Abstract

The realization of polymer optical waveguides that have a large core size and high refractive-index difference (LCHD) Δ transmission characteristics is presented. A fabrication procedure for the waveguide based on vertical dip coating and reactive ion etching has been studied. To achieve the lower propagation loss, this procedure includes two original techniques, i.e., the lamination of thick polymer films and sidewall flattening. With these techniques, Δ of 5.4% and a 80 μm × 83 μm core polymer waveguide with 1.4-dB/cm propagation loss were achieved at 680 nm. The LCHD polymer waveguides are useful for practical power-transmission devices.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Mizoguchi, M. Ando, T. Mizuno, T. Takagi, N. Nakajima, “Design and fabrication of light driven micropump,” in Proceedings of the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, W. Benecke, H. C. Petzold, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 31–36.
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Takezawa, S. Akasaka, S. Ohara, T. Ishibashi, H. Asano, N. Taketani, “Low excess losses in a Y-branching plastic optical waveguide formed through injection molding,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2307–2312 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-based interconnection,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.994, 92–100 (1988).
  5. A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Müller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. W. Hewak, J. W. Y. Lit, “Standardization and control of a dip-coating procedure for optical thin films prepared from solution,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 861–867 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, “Solution-deposited thin films as passive and active light-guides,” Appl. Opt. 11, 428–434 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), p. 174.
  9. M. J. Rooks, H. V. Roussell, L. M. Johnson, “Polyimide optical waveguides fabricated with electron beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3880–3882 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).
  11. M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Polymer channel waveguides for transmission of high optical power,” in Meeting Digest of the Frontiers in Information Optics, Topical Meeting of the International Commission for Optics (International Commission for Optics, Orsay, France, 1994), p. 260.
  12. K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Y. Takezawa, S. Akasaka, S. Ohara, T. Ishibashi, H. Asano, N. Taketani, “Low excess losses in a Y-branching plastic optical waveguide formed through injection molding,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2307–2312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).

1993 (2)

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Müller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

D. W. Hewak, J. W. Y. Lit, “Standardization and control of a dip-coating procedure for optical thin films prepared from solution,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 861–867 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Akasaka, S.

Ando, M.

H. Mizoguchi, M. Ando, T. Mizuno, T. Takagi, N. Nakajima, “Design and fabrication of light driven micropump,” in Proceedings of the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, W. Benecke, H. C. Petzold, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 31–36.
[CrossRef]

Asano, H.

Hamamoto, K.

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

D. W. Hewak, J. W. Y. Lit, “Standardization and control of a dip-coating procedure for optical thin films prepared from solution,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 861–867 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, T.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Polymer channel waveguides for transmission of high optical power,” in Meeting Digest of the Frontiers in Information Optics, Topical Meeting of the International Commission for Optics (International Commission for Optics, Orsay, France, 1994), p. 260.

Imamura, S.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, T.

Ito, H.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Polymer channel waveguides for transmission of high optical power,” in Meeting Digest of the Frontiers in Information Optics, Topical Meeting of the International Commission for Optics (International Commission for Optics, Orsay, France, 1994), p. 260.

Izawa, T.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. M.

Kagami, M.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Polymer channel waveguides for transmission of high optical power,” in Meeting Digest of the Frontiers in Information Optics, Topical Meeting of the International Commission for Optics (International Commission for Optics, Orsay, France, 1994), p. 260.

Kato, S.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Polymer channel waveguides for transmission of high optical power,” in Meeting Digest of the Frontiers in Information Optics, Topical Meeting of the International Commission for Optics (International Commission for Optics, Orsay, France, 1994), p. 260.

Kawachi, M.

S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, M.

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knoche, T.

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Müller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, K.

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. L.

D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), p. 174.

Lit, J. W. Y.

D. W. Hewak, J. W. Y. Lit, “Standardization and control of a dip-coating procedure for optical thin films prepared from solution,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 861–867 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, M.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Polymer channel waveguides for transmission of high optical power,” in Meeting Digest of the Frontiers in Information Optics, Topical Meeting of the International Commission for Optics (International Commission for Optics, Orsay, France, 1994), p. 260.

Mizoguchi, H.

H. Mizoguchi, M. Ando, T. Mizuno, T. Takagi, N. Nakajima, “Design and fabrication of light driven micropump,” in Proceedings of the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, W. Benecke, H. C. Petzold, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 31–36.
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, T.

H. Mizoguchi, M. Ando, T. Mizuno, T. Takagi, N. Nakajima, “Design and fabrication of light driven micropump,” in Proceedings of the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, W. Benecke, H. C. Petzold, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 31–36.
[CrossRef]

Müller, L.

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Müller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, N.

H. Mizoguchi, M. Ando, T. Mizuno, T. Takagi, N. Nakajima, “Design and fabrication of light driven micropump,” in Proceedings of the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, W. Benecke, H. C. Petzold, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 31–36.
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Müller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, S.

Rooks, M. J.

Roussell, H. V.

Sugou, S.

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, C. T.

C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-based interconnection,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.994, 92–100 (1988).

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).

Takagi, T.

H. Mizoguchi, M. Ando, T. Mizuno, T. Takagi, N. Nakajima, “Design and fabrication of light driven micropump,” in Proceedings of the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, W. Benecke, H. C. Petzold, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 31–36.
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, N.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Polymer channel waveguides for transmission of high optical power,” in Meeting Digest of the Frontiers in Information Optics, Topical Meeting of the International Commission for Optics (International Commission for Optics, Orsay, France, 1994), p. 260.

Taketani, N.

Takezawa, Y.

Ulrich, R.

Weber, H. P.

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yasu, M.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Can. J. Phys. (1)

D. W. Hewak, J. W. Y. Lit, “Standardization and control of a dip-coating procedure for optical thin films prepared from solution,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 861–867 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Müller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. (1)

S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).

Other (4)

M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Polymer channel waveguides for transmission of high optical power,” in Meeting Digest of the Frontiers in Information Optics, Topical Meeting of the International Commission for Optics (International Commission for Optics, Orsay, France, 1994), p. 260.

H. Mizoguchi, M. Ando, T. Mizuno, T. Takagi, N. Nakajima, “Design and fabrication of light driven micropump,” in Proceedings of the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, W. Benecke, H. C. Petzold, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1992), pp. 31–36.
[CrossRef]

C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-based interconnection,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.994, 92–100 (1988).

D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), p. 174.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication sequence for LCHD channel waveguides: formation of (a) the undercladding layer and the core layer and (b) the uppercladding layer and the thin aluminum layers is followed by photolithography, (c) RIE, (d) sidewall-flattening treatment, and (e) fiber pigtail device fabrication.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thick film thickness as a function of gas flow rate (dipping speed 200 mm/min; drying gas N2 with 1/5 solvent-saturated vapor; baking for 10 h at 90 °C).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Etching rate and anisotropy as a function of applied RF power of O2 RIE.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM photographs of (a), (b) sidewall of ridge core and (c), (d) guiding grooves on substrate. (a), (c) are without the sidewall-flattening treatment and (b), (d) are with the treatment. The interfaces in (a) and (c) are uppercladding and core sidewalls, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effects of the sidewall-flattening treatment on optical transmission properties. Coupling loss and propagation loss are shown as a function of PMMA concentration (cont.) (dipping time 30 s, dipping speed 25 mm/min, drying-gas flow rate 2.2 ccm/cm2, drying for 10 min at 25 °C).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-section photographs of embedded LCHD channel waveguides (a) without and (b) with the sidewall-flattening treatment.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Waveguide Parameters for Different Deposited Layers

Metrics