconnects and Packages: Optical and Electrical Technologies, G. Arjavalinyam, J. Pozaris, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1389, 559–567 (1990).
  30. D. W. Hewak, H. Jerominek, “Channel optical waveguides in polyimides for optical interconnection by laser direct wiring and contact printing,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 86–99 (1990).
  31. Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “The change of refractive index and the change of chemical state in electron-beam irradiated fluorinated polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. (to be published).

1993 (3)

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3.” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant single mode optical waveguides using fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Matsuura, M. Ishizawa, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 2.,” Macromolecules 25, 3540–3545 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (3)

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, G. R. Lalk, J. W. Howse, R. R. Krchnavek, “Radiant cured polymer optical waveguides on printed circuit boards for photonic interconnection use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 40–47 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

M. R. Feldman, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Comparison between optical and electrical interconnects based on power and speed considerations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1742–1751 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reuter, H. Franke, C. Feger, “Evaluating polyimides as lightguide materials,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4565–4571 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated optical waveguides in polyimide for wafer scale integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. Okamoto, S. Tashiro, “Optical waveguides of polymethylmethacrylate doped with Benzophenon and Coumarin,” Opt. Commun 66, 93–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

W. Heuer, H. Franke, “Characterization of polymer strip waveguides by leaky-mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 185–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, “Preparation of plastic optical fibers for near-IR region transmission,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 25, 37–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

D. H. Hartman, “Digital high speed interconnects: a study of the optical alternative,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1086–1102 (1986).

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical interconnects for high speed computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).

1985 (1)

R. Schriever, H. Franke, H. G. Festl, E. Kratzig, “Optical waveguiding in doped poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 26, 1423–1427 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

1974 (1)

E. A. Chandross, C. A. Pryde, W. J. Tomlinson, H. P. Wever, “Photolocking—a new technique for fabricating optical waveguide circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 72–74 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ando, S.

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant single mode optical waveguides using fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asano, H.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Booth, B. L.

B. L. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chakravorty, K. K.

C. P. Chien, K. K. Chakravorty, “Dependence of precusor chemistry and curing conditions on optical loss characteristic of polyimide waveguide,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Instrum. Eng.1323, 338–346 (1990).

K. K. Chakravorty, C. P. Chien, “Waveguiding characteristic in polyimide films with different chemistry formation,” in Microelectronic Interconnects and Packages: Optical and Electrical Technologies, G. Arjavalinyam, J. Pozaris, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1389, 559–567 (1990).

Chandross, E. A.

E. A. Chandross, C. A. Pryde, W. J. Tomlinson, H. P. Wever, “Photolocking—a new technique for fabricating optical waveguide circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 72–74 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. P.

K. K. Chakravorty, C. P. Chien, “Waveguiding characteristic in polyimide films with different chemistry formation,” in Microelectronic Interconnects and Packages: Optical and Electrical Technologies, G. Arjavalinyam, J. Pozaris, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1389, 559–567 (1990).

C. P. Chien, K. K. Chakravorty, “Dependence of precusor chemistry and curing conditions on optical loss characteristic of polyimide waveguide,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Instrum. Eng.1323, 338–346 (1990).

Christensen, D. A.

D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Galawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.836, 359–363 (1987).

Crow, J. D.

H. Franke, J. D. Crow “Optical waveguiding in polyimide,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering III, R. T. Kersten, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.651, 102–107 (1986).

Eguchi, S.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S. C.

Feger, C.

Feldman, M. R.

Festl, H. G.

R. Schriever, H. Franke, H. G. Festl, E. Kratzig, “Optical waveguiding in doped poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 26, 1423–1427 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Franke, H.

R. Reuter, H. Franke, C. Feger, “Evaluating polyimides as lightguide materials,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4565–4571 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Heuer, H. Franke, “Characterization of polymer strip waveguides by leaky-mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 185–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Schriever, H. Franke, H. G. Festl, E. Kratzig, “Optical waveguiding in doped poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 26, 1423–1427 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Franke, “Optical recording of refractive index patterns in doped poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2729–2733 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Franke, J. D. Crow “Optical waveguiding in polyimide,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering III, R. T. Kersten, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.651, 102–107 (1986).

Guest, C. C.

Hartman, D. H.

Hasuda, Y.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3.” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, M. Ishizawa, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 2.,” Macromolecules 25, 3540–3545 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, P. R.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical interconnects for high speed computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).

Heuer, W.

W. Heuer, H. Franke, “Characterization of polymer strip waveguides by leaky-mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 185–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

D. W. Hewak, H. Jerominek, “Channel optical waveguides in polyimides for optical interconnection by laser direct wiring and contact printing,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 86–99 (1990).

Howse, J. W.

Husain, A.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical interconnects for high speed computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).

Hutcheson, L. D.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical interconnects for high speed computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).

Ibamoto, M.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, S.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ishizawa, M.

T. Matsuura, M. Ishizawa, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 2.,” Macromolecules 25, 3540–3545 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, T.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jerominek, H.

D. W. Hewak, H. Jerominek, “Channel optical waveguides in polyimides for optical interconnection by laser direct wiring and contact printing,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 86–99 (1990).

Johnson, L. M.

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, “Preparation of plastic optical fibers for near-IR region transmission,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 25, 37–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kannke, A.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, Y.

Kratzig, E.

R. Schriever, H. Franke, H. G. Festl, E. Kratzig, “Optical waveguiding in doped poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 26, 1423–1427 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Krchnavek, R. R.

Kurokawa, T.

Lalk, G. R.

Lee, S. H.

Lin, H. T.

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated optical waveguides in polyimide for wafer scale integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “The change of refractive index and the change of chemical state in electron-beam irradiated fluorinated polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Mastuura, T.

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant single mode optical waveguides using fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, S.

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant single mode optical waveguides using fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, T.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3.” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, M. Ishizawa, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 2.,” Macromolecules 25, 3540–3545 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. F.

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated optical waveguides in polyimide for wafer scale integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-loss single-mode plastic waveguides fabricated by photopolymerization,” in Integrated Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 5 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), pp. 58–61.

Nakajima, H.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-loss single-mode plastic waveguides fabricated by photopolymerization,” in Integrated Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 5 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), pp. 58–61.

Nishi, S.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3.” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, M. Ishizawa, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 2.,” Macromolecules 25, 3540–3545 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

N. Okamoto, S. Tashiro, “Optical waveguides of polymethylmethacrylate doped with Benzophenon and Coumarin,” Opt. Commun 66, 93–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pryde, C. A.

E. A. Chandross, C. A. Pryde, W. J. Tomlinson, H. P. Wever, “Photolocking—a new technique for fabricating optical waveguide circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 72–74 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, R.

Rooks, M. J.

Roussell, H. V.

Rychnovsky, S.

P. R. Haugen, S. Rychnovsky, A. Husain, L. D. Hutcheson, “Optical interconnects for high speed computing,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1076–1085 (1986).

Sasaki, S.

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant single mode optical waveguides using fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “The change of refractive index and the change of chemical state in electron-beam irradiated fluorinated polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Sawaki, I.

K. Miura, I. Sawaki, H. Nakajima, “Low-loss single-mode plastic waveguides fabricated by photopolymerization,” in Integrated Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 5 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), pp. 58–61.

Schriever, R.

R. Schriever, H. Franke, H. G. Festl, E. Kratzig, “Optical waveguiding in doped poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 26, 1423–1427 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraj, R.

R. Selvaraj, H. T. Lin, J. F. McDonald, “Integrated optical waveguides in polyimide for wafer scale integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1034–1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, C. T.

C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-board interconnection,” in Optoelectronics Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.994, 92–100 (1988).

Takato, N.

Tamamura, T.

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, T. Tamamura, “The change of refractive index and the change of chemical state in electron-beam irradiated fluorinated polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Tashiro, S.

N. Okamoto, S. Tashiro, “Optical waveguides of polymethylmethacrylate doped with Benzophenon and Coumarin,” Opt. Commun 66, 93–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

E. A. Chandross, C. A. Pryde, W. J. Tomlinson, H. P. Wever, “Photolocking—a new technique for fabricating optical waveguide circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 72–74 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. W.

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wever, H. P.

E. A. Chandross, C. A. Pryde, W. J. Tomlinson, H. P. Wever, “Photolocking—a new technique for fabricating optical waveguide circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 72–74 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, Y. Hasuda, “Polyimide derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiohenyl. 3.” Macromolecules 26, 419–423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, F.

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Mastuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant single mode optical waveguides using fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

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Electron. Lett. (3)

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C. P. Chien, K. K. Chakravorty, “Dependence of precusor chemistry and curing conditions on optical loss characteristic of polyimide waveguide,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Instrum. Eng.1323, 338–346 (1990).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive-index change in polyimide as a result of electron-beam bombardment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication sequence for channel waveguides by the use of electron-beam lithography: formation of (a) the SiO2/Si substrate, (b) the 6FDA/TFDB polyimide layer, and the polyimide layer is followed by (c) electron-beam lithography and (d) spin coating of the new 6FDA/TFDB layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication sequence for channel waveguides by the use of RIE: formation of (a) the SiO2/Si substrate, (b) the 6FDA/TFDB polyimide layer, and (c) the polyimide and mask layers is followed by (d) photolithographic patterning, (e) polyimide layer etching, and (f) removal of the mask, and by (g) spin coating of the new polyimide layer with a lower refractive index than 6FDA/TFDB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chemical structure of 6FDA/TFDB polyimide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shapes and optical properties of waveguides: (a) photograph of the interference pattern for TE-polarized incident light and (b) photograph of the interference pattern for TM-polarized incident light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beam profiles for electron-beam irradiated waveguides: mode profiles for (a) TE-polarized incident light, (b) TM-polarized incident light, and (c) white light are presented.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Loss dependences on the wavelength of waveguides made of polyimide irradiated at a dose of 1500 μC/cm2 and waveguides made of nonirradiated polyimide.

Equations (1)

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n ( x , y ) = d ( x , y ) D λ × 10 - 6 t .

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