Abstract

Simple formulas for the standard deviation that is available from Doppler velocity estimators through the use of direct-detection frequency discriminators for targets spread in range are derived and contrasted with the fundamental limits provided by the Cramer–Rao bounds for both direct-detection and heterodyne systems. The structures of these formulas is sufficiently similar to facilitate a meaningful comparison among the different systems and to provide a basis for the evaluation of experimental performance.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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