Abstract

A mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave grating was developed for use in the low-resolution mid-infrared spectrometer aboard the cryogenically cooled Infrared Telescope in Space. The design and the performance testing of the grating are reported. The spectrometer requires a wide spectral range (4.5−11.7 μm) and a wide field of view (8 × 8 arcmin) with a low wavelength resolution (Δλ ≤ 0.3 μm). The aberration-corrected concave grating provides a flat focal plane with a small aberration in the spatial direction compared with those caused by the finite size of the entrance slit. It also permits a simple design for the spectrometer, which is advantageous for applications in space cryogenic instruments. The measurements of the wavelength resolution and the spatial resolution are shown to be in good agreement with the predicted performance. The diffraction efficiency of the grating is more than 80% at the blaze wavelength (6 μm) and fairly high (>30%) over the entire wavelength range in question. The grating produces polarization of less than 10% for λ < 6.4 μm and of 10–20% for 6.7 μm < λ < 9.7 μm. These results indicate the potential applicability of this type of grating to the wide-field IR spectroscopic observations.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Onaka, T. Yagi, H. Shibai, T. Kohno, T. Tanabe, H. Murakami, “Optical system of the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Appl. Opt. 33, 1880–1888 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. J. Wildeman, D. A. Beintema, P. R. Wesselius, “The Dutch scientific instrument on board IRAS,” J. Br. Interplanet. Soc. 36, 21–26 (1983).
  5. M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.
  6. M. Noda, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, K. Noguchi, M. Tanaka, M. A. Lim, “Near-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Astrophys. J. 428, 363–369 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. T. Welford, “Aberration theory of gratings and grating mountings,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 241–280.
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Harada, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3987–3993 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. G. Beutler, “The theory of the concave grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 311–350 (1945)
    [CrossRef]

1994 (4)

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Yagi, H. Shibai, T. Kohno, T. Tanabe, H. Murakami, “Optical system of the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Appl. Opt. 33, 1880–1888 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Noda, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, K. Noguchi, M. Tanaka, M. A. Lim, “Near-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Astrophys. J. 428, 363–369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

K. J. Wildeman, D. A. Beintema, P. R. Wesselius, “The Dutch scientific instrument on board IRAS,” J. Br. Interplanet. Soc. 36, 21–26 (1983).

1980 (1)

1945 (1)

Beintema, D. A.

K. J. Wildeman, D. A. Beintema, P. R. Wesselius, “The Dutch scientific instrument on board IRAS,” J. Br. Interplanet. Soc. 36, 21–26 (1983).

Beutler, H. G.

Bock, J.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chakaveh, S.

M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.

Freund, M.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Garzon, F.

M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.

Guo, H.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

Hirao, T.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. D.

M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.

Kita, T.

Kohno, T.

Lange, A. E.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, D.

M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.

Lim, M. A.

M. Noda, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, K. Noguchi, M. Tanaka, M. A. Lim, “Near-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Astrophys. J. 428, 363–369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lutzow-Wentzky, P.

M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.

Matsuhara, H.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Noda, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, K. Noguchi, M. Tanaka, M. A. Lim, “Near-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Astrophys. J. 428, 363–369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

M. Noda, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, K. Noguchi, M. Tanaka, M. A. Lim, “Near-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Astrophys. J. 428, 363–369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, T. J.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, H.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Yagi, H. Shibai, T. Kohno, T. Tanabe, H. Murakami, “Optical system of the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Appl. Opt. 33, 1880–1888 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakami, M.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, T.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noda, M.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Noda, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, K. Noguchi, M. Tanaka, M. A. Lim, “Near-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Astrophys. J. 428, 363–369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, K.

M. Noda, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, K. Noguchi, M. Tanaka, M. A. Lim, “Near-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Astrophys. J. 428, 363–369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, H.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, K.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, T.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Yagi, H. Shibai, T. Kohno, T. Tanabe, H. Murakami, “Optical system of the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Appl. Opt. 33, 1880–1888 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pattni, A. V.

M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.

Roellig, T. L.

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Selby, M. J.

M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.

Shibai, H.

T. Onaka, T. Yagi, H. Shibai, T. Kohno, T. Tanabe, H. Murakami, “Optical system of the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Appl. Opt. 33, 1880–1888 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Yagi, H. Shibai, T. Kohno, T. Tanabe, H. Murakami, “Optical system of the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Appl. Opt. 33, 1880–1888 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

M. Noda, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, K. Noguchi, M. Tanaka, M. A. Lim, “Near-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Astrophys. J. 428, 363–369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, P.

M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.

Watabe, T.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, “Aberration theory of gratings and grating mountings,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 241–280.
[CrossRef]

Wells, M.

M. Wells, S. Chakaveh, R. D. Joseph, A. V. Pattni, M. J. Selby, D. Lemke, P. Lutzow-Wentzky, P. Vaughan, F. Garzon, “ISO-PHOT-S, a low resolution 2.5–12 μm spectrometer for ISO,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Eslab Symposium on Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy, B. H. Kaldeich, ed. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 1989), pp. 571–573.

Wesselius, P. R.

K. J. Wildeman, D. A. Beintema, P. R. Wesselius, “The Dutch scientific instrument on board IRAS,” J. Br. Interplanet. Soc. 36, 21–26 (1983).

Wildeman, K. J.

K. J. Wildeman, D. A. Beintema, P. R. Wesselius, “The Dutch scientific instrument on board IRAS,” J. Br. Interplanet. Soc. 36, 21–26 (1983).

Yagi, T.

T. Onaka, T. Yagi, H. Shibai, T. Kohno, T. Tanabe, H. Murakami, “Optical system of the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Appl. Opt. 33, 1880–1888 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yajima, N.

H. Murakami, J. Bock, M. Freund, H. Guo, T. Hirao, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, T. J. McMahon, M. Murakami, T. Nakagawa, M. Noda, K. Noguchi, H. Okuda, K. Okumura, T. Onaka, T. L. Roellig, S. Sato, H. Shibai, T. Tanabe, T. Watabe, T. Yagi, N. Yajima, M. Yui, “The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS),” Astrophys. J. 428, 354–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yui, M.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the coordinate system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Locations of the focal curves on the XY plane. The thin solid curve and thick solid line indicate the horizontal and vertical focal curves for the MIRS grating, respectively. The detector positions agree exactly with the vertical focal curve (the thick straight line). The slit position is indicated by S. For comparison, the Rowland circle and the vertical focal curve corresponding to the slit position with the same incident angle S′ are plotted by the dotted curve and dashed line, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral line half-width versus wavelength. The solid curve indicates the width resulting from the finite size of the detector Δλ [Eq. (18)] and the dashed curve shows the width resulting from the grating aberration Δλg [Eq. (14)]. The measured FWHM is plotted by open circles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of ray-tracing calculations. Each square expresses the MIRS detectors. The number indicated below the square shows the wavelength of each incident light. For each wavelength, the light rays passing through the four corners and the center of the entrance slit are calculated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the MIRS grating measurement setup. All the equipment was placed in the spectrometer sample chamber. Flat mirror M1 was placed on a rotatable stage, whereas a slit and a detector were mounted on XYZ stages. The grating was placed on an XY stage. A wire-grid polarizer in a rotatable mount is placed in front of the entrance slit. The arrow indicates the movement of the detector for scan in the dispersion direction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of the measured spectrum taken at the detector position of 4.5 mm (referring to the Y coordinate in Fig. 1). The spectral resolution is 2 cm−1. The ordinate is the relative intensity normalized by the incident intensity. Two peaks are clearly seen: one is the first-order diffraction (~1400 cm−1), and the other is the second-order diffraction (~2800 cm−1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Examples of the measured spectral line profile (open circles) and the Gaussian fits (solid curve). The detector positions (in millimeters along the Y axis) are indicated in the upper right-hand corner.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Position versus wavelength. The position refers to the Y coordinate shown in Fig. 1. The solid line indicates the relationship given by Eq. (5), whereas the open circles show the measured central wavelength of each spectral line. Error bars of the measured wavelengths are in most cases smaller than the symbol.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Beam-pattern profile. The solid line indicates the expected beam pattern, whereas the squares and circles indicate measured patterns at 6.35 and 10.45 μm, respectively. All points are normalized at the peak.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured diffraction efficiency versus wavelength. Open circles indicate the first-order diffraction, and filled circles and open triangles show the second- and third-order diffraction, respectively. The ordinate is normalized by the incident intensity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Polarization of the MIRS grating. The positive polarization is defined as being in the dispersion direction.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 MIRS Grating Parameters

Equations (18)

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F = A P + P B + m n λ ,
r = R / cos α , r = R / cos β ,
n = ( w + b 2 R w 2 + b 3 R 2 w 3 + b 4 R 3 w 4 + ) / σ 0 ,
F = r + r + z 2 2 r + z 2 2 r + wF 10 + w 2 F 20 + w 3 F 30 + w 4 F 40 + + 1 G 01 + w 1 G 11 + wG 10 + .
F 10 = ( sin α + sin β ) + m λ σ 0 ,
F 20 = 1 2 R ( cos α sin 2 α + cos β sin 2 β ) + m λ σ 0 b 2 R ,
F 30 = 1 2 R 2 ( cos 2 α sin 3 α + cos 2 β sin 3 β ) + m λ σ 0 b 3 R 2 ,
F 40 = 5 8 R 3 ( cos 3 α sin 4 α + cos 3 β sin 4 β ) + m λ σ 0 b 4 R 3 .
G 01 = ( z r + z r ) ,
G 11 = ( z r 2 sin α + z r 2 sin β ) ,
G 10 = 1 2 [ ( z r ) 2 sin α + ( z r ) 2 sin β ] .
F / w = F / 1 = 0
m λ σ 0 = sin α + sin β .
Δ λ g = 1 2 σ 0 m cos β | F w ( z = 0 ; w = W ) | ,
z r + z r = 0 ,
Δ = dW 4 R | sin ( α β ) cos α cos β | ,
Δ λ c = σ 0 d cos α cos β 8 mR 2 × | [ 2 W sin ( α β ) d cos α ( sin α + sin β ) ] | .
Δ λ = σ 0 m d R cos 3 β .

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