Abstract

Waveguide grating couplers that have surface corrugation on both boundaries of the waveguide were fabricated by the deposition of waveguide material at high-vacuum pressures onto a surface-relief grating etched into the substrate. A lateral shift between the two gratings along the direction of the common grating vector was created during the waveguide deposition when the substrate normal was tilted with respect to the direction of material deposition. A series of waveguide thicknesses having an identical angle of deposition were examined to observe the effect of the waveguide thickness, and corresponding lateral shift, on the branching ratio and input-coupling efficiency. Branching ratios of above 98% and input-coupling efficiencies near the theoretical limit for an incident Gaussian beam were obtained.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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