Abstract

A full-field, time-resolved interferometric method for the characterization of sparse, polydisperse spray systems is reported. The method makes use of the angular intensity oscillations in the wide-angle forward-scatter region. A pulsed laser is used to illuminate a planar sheet through the spray, which is imaged, out of focus, from the 45° direction. The image consists of a set of out-of-focus spots, each of which represents an individual droplet, and superimposed on which is a set of fringes corresponding to the angular intensity oscillations of that droplet. Macrophotographic recording with high-resolution digitization for image analysis provides a full-field capability. The spatial frequency of fringes on each spot in the image plane is dependent on the diameter of the corresponding droplet in the object plane, and a simple geometric analysis is shown to be appropriate for the calculation of the spatial frequency of fringes as a function of droplet size. Images are analyzed automatically by a software suite that uses Gaussian blur, Canny edge detection, and Hough transforms to locate individual droplets in the image field. Fringe spatial frequency is then determined by least-squares fitting to a Chirp function. The method is applicable to droplets with diameters in the range of several millimeters to several hundred millimeters and number densities of up to 103 to 104. The accuracy of the method for droplet-size determination has been evaluated by measurements of monodisperse aerosols of known droplet size, and measurements of droplet-size distribution in a polydisperse aerosol produced by a gasoline fuel injector are also presented. An extension of the method, using high-speed photography to measure two components of velocity in addition to size and position, is discussed. A two-wavelength approach may also offer the capability to measure the concentration of model fuel additives in droplets, and the results of a feasibility study are described.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J.1, 1882–1886 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, G. C. McCreath, “A laser diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).
  3. J. Swithenbank, J. Cao, A. A. Hamidi, “Spray diagnostics by laser diffraction,” in Combustion Measurements, N. Chigier, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 179–227.
  4. L. G. Dodge, “Calibration of the Malvern particle sizer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2415–2419 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. D. Hirleman, “Modelling of multiple scattering effects in Fraunhofer diffraction particle size analysis,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 5, 57–65 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Gomi, “Multiple scattering correction in the measurement of particle size and number density by the diffraction method,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3552–3558 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. N. Wild, J. Swithenbank, “Beam stop and vignetting effects in particle size measurement by laser diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3520–3526 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. D. Bachalo, “Method for measuring the size and velocity of spheres by dual-beam light scatter interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 19, 363–370 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Phase Doppler spray analyser for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions,” Opt. Eng. 23, 583–590 (1984).
  10. W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Spray drop size and velocity measurements using the phase/Doppler particle analyzer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Institute of Energy, London, 1985), pp. VC/2/1–12.
  11. N. Dombrowski, R. P. Fraser, “A photographic investigation into the disintegration of liquid sheets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 247, 101–130 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. A. Chigier, “The atomization and burning of liquid fuel sprays,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2, 97–114 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. H. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays (Hemisphere, New York, 1989).
  14. P. F. MacGloughlin, J. J. Walsh, “A holographic study of interacting liquid sprays,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Tokyo, 1978), pp. 325–332.
  15. T. Murakami, M. Ishikawa, “Laser holographic study on atomization processes,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Tokyo, 1978), pp. 317–324.
  16. B. J. Thompson, “Droplet characteristics with conventional and holographic imaging techniques, liquid particle size measurement techniques,” in ASTM STP 848, R. D. Tishkoff, ed. (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1984), pp. 111–122.
  17. D. L. Hofeld, R. K. Hanson, “Instantaneous imaging of particle size and spatial distribution in two-phase flows,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4936–4948 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. L. Hofeld, “Full-field measurements of particle size distributions: I. Theoretical limitations of the polarization ratio method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7551–7558 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. L. Hofeld, “Full-field measurements of particle size distributions: II. Experimental comparison of the polarization ratio and scattered intensity methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7559–7567 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Pitcher, G. Wigley, M. Saffman, “Velocity and dropsize measurements in fuel sprays in a direct injection Diesel engine,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 226–232 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. H. Whitelaw, “Measurement techniques, some results and relationships to calculations,” presented at the Second Lake Vyrnwy Workshop on I.C. Engines, Combustion and Emissions, Lake Vyrnwy, Wales, 5–9 September 1993.
  22. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  23. N. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).
  24. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, London, 1969).
  25. H. M. Nussenzweig, “Complex angular momentum theory of the rainbow and the glory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1068–1079 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. J. Glantschnig, W.-H. Chen, “Light scattering from water droplets in the geometrical optics approximation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2499–2509 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. Konig, K. Anders, A. Frohn, “A new light-scattering technique to measure the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets,” J. Aerosol Sci. 17, 157–167 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. H. Hasselbacher, K. Anders, A. Frohn, “Experimental investigation of Gaussian beam effects on the accuracy of a droplet sizing method,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4930–4935 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Roth, K. Anders, A. Frohn, “Refractive-index measurements for the correction of particle sizing methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4960–4965 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, P. Massoli, “Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting angular oscillation in the Mie regime,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221–225 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Kneer, M. Willman, M. Scheider, E. D. Hirlman, R. Koch, S. Wittig, “Theoretical studies on the influence of refractive index gradients within multicomponent droplets on size measurements by phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 451–458.
  32. J. K. Schaller, S. Wassenberg, D. K. Fiedler, C. G. Stojanoff, “A new method for temperature measurements of droplets,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 443–450.
  33. M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. D. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision (Chapman and Hall, London, 1993).
  34. P. V. C. Hough, “Method and means for recognizing complex patterns,” U.S. patent3,069,654 (18December1962).
  35. R. N. Bergland, B. Y. H. Liu, “Generation of monodisperse aerosol standards,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 147–153 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. O. Probst, Bosch Fuel Injection and Engine Management (Robert Bentley, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), Chap. 3.
  37. R. J. Adrian, “Scattering particle characteristics and their effect on pulsed laser measurements of fluid flow: speckle velocimetry vs. particle image velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1690–1691 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. C. J. D. Pickering, N. A. Halliwell, “Particle image velocimetry: a new field measurement technique,” in Optical Measurement in Fluid Dynamics, P. H. Richards, ed., Institute of Physics Conference Series no. 1977 (Hilger, London, 1985), pp. 104–115.
  39. J. M. Coupland, N. A. Halliwell, “Particle image velocimetry: rapid transparency analysis using optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1919–1921 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1991 (3)

1990 (2)

R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, P. Massoli, “Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting angular oscillation in the Mie regime,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221–225 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Pitcher, G. Wigley, M. Saffman, “Velocity and dropsize measurements in fuel sprays in a direct injection Diesel engine,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (4)

G. Konig, K. Anders, A. Frohn, “A new light-scattering technique to measure the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets,” J. Aerosol Sci. 17, 157–167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Hirleman, “Modelling of multiple scattering effects in Fraunhofer diffraction particle size analysis,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 5, 57–65 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Gomi, “Multiple scattering correction in the measurement of particle size and number density by the diffraction method,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3552–3558 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Wild, J. Swithenbank, “Beam stop and vignetting effects in particle size measurement by laser diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3520–3526 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (3)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, G. C. McCreath, “A laser diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

1976 (1)

N. A. Chigier, “The atomization and burning of liquid fuel sprays,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2, 97–114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. N. Bergland, B. Y. H. Liu, “Generation of monodisperse aerosol standards,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 147–153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1954 (1)

N. Dombrowski, R. P. Fraser, “A photographic investigation into the disintegration of liquid sheets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 247, 101–130 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, G. C. McCreath, “A laser diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Adrian, R. J.

Anders, K.

Bachalo, W. D.

W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Phase Doppler spray analyser for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions,” Opt. Eng. 23, 583–590 (1984).

W. D. Bachalo, “Method for measuring the size and velocity of spheres by dual-beam light scatter interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 19, 363–370 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Spray drop size and velocity measurements using the phase/Doppler particle analyzer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Institute of Energy, London, 1985), pp. VC/2/1–12.

Beer, J. M.

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, G. C. McCreath, “A laser diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Bergland, R. N.

R. N. Bergland, B. Y. H. Liu, “Generation of monodisperse aerosol standards,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 147–153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Born, N.

N. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

Boyle, R. D.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. D. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision (Chapman and Hall, London, 1993).

Cao, J.

J. Swithenbank, J. Cao, A. A. Hamidi, “Spray diagnostics by laser diffraction,” in Combustion Measurements, N. Chigier, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 179–227.

Cavaliere, A.

R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, P. Massoli, “Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting angular oscillation in the Mie regime,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221–225 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-H.

Chigier, N. A.

N. A. Chigier, “The atomization and burning of liquid fuel sprays,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2, 97–114 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Coupland, J. M.

Crocco, L.

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J.1, 1882–1886 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Dobbins, R. A.

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J.1, 1882–1886 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Dodge, L. G.

Dombrowski, N.

N. Dombrowski, R. P. Fraser, “A photographic investigation into the disintegration of liquid sheets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 247, 101–130 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, D. K.

J. K. Schaller, S. Wassenberg, D. K. Fiedler, C. G. Stojanoff, “A new method for temperature measurements of droplets,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 443–450.

Fraser, R. P.

N. Dombrowski, R. P. Fraser, “A photographic investigation into the disintegration of liquid sheets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 247, 101–130 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Frohn, A.

Glantschnig, W. J.

Glassman, I.

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J.1, 1882–1886 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gomi, H.

Halliwell, N. A.

J. M. Coupland, N. A. Halliwell, “Particle image velocimetry: rapid transparency analysis using optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1919–1921 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. D. Pickering, N. A. Halliwell, “Particle image velocimetry: a new field measurement technique,” in Optical Measurement in Fluid Dynamics, P. H. Richards, ed., Institute of Physics Conference Series no. 1977 (Hilger, London, 1985), pp. 104–115.

Hamidi, A. A.

J. Swithenbank, J. Cao, A. A. Hamidi, “Spray diagnostics by laser diffraction,” in Combustion Measurements, N. Chigier, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 179–227.

Hanson, R. K.

Hasselbacher, K. H.

Hirleman, E. D.

E. D. Hirleman, “Modelling of multiple scattering effects in Fraunhofer diffraction particle size analysis,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 5, 57–65 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hirlman, E. D.

R. Kneer, M. Willman, M. Scheider, E. D. Hirlman, R. Koch, S. Wittig, “Theoretical studies on the influence of refractive index gradients within multicomponent droplets on size measurements by phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 451–458.

Hlavac, V.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. D. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision (Chapman and Hall, London, 1993).

Hofeld, D. L.

Hough, P. V. C.

P. V. C. Hough, “Method and means for recognizing complex patterns,” U.S. patent3,069,654 (18December1962).

Houser, M. J.

W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Phase Doppler spray analyser for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions,” Opt. Eng. 23, 583–590 (1984).

W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Spray drop size and velocity measurements using the phase/Doppler particle analyzer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Institute of Energy, London, 1985), pp. VC/2/1–12.

Ishikawa, M.

T. Murakami, M. Ishikawa, “Laser holographic study on atomization processes,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Tokyo, 1978), pp. 317–324.

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, London, 1969).

Kneer, R.

R. Kneer, M. Willman, M. Scheider, E. D. Hirlman, R. Koch, S. Wittig, “Theoretical studies on the influence of refractive index gradients within multicomponent droplets on size measurements by phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 451–458.

Koch, R.

R. Kneer, M. Willman, M. Scheider, E. D. Hirlman, R. Koch, S. Wittig, “Theoretical studies on the influence of refractive index gradients within multicomponent droplets on size measurements by phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 451–458.

Konig, G.

G. Konig, K. Anders, A. Frohn, “A new light-scattering technique to measure the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets,” J. Aerosol Sci. 17, 157–167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, A. H.

A. H. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays (Hemisphere, New York, 1989).

Liu, B. Y. H.

R. N. Bergland, B. Y. H. Liu, “Generation of monodisperse aerosol standards,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 147–153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

MacGloughlin, P. F.

P. F. MacGloughlin, J. J. Walsh, “A holographic study of interacting liquid sprays,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Tokyo, 1978), pp. 325–332.

Massoli, P.

R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, P. Massoli, “Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting angular oscillation in the Mie regime,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221–225 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCreath, G. C.

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, G. C. McCreath, “A laser diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Murakami, T.

T. Murakami, M. Ishikawa, “Laser holographic study on atomization processes,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Tokyo, 1978), pp. 317–324.

Nussenzweig, H. M.

Pickering, C. J. D.

C. J. D. Pickering, N. A. Halliwell, “Particle image velocimetry: a new field measurement technique,” in Optical Measurement in Fluid Dynamics, P. H. Richards, ed., Institute of Physics Conference Series no. 1977 (Hilger, London, 1985), pp. 104–115.

Pitcher, G.

G. Pitcher, G. Wigley, M. Saffman, “Velocity and dropsize measurements in fuel sprays in a direct injection Diesel engine,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Probst, C. O.

C. O. Probst, Bosch Fuel Injection and Engine Management (Robert Bentley, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), Chap. 3.

Ragucci, R.

R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, P. Massoli, “Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting angular oscillation in the Mie regime,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221–225 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Roth, N.

Saffman, M.

G. Pitcher, G. Wigley, M. Saffman, “Velocity and dropsize measurements in fuel sprays in a direct injection Diesel engine,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, J. K.

J. K. Schaller, S. Wassenberg, D. K. Fiedler, C. G. Stojanoff, “A new method for temperature measurements of droplets,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 443–450.

Scheider, M.

R. Kneer, M. Willman, M. Scheider, E. D. Hirlman, R. Koch, S. Wittig, “Theoretical studies on the influence of refractive index gradients within multicomponent droplets on size measurements by phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 451–458.

Sonka, M.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. D. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision (Chapman and Hall, London, 1993).

Stojanoff, C. G.

J. K. Schaller, S. Wassenberg, D. K. Fiedler, C. G. Stojanoff, “A new method for temperature measurements of droplets,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 443–450.

Swithenbank, J.

P. N. Wild, J. Swithenbank, “Beam stop and vignetting effects in particle size measurement by laser diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3520–3526 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, G. C. McCreath, “A laser diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

J. Swithenbank, J. Cao, A. A. Hamidi, “Spray diagnostics by laser diffraction,” in Combustion Measurements, N. Chigier, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 179–227.

Taylor, D. S.

J. Swithenbank, J. M. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, G. C. McCreath, “A laser diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421–447 (1977).

Thompson, B. J.

B. J. Thompson, “Droplet characteristics with conventional and holographic imaging techniques, liquid particle size measurement techniques,” in ASTM STP 848, R. D. Tishkoff, ed. (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1984), pp. 111–122.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Walsh, J. J.

P. F. MacGloughlin, J. J. Walsh, “A holographic study of interacting liquid sprays,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Tokyo, 1978), pp. 325–332.

Wassenberg, S.

J. K. Schaller, S. Wassenberg, D. K. Fiedler, C. G. Stojanoff, “A new method for temperature measurements of droplets,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 443–450.

Whitelaw, J. H.

J. H. Whitelaw, “Measurement techniques, some results and relationships to calculations,” presented at the Second Lake Vyrnwy Workshop on I.C. Engines, Combustion and Emissions, Lake Vyrnwy, Wales, 5–9 September 1993.

Wigley, G.

G. Pitcher, G. Wigley, M. Saffman, “Velocity and dropsize measurements in fuel sprays in a direct injection Diesel engine,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 226–232 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wild, P. N.

Willman, M.

R. Kneer, M. Willman, M. Scheider, E. D. Hirlman, R. Koch, S. Wittig, “Theoretical studies on the influence of refractive index gradients within multicomponent droplets on size measurements by phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 451–458.

Wittig, S.

R. Kneer, M. Willman, M. Scheider, E. D. Hirlman, R. Koch, S. Wittig, “Theoretical studies on the influence of refractive index gradients within multicomponent droplets on size measurements by phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, A. J. Yule, C. Dumochel, eds. (Begell House, New York, 1994), pp. 451–458.

Wolf, E.

N. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

Appl. Opt. (12)

L. G. Dodge, “Calibration of the Malvern particle sizer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2415–2419 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gomi, “Multiple scattering correction in the measurement of particle size and number density by the diffraction method,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3552–3558 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Wild, J. Swithenbank, “Beam stop and vignetting effects in particle size measurement by laser diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3520–3526 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Bachalo, “Method for measuring the size and velocity of spheres by dual-beam light scatter interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 19, 363–370 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Hofeld, R. K. Hanson, “Instantaneous imaging of particle size and spatial distribution in two-phase flows,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4936–4948 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Hofeld, “Full-field measurements of particle size distributions: I. Theoretical limitations of the polarization ratio method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7551–7558 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Hofeld, “Full-field measurements of particle size distributions: II. Experimental comparison of the polarization ratio and scattered intensity methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7559–7567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Glantschnig, W.-H. Chen, “Light scattering from water droplets in the geometrical optics approximation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2499–2509 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Hasselbacher, K. Anders, A. Frohn, “Experimental investigation of Gaussian beam effects on the accuracy of a droplet sizing method,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4930–4935 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Roth, K. Anders, A. Frohn, “Refractive-index measurements for the correction of particle sizing methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4960–4965 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Adrian, “Scattering particle characteristics and their effect on pulsed laser measurements of fluid flow: speckle velocimetry vs. particle image velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1690–1691 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Coupland, N. A. Halliwell, “Particle image velocimetry: rapid transparency analysis using optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1919–1921 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity of light scattered in the horizontal plane by a single droplet, for vertically polarized incident radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometric-optics approximation for wide-angle forward scatter from a single droplet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Basic configuration for ILIDS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical ILIDS image from a polydisperse spray.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation in optical path difference (OPD) with scattering angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of reduced analysis with full Mie scattering theory.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Location of film plane with Scheimpflug’s rule.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reduced, negated image for ellipse identification.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Edge-direction data after Canny edge detection.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Ellipses identified by first iteration of the image-analysis suite, with nonoverlapping, rectangular areas across which the fringe spatial frequency is measured.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

ILIDS measurements on monodisperse aerosols: number of fringes versus droplet diameter.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Number fraction of droplets in spray from a gasoline fuel injector, 200 mm downstream from the nozzle.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Volume fraction of spray from a gasoline fuel injector, 200 mm downstream from the nozzle.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Droplet velocities measured by multiple-exposure ILIDS compared with calculated values.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Effect of increasing concentration of absorbing dye on fringe visibility.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Two-wavelength ILIDS, showing the effect of dye concentration on fringe-intensity ratio and fringe visibility.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Experimental arrangement for two-wavelength ILIDS, with a modified Cordin drum camera.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Experimental results for two-wavelength ILIDS, showing the effect of concentration of Sudan Orange 183 in Shellsol AB on intensity ratio and fringe visibility.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of Gasoline Injector Spray at Various Positions Downstream from the Nozzle

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ p = 2 α ( sin τ - m p sin τ ) ,
Δ δ p = δ 1 - δ 2 .
Δ θ m = 2 π α ( cos τ 0 + cos τ 1 ) .
Δ θ m = 2 π α ( 1 + 1 m ) ,
I p q = r 2 z 2 I 0 p q p q 2 D p q ,
G p q = 4 p q 2 D p q .
I q = [ I 0 q + cos ( Δ δ p ) I 1 q ] 2 + I 1 q sin 2 ( Δ δ p ) .
I ( x ) = A + B cos [ Ω ( x + D x 2 ) + C ] ,
I 1 q = ( r 2 z 2 ) I 1 q 0 1 q 2 D 1 q exp ( - 2 a r cos β ) ,

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