Abstract

Laser performance is described for Rhodamine 590, Pyrromethene 567, Perylene red, and Perylene orange in inorganic porous sol-gel glass, poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), a composite of porous sol-gel glass with PMMA and organically modified silicate ormosil glass. Lasers were excited with a flash-lamp-pumped dye laser in the long-pulse-length regime (3 μs, 506 nm, 300 mJ) and a second-harmonic Nd:YAG laser in the short-pulse-length regime (6 or 15 ns, 532 nm, 60 mJ). The feasibility of long-pulse-length operation is demonstrated, detailed characteristics of short-pulse operation are described, and laser damage measurements are given. The nonpolar perylene dyes had better performance in partially organic hosts, and the ionic rhodamine and pyrromethene dyes performed best in the inorganic sol-gel glass host.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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1994 (4)

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Agile solid state dye lasers,” J. Physique Colloq. 4, 369–372 (1994).

F. J. Duarte, “Solid state multiple-prism grating dye laser oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3857–3860 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gall, X. Li, T. A. King, “Optical characterisation of sol-gel optical composites,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2, 775–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, T. A. King, F. Pallikari-Viras, “Characteristics of composites based on PMMA modified gel-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 243–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. H. Boyer, A. M. Haag, G. Sathyamoorthi, M. L. Soong, K. Thangaraj, T. Pavlopoulos, “Pyrromethene-BF2 complexes as laser dyes: 2,” Heteroatom Chem. 4, 39–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. O’Neil, “Synchronously pumped visible laser dye with twice the efficiency of Rhodamine 6G,” Opt. Lett. 18, 37–38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (7)

C. Burgdorf, H. G. Löhmannsröben, R. Reisfeld, “A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4;9,10-perylene-bis-(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358–363 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jesperson, J. D. Westbrook, G. R. Bird, “Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988–7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Scherer, “Recent progress in drying of gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 363–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Zarzycki, “Structure of dense gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 176–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Levy, “Sol-gel glasses for optics and electro-optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 508–517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Charlton, I. T. McKinnie, M. A. Meneses-Nava, T. A. King, “A tunable visible solid state laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1517–1523 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, “Impregnated SiO2 gels used as dye laser matrix hosts,” J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 636–640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

B. Dunn, J. I. Zing, “Optical properties of sol-gel glasses doped with organic molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 1, 903–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid state laser using a rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (5)

J. Ivri, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, R. Reisfeld, M. Eyal, “The perylene derivative BASF-241 solution as a new tunable dye laser in the visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1516–1520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, G. Seybold, “Solid state tunable lasers in the visible, based on luminescent photoresistant heterocyclic colorants,” Chimia 44, 295–297 (1990).

E. T. Knobbe, B. Dunn, P. D. Fuqua, F. Nishida, “Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2729–2733 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, “Porous gel-silica, a matrix for optically active compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

H. G. Lohmannsroben, H. Langhals, “Laser performance of perylenebis(dicarboximide) dyes with long secondary alkyl chains,” Appl. Phys. B. 48, 449–452 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Seybold, G. Wagonblast, “New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors,” Dyes Pigments 11, 303–316 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Salin, G. Le Saux, P. Georges, A. Brun, C. Bagnall, J. Zarzycki, “Efficient tunable solid-state laser near 630 nm using sulphorhodamine 640-doped silica gel,” Opt. Lett. 14, 785–787 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt, “Organic modification of glass structure: new glasses or new polymers?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 112, 419–423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

El-Zeiny M. Ebeid, S. A. El-Daly, H. Langhals, “Emission characteristics and photostability of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-2,4;9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide),” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4565–4568 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. Avnir, D. Levy, R. Reisfeld, “The nature of the silica cage as reflected by spectral changes and enhanced photostability of trapped rhodamine 6G,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 5956–5959 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Zarzycki, M. Prassas, J. Phalippou, “Synthesis of glasses from gels: the problem of monolithic gels,” J. Mater. Sci. 17, 3371–3379 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Allik, T. H.

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Dunn, F. Nishida, R. Toda, J. I. Zink, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “Advances in dye doped sol-gel lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, T. R. Robinson, J. A. Hutchinson, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Laser performance and material properties of a high temperature plastic doped with pyrromethene-BF2 dyes,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 291–296.

T. H. Allik, R. E. Hermes, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Spectroscopy and laser performance of new BF2-complex dyes in solution,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2115, 240–248 (1994).

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

Altmann, J. C.

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid state laser using a rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Dye activated ormosils for lasers and optical amplifiers,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 507–518 (1992).

Atlshuler, G. B.

G. B. Atlshuler, V. A. Bakhanov, E. G. Dulneva, O. V. Mazurin, G. P. Roskova, “New laser media based on microporous glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 89–97 (1990).

Avnir, D.

D. Avnir, D. Levy, R. Reisfeld, “The nature of the silica cage as reflected by spectral changes and enhanced photostability of trapped rhodamine 6G,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 5956–5959 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, C.

F. Salin, G. Le Saux, P. Georges, A. Brun, C. Bagnall, J. Zarzycki, “Efficient tunable solid-state laser near 630 nm using sulphorhodamine 640-doped silica gel,” Opt. Lett. 14, 785–787 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakhanov, V. A.

G. B. Atlshuler, V. A. Bakhanov, E. G. Dulneva, O. V. Mazurin, G. P. Roskova, “New laser media based on microporous glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 89–97 (1990).

Bird, G. R.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jesperson, J. D. Westbrook, G. R. Bird, “Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988–7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J-P.

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Agile solid state dye lasers,” J. Physique Colloq. 4, 369–372 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Improved sol-gel materials for efficient solid state dye lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J-P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafted rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 298–309 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Dye doped xerogels for tunable lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 291–295.

Boyer, J. H.

J. H. Boyer, A. M. Haag, G. Sathyamoorthi, M. L. Soong, K. Thangaraj, T. Pavlopoulos, “Pyrromethene-BF2 complexes as laser dyes: 2,” Heteroatom Chem. 4, 39–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, T. R. Robinson, J. A. Hutchinson, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Laser performance and material properties of a high temperature plastic doped with pyrromethene-BF2 dyes,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 291–296.

T. G. Pavlopoulus, J. H. Boyer, “Pyrromethene-BF2 laser dyes,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2115, 231–239 (1994).

T. H. Allik, R. E. Hermes, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Spectroscopy and laser performance of new BF2-complex dyes in solution,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2115, 240–248 (1994).

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

Brun, A.

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Agile solid state dye lasers,” J. Physique Colloq. 4, 369–372 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, “Impregnated SiO2 gels used as dye laser matrix hosts,” J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 636–640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Salin, G. Le Saux, P. Georges, A. Brun, C. Bagnall, J. Zarzycki, “Efficient tunable solid-state laser near 630 nm using sulphorhodamine 640-doped silica gel,” Opt. Lett. 14, 785–787 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Dye doped xerogels for tunable lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 291–295.

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Improved sol-gel materials for efficient solid state dye lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J-P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafted rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 298–309 (1994).

D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Semi-humid gels as matrices for laser media,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 420–432 (1992).

Brusilovsky, D.

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, J. Ivri, “Perylene dye in a composite glass—a new solid state tunable laser in the visible,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1182, 231–239 (1988).

Burgdorf, C.

C. Burgdorf, H. G. Löhmannsröben, R. Reisfeld, “A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4;9,10-perylene-bis-(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358–363 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, Z.

J. Ivri, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, R. Reisfeld, M. Eyal, “The perylene derivative BASF-241 solution as a new tunable dye laser in the visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1516–1520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Gvishi, R. Resifeld, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, “New tunable solid-state dye laser in the red,” in 8th Meeting on Optical Engineering in Israel: Optoelectronics and Applications in Industry and Medicine, M. Oron, I. Schladon, Y. Weissman, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1972, 390–399 (1993).

Burstein, Z.

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, J. Ivri, “Perylene dye in a composite glass—a new solid state tunable laser in the visible,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1182, 231–239 (1988).

Canva, M.

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Agile solid state dye lasers,” J. Physique Colloq. 4, 369–372 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, “Impregnated SiO2 gels used as dye laser matrix hosts,” J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 636–640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Semi-humid gels as matrices for laser media,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 420–432 (1992).

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Dye doped xerogels for tunable lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 291–295.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J-P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafted rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 298–309 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Improved sol-gel materials for efficient solid state dye lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

Capozzi, C. A.

M. D. Rahn, T. A. King, C. A. Capozzi, A. B. Seddon, “Characteristics of dye-doped ormosil lasers,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 364–371 (1994).

Cappozzi, C. A.

C. A. Cappozzi, A. B. Seddon, “Optical properties and structure of a new, low-loss, hybrid organic-inorganic host material for molecular dopants,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 340–349 (1994).

Chandra, S.

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Dunn, F. Nishida, R. Toda, J. I. Zink, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “Advances in dye doped sol-gel lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, T. R. Robinson, J. A. Hutchinson, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Laser performance and material properties of a high temperature plastic doped with pyrromethene-BF2 dyes,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 291–296.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

Chaput, F.

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Agile solid state dye lasers,” J. Physique Colloq. 4, 369–372 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Dye doped xerogels for tunable lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 291–295.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J-P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafted rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 298–309 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Improved sol-gel materials for efficient solid state dye lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

Charlton, A.

A. Charlton, I. T. McKinnie, M. A. Meneses-Nava, T. A. King, “A tunable visible solid state laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1517–1523 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

H. Dai, H. T. Lin, O. M. Stafsudd, “Optical gain and laser action in rhodamine-doped solid state PT-ormosil composites,” in Solid State Lasers IV, G. J. Quarles, M. A. Woodall, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1864, 50–56 (1993).

Donovan, S.

L. L. Hench, G. P. La-Torre, S. Donovan, J. Marotta, E. Valliere, “Properties of gel-silica optical matrices with 4.5 nm and 9.0 nm pores,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 94–104 (1992).

Duarte, F. J.

F. J. Duarte, “Solid state multiple-prism grating dye laser oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3857–3860 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, A.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J-P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafted rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 298–309 (1994).

Dulneva, E. G.

G. B. Atlshuler, V. A. Bakhanov, E. G. Dulneva, O. V. Mazurin, G. P. Roskova, “New laser media based on microporous glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 89–97 (1990).

Dunn, B.

B. Dunn, J. I. Zing, “Optical properties of sol-gel glasses doped with organic molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 1, 903–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid state laser using a rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Knobbe, B. Dunn, P. D. Fuqua, F. Nishida, “Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2729–2733 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dunn, J. D. Mackenzie, J. I. Zink, O. M. Stafsudd, “Solid state tunable lasers based on dye doped sol-gel materials,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 174–182 (1990).

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Dye activated ormosils for lasers and optical amplifiers,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 507–518 (1992).

B. Dunn, F. Nishida, R. Toda, J. I. Zink, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “Advances in dye doped sol-gel lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.

El-Zeiny M. Ebeid, S. A. El-Daly, H. Langhals, “Emission characteristics and photostability of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-2,4;9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide),” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4565–4568 (1988).
[CrossRef]

El-Daly, S. A.

El-Zeiny M. Ebeid, S. A. El-Daly, H. Langhals, “Emission characteristics and photostability of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-2,4;9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide),” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4565–4568 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eyal, M.

J. Ivri, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, R. Reisfeld, M. Eyal, “The perylene derivative BASF-241 solution as a new tunable dye laser in the visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1516–1520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, J. Ivri, “Perylene dye in a composite glass—a new solid state tunable laser in the visible,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1182, 231–239 (1988).

Fuqua, P. D.

E. T. Knobbe, B. Dunn, P. D. Fuqua, F. Nishida, “Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2729–2733 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gall, G.

G. Gall, X. Li, T. A. King, “Optical characterisation of sol-gel optical composites,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2, 775–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Agile solid state dye lasers,” J. Physique Colloq. 4, 369–372 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, “Impregnated SiO2 gels used as dye laser matrix hosts,” J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 636–640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Salin, G. Le Saux, P. Georges, A. Brun, C. Bagnall, J. Zarzycki, “Efficient tunable solid-state laser near 630 nm using sulphorhodamine 640-doped silica gel,” Opt. Lett. 14, 785–787 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J-P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafted rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 298–309 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Improved sol-gel materials for efficient solid state dye lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Dye doped xerogels for tunable lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 291–295.

D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Semi-humid gels as matrices for laser media,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 420–432 (1992).

Gvishi, R.

R. Gvishi, R. Resifeld, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, “New tunable solid-state dye laser in the red,” in 8th Meeting on Optical Engineering in Israel: Optoelectronics and Applications in Industry and Medicine, M. Oron, I. Schladon, Y. Weissman, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1972, 390–399 (1993).

Haag, A. M.

J. H. Boyer, A. M. Haag, G. Sathyamoorthi, M. L. Soong, K. Thangaraj, T. Pavlopoulos, “Pyrromethene-BF2 complexes as laser dyes: 2,” Heteroatom Chem. 4, 39–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hadel, L.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jesperson, J. D. Westbrook, G. R. Bird, “Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988–7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haremsa, I. A.

I. A. Haremsa, BASF Farbenlaboritorum, D-6700 Ludwigs-hafen, Germany(personal communication, 13July1993).

Hench, L. L.

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Hench, G. P. La-Torre, S. Donovan, J. Marotta, E. Valliere, “Properties of gel-silica optical matrices with 4.5 nm and 9.0 nm pores,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 94–104 (1992).

S. Liu, L. L. Hench, “Control of the texture of gel-silica monoliths by aging treatments,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 14–25 (1992).

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, B. F. Zhu, R. Ochoa, “Gel-silica hybrid optics,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 230–240 (1990).

S. Liu, L. L. Hench, “Lasing characteristics of a porous gel silica matrix with 4PyPO-MePTS laser dye,” in Chemical Processing of Advanced Materials, L. L. Hench, J. K. West, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 85.

Hermes, R. E.

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

T. H. Allik, R. E. Hermes, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Spectroscopy and laser performance of new BF2-complex dyes in solution,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2115, 240–248 (1994).

R. E. Hermes, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene-BF2 laser dyes in a solid polymer host,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2115, 178–183 (1994).

Hovis, F.

W. Moreshead, J. Noguès, F. Hovis, “Solid state dye laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 640–651 (1994).

Husain, S.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jesperson, J. D. Westbrook, G. R. Bird, “Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988–7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, J. A.

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Dunn, F. Nishida, R. Toda, J. I. Zink, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “Advances in dye doped sol-gel lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, T. R. Robinson, J. A. Hutchinson, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Laser performance and material properties of a high temperature plastic doped with pyrromethene-BF2 dyes,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 291–296.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

Ivri, J.

J. Ivri, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, R. Reisfeld, M. Eyal, “The perylene derivative BASF-241 solution as a new tunable dye laser in the visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1516–1520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, J. Ivri, “Perylene dye in a composite glass—a new solid state tunable laser in the visible,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1182, 231–239 (1988).

King, T. A.

G. Gall, X. Li, T. A. King, “Optical characterisation of sol-gel optical composites,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2, 775–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, T. A. King, F. Pallikari-Viras, “Characteristics of composites based on PMMA modified gel-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 243–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Charlton, I. T. McKinnie, M. A. Meneses-Nava, T. A. King, “A tunable visible solid state laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1517–1523 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, T. A. King, “Structural and optical aspects of sol-gel optical composites,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 346, pp. 541–546.
[CrossRef]

M. D. Rahn, T. A. King, C. A. Capozzi, A. B. Seddon, “Characteristics of dye-doped ormosil lasers,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 364–371 (1994).

M. D. Rahn, T. A. King, “Lasers based on dye doped sol-gel composite glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 382–391 (1994).

C. Whitehurst, D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Sol-gel glass solid state lasers doped with organic molecules,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 183–193 (1990).

Knobbe, E. T.

E. T. Knobbe, B. Dunn, P. D. Fuqua, F. Nishida, “Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2729–2733 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krogh-Jesperson, K.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jesperson, J. D. Westbrook, G. R. Bird, “Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988–7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Langhals, H.

H. G. Lohmannsroben, H. Langhals, “Laser performance of perylenebis(dicarboximide) dyes with long secondary alkyl chains,” Appl. Phys. B. 48, 449–452 (1989).
[CrossRef]

El-Zeiny M. Ebeid, S. A. El-Daly, H. Langhals, “Emission characteristics and photostability of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-2,4;9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide),” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4565–4568 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Larrue, D.

M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, “Impregnated SiO2 gels used as dye laser matrix hosts,” J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 636–640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Semi-humid gels as matrices for laser media,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 420–432 (1992).

La-Torre, G. P.

L. L. Hench, G. P. La-Torre, S. Donovan, J. Marotta, E. Valliere, “Properties of gel-silica optical matrices with 4.5 nm and 9.0 nm pores,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 94–104 (1992).

Le Saux, G.

F. Salin, G. Le Saux, P. Georges, A. Brun, C. Bagnall, J. Zarzycki, “Efficient tunable solid-state laser near 630 nm using sulphorhodamine 640-doped silica gel,” Opt. Lett. 14, 785–787 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, D.

D. Levy, “Sol-gel glasses for optics and electro-optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 508–517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Avnir, D. Levy, R. Reisfeld, “The nature of the silica cage as reflected by spectral changes and enhanced photostability of trapped rhodamine 6G,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 5956–5959 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

G. Gall, X. Li, T. A. King, “Optical characterisation of sol-gel optical composites,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2, 775–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, T. A. King, F. Pallikari-Viras, “Characteristics of composites based on PMMA modified gel-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 243–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, T. A. King, “Structural and optical aspects of sol-gel optical composites,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 346, pp. 541–546.
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. T.

H. Dai, H. T. Lin, O. M. Stafsudd, “Optical gain and laser action in rhodamine-doped solid state PT-ormosil composites,” in Solid State Lasers IV, G. J. Quarles, M. A. Woodall, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1864, 50–56 (1993).

Liu, S.

S. Liu, L. L. Hench, “Lasing characteristics of a porous gel silica matrix with 4PyPO-MePTS laser dye,” in Chemical Processing of Advanced Materials, L. L. Hench, J. K. West, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 85.

S. Liu, L. L. Hench, “Control of the texture of gel-silica monoliths by aging treatments,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 14–25 (1992).

Lohmannsroben, H. G.

H. G. Lohmannsroben, H. Langhals, “Laser performance of perylenebis(dicarboximide) dyes with long secondary alkyl chains,” Appl. Phys. B. 48, 449–452 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Löhmannsröben, H. G.

C. Burgdorf, H. G. Löhmannsröben, R. Reisfeld, “A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4;9,10-perylene-bis-(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358–363 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. D.

B. Dunn, J. D. Mackenzie, J. I. Zink, O. M. Stafsudd, “Solid state tunable lasers based on dye doped sol-gel materials,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 174–182 (1990).

Marotta, J.

L. L. Hench, G. P. La-Torre, S. Donovan, J. Marotta, E. Valliere, “Properties of gel-silica optical matrices with 4.5 nm and 9.0 nm pores,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 94–104 (1992).

Mazurin, O. V.

G. B. Atlshuler, V. A. Bakhanov, E. G. Dulneva, O. V. Mazurin, G. P. Roskova, “New laser media based on microporous glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 89–97 (1990).

McKinnie, I. T.

A. Charlton, I. T. McKinnie, M. A. Meneses-Nava, T. A. King, “A tunable visible solid state laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1517–1523 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meneses-Nava, M. A.

A. Charlton, I. T. McKinnie, M. A. Meneses-Nava, T. A. King, “A tunable visible solid state laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1517–1523 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miron, E.

J. Ivri, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, R. Reisfeld, M. Eyal, “The perylene derivative BASF-241 solution as a new tunable dye laser in the visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1516–1520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, J. Ivri, “Perylene dye in a composite glass—a new solid state tunable laser in the visible,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1182, 231–239 (1988).

R. Gvishi, R. Resifeld, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, “New tunable solid-state dye laser in the red,” in 8th Meeting on Optical Engineering in Israel: Optoelectronics and Applications in Industry and Medicine, M. Oron, I. Schladon, Y. Weissman, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1972, 390–399 (1993).

Moreshead, W.

W. Moreshead, J. Noguès, F. Hovis, “Solid state dye laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 640–651 (1994).

Moreshead, W. V.

J. L. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, “Porous gel-silica, a matrix for optically active compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, F.

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid state laser using a rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Knobbe, B. Dunn, P. D. Fuqua, F. Nishida, “Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2729–2733 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Dye activated ormosils for lasers and optical amplifiers,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 507–518 (1992).

B. Dunn, F. Nishida, R. Toda, J. I. Zink, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “Advances in dye doped sol-gel lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

Nogues, J. L.

J. L. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, “Porous gel-silica, a matrix for optically active compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Noguès, J.

W. Moreshead, J. Noguès, F. Hovis, “Solid state dye laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 640–651 (1994).

O’Neil, M. P.

M. P. O’Neil, “Synchronously pumped visible laser dye with twice the efficiency of Rhodamine 6G,” Opt. Lett. 18, 37–38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ochoa, R.

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, B. F. Zhu, R. Ochoa, “Gel-silica hybrid optics,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 230–240 (1990).

Pallikari-Viras, F.

X. Li, T. A. King, F. Pallikari-Viras, “Characteristics of composites based on PMMA modified gel-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 243–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pavlopoulos, T.

J. H. Boyer, A. M. Haag, G. Sathyamoorthi, M. L. Soong, K. Thangaraj, T. Pavlopoulos, “Pyrromethene-BF2 complexes as laser dyes: 2,” Heteroatom Chem. 4, 39–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pavlopoulus, T. G.

T. G. Pavlopoulus, J. H. Boyer, “Pyrromethene-BF2 laser dyes,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2115, 231–239 (1994).

Perelgritz, J-F.

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Agile solid state dye lasers,” J. Physique Colloq. 4, 369–372 (1994).

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Dye doped xerogels for tunable lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 291–295.

M. Canva, P. Georges, J-F. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, J-P. Boilot, “Improved sol-gel materials for efficient solid state dye lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

Phalippou, J.

J. Zarzycki, M. Prassas, J. Phalippou, “Synthesis of glasses from gels: the problem of monolithic gels,” J. Mater. Sci. 17, 3371–3379 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Prassas, M.

J. Zarzycki, M. Prassas, J. Phalippou, “Synthesis of glasses from gels: the problem of monolithic gels,” J. Mater. Sci. 17, 3371–3379 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, M. D.

M. D. Rahn, T. A. King, “Lasers based on dye doped sol-gel composite glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 382–391 (1994).

M. D. Rahn, T. A. King, C. A. Capozzi, A. B. Seddon, “Characteristics of dye-doped ormosil lasers,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 364–371 (1994).

Ranger, A.

M. Canva, A. Dubois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, A. Ranger, J-P. Boilot, “Perylene, pyrromethene and grafted rhodamine doped xerogels for tunable solid state laser,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 298–309 (1994).

Reisfeld, R.

C. Burgdorf, H. G. Löhmannsröben, R. Reisfeld, “A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4;9,10-perylene-bis-(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358–363 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Ivri, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, R. Reisfeld, M. Eyal, “The perylene derivative BASF-241 solution as a new tunable dye laser in the visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1516–1520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, G. Seybold, “Solid state tunable lasers in the visible, based on luminescent photoresistant heterocyclic colorants,” Chimia 44, 295–297 (1990).

D. Avnir, D. Levy, R. Reisfeld, “The nature of the silica cage as reflected by spectral changes and enhanced photostability of trapped rhodamine 6G,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 5956–5959 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, “Theory and application of spectroscopically active glasses prepared by the sol-gel method,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 29–39 (1990).

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, J. Ivri, “Perylene dye in a composite glass—a new solid state tunable laser in the visible,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1182, 231–239 (1988).

Resifeld, R.

R. Gvishi, R. Resifeld, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, “New tunable solid-state dye laser in the red,” in 8th Meeting on Optical Engineering in Israel: Optoelectronics and Applications in Industry and Medicine, M. Oron, I. Schladon, Y. Weissman, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1972, 390–399 (1993).

Robinson, T. R.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, T. R. Robinson, J. A. Hutchinson, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Laser performance and material properties of a high temperature plastic doped with pyrromethene-BF2 dyes,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 291–296.

Roskova, G. P.

G. B. Atlshuler, V. A. Bakhanov, E. G. Dulneva, O. V. Mazurin, G. P. Roskova, “New laser media based on microporous glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 89–97 (1990).

Sadrai, M.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jesperson, J. D. Westbrook, G. R. Bird, “Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988–7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

F. Salin, G. Le Saux, P. Georges, A. Brun, C. Bagnall, J. Zarzycki, “Efficient tunable solid-state laser near 630 nm using sulphorhodamine 640-doped silica gel,” Opt. Lett. 14, 785–787 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sathyamoorthi, G.

J. H. Boyer, A. M. Haag, G. Sathyamoorthi, M. L. Soong, K. Thangaraj, T. Pavlopoulos, “Pyrromethene-BF2 complexes as laser dyes: 2,” Heteroatom Chem. 4, 39–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, T. R. Robinson, J. A. Hutchinson, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Laser performance and material properties of a high temperature plastic doped with pyrromethene-BF2 dyes,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 291–296.

T. H. Allik, R. E. Hermes, G. Sathyamoorthi, J. H. Boyer, “Spectroscopy and laser performance of new BF2-complex dyes in solution,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2115, 240–248 (1994).

Sauers, R. R.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jesperson, J. D. Westbrook, G. R. Bird, “Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988–7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, F. P.

F. P. Schäfer, Dye Lasers, Vol. 1 of Springer-Verlag Series on Topics in Applied Physics, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).

Scherer, G. W.

G. W. Scherer, “Recent progress in drying of gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 363–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, “Organic modification of glass structure: new glasses or new polymers?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 112, 419–423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

C. A. Cappozzi, A. B. Seddon, “Optical properties and structure of a new, low-loss, hybrid organic-inorganic host material for molecular dopants,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 340–349 (1994).

M. D. Rahn, T. A. King, C. A. Capozzi, A. B. Seddon, “Characteristics of dye-doped ormosil lasers,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2288, 364–371 (1994).

Seybold, G.

R. Reisfeld, G. Seybold, “Solid state tunable lasers in the visible, based on luminescent photoresistant heterocyclic colorants,” Chimia 44, 295–297 (1990).

G. Seybold, G. Wagonblast, “New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors,” Dyes Pigments 11, 303–316 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, D. J.

C. Whitehurst, D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Sol-gel glass solid state lasers doped with organic molecules,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 183–193 (1990).

Soong, M.

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, R. E. Hermes, J. A. Hutchinson, M. Soong, J. H. Boyer, “Efficient and robust solid state dye laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 271–273.

Soong, M. L.

J. H. Boyer, A. M. Haag, G. Sathyamoorthi, M. L. Soong, K. Thangaraj, T. Pavlopoulos, “Pyrromethene-BF2 complexes as laser dyes: 2,” Heteroatom Chem. 4, 39–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stafsudd, O. M.

B. Dunn, J. D. Mackenzie, J. I. Zink, O. M. Stafsudd, “Solid state tunable lasers based on dye doped sol-gel materials,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 174–182 (1990).

H. Dai, H. T. Lin, O. M. Stafsudd, “Optical gain and laser action in rhodamine-doped solid state PT-ormosil composites,” in Solid State Lasers IV, G. J. Quarles, M. A. Woodall, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1864, 50–56 (1993).

Stone, R. E.

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid state laser using a rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Dye activated ormosils for lasers and optical amplifiers,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 507–518 (1992).

Thangaraj, K.

J. H. Boyer, A. M. Haag, G. Sathyamoorthi, M. L. Soong, K. Thangaraj, T. Pavlopoulos, “Pyrromethene-BF2 complexes as laser dyes: 2,” Heteroatom Chem. 4, 39–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Toda, R.

B. Dunn, F. Nishida, R. Toda, J. I. Zink, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “Advances in dye doped sol-gel lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

Valliere, E.

L. L. Hench, G. P. La-Torre, S. Donovan, J. Marotta, E. Valliere, “Properties of gel-silica optical matrices with 4.5 nm and 9.0 nm pores,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 94–104 (1992).

Wagonblast, G.

G. Seybold, G. Wagonblast, “New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors,” Dyes Pigments 11, 303–316 (1989).
[CrossRef]

West, J. K.

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, B. F. Zhu, R. Ochoa, “Gel-silica hybrid optics,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 230–240 (1990).

Westbrook, J. D.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jesperson, J. D. Westbrook, G. R. Bird, “Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988–7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whitehurst, C.

C. Whitehurst, D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Sol-gel glass solid state lasers doped with organic molecules,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 183–193 (1990).

Zarzycki, J.

J. Zarzycki, “Structure of dense gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 176–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, “Impregnated SiO2 gels used as dye laser matrix hosts,” J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 636–640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Salin, G. Le Saux, P. Georges, A. Brun, C. Bagnall, J. Zarzycki, “Efficient tunable solid-state laser near 630 nm using sulphorhodamine 640-doped silica gel,” Opt. Lett. 14, 785–787 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zarzycki, M. Prassas, J. Phalippou, “Synthesis of glasses from gels: the problem of monolithic gels,” J. Mater. Sci. 17, 3371–3379 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, “Semi-humid gels as matrices for laser media,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1758, 420–432 (1992).

Zhu, B. F.

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, B. F. Zhu, R. Ochoa, “Gel-silica hybrid optics,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 230–240 (1990).

Zing, J. I.

B. Dunn, J. I. Zing, “Optical properties of sol-gel glasses doped with organic molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 1, 903–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zink, J. I.

B. Dunn, J. D. Mackenzie, J. I. Zink, O. M. Stafsudd, “Solid state tunable lasers based on dye doped sol-gel materials,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1328, 174–182 (1990).

B. Dunn, F. Nishida, R. Toda, J. I. Zink, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “Advances in dye doped sol-gel lasers,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), Vol. 329, pp. 279–284.

Appl. Opt. (2)

E. T. Knobbe, B. Dunn, P. D. Fuqua, F. Nishida, “Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2729–2733 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Duarte, “Solid state multiple-prism grating dye laser oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3857–3860 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyrromethene doped solid state dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

H. G. Lohmannsroben, H. Langhals, “Laser performance of perylenebis(dicarboximide) dyes with long secondary alkyl chains,” Appl. Phys. B. 48, 449–452 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Burgdorf, H. G. Löhmannsröben, R. Reisfeld, “A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4;9,10-perylene-bis-(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358–363 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chimia (1)

R. Reisfeld, G. Seybold, “Solid state tunable lasers in the visible, based on luminescent photoresistant heterocyclic colorants,” Chimia 44, 295–297 (1990).

Dyes Pigments (1)

G. Seybold, G. Wagonblast, “New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors,” Dyes Pigments 11, 303–316 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Heteroatom Chem. (1)

J. H. Boyer, A. M. Haag, G. Sathyamoorthi, M. L. Soong, K. Thangaraj, T. Pavlopoulos, “Pyrromethene-BF2 complexes as laser dyes: 2,” Heteroatom Chem. 4, 39–52 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Altmann, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid state laser using a rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Ivri, Z. Burshtein, E. Miron, R. Reisfeld, M. Eyal, “The perylene derivative BASF-241 solution as a new tunable dye laser in the visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1516–1520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

X. Li, T. A. King, F. Pallikari-Viras, “Characteristics of composites based on PMMA modified gel-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 243–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, “Organic modification of glass structure: new glasses or new polymers?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 112, 419–423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

B. Dunn, J. I. Zing, “Optical properties of sol-gel glasses doped with organic molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 1, 903–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. Zarzycki, M. Prassas, J. Phalippou, “Synthesis of glasses from gels: the problem of monolithic gels,” J. Mater. Sci. 17, 3371–3379 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Charlton, I. T. McKinnie, M. A. Meneses-Nava, T. A. King, “A tunable visible solid state laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1517–1523 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

J. L. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, “Porous gel-silica, a matrix for optically active compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Levy, “Sol-gel glasses for optics and electro-optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 508–517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

G. W. Scherer, “Recent progress in drying of gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 363–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Zarzycki, “Structure of dense gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 176–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Non.-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, “Impregnated SiO2 gels used as dye laser matrix hosts,” J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 636–640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jesperson, J. D. Westbrook, G. R. Bird, “Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988–7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of unpolished undehydrated sol-gel glass, 6-mm thick and densified to 800 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample concentration versus initial solution concentration for 800 °C densified sol-gel glass postdoped with Rhodamine 590.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Molecular structure and absorption (solid curves) and fluorescence spectra (dashed curves) of Rhodamine 590 and Pyrromethene 567 in ethanol and Perylene orange and Perylene red in ethyl acetate. The fluorescence-excitation source was a 518-nm argon-ion laser. The spectra were measured with an optical multichannel analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the pump-laser radiation moving through the dye-doped sample as photodegradation occurs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental arrangement of the compact laser cavity pumped by three possible laser sources. H.R., high reflectivity; R., reflectivity; T., transmittance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Laser intensity temporal profile of the output from a Perylene orange doped polycom glass sample, a, when pumped with the flash-lamp-pumped dye laser, b.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of normalized photostability of Rhodamine 590 in polycom glass with input pulse energy.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Concentrations of Dye-Doped Sol-gel Glass Samples Used for Laser Experimentation and the Solution Concentrations Used to Prepare Them

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Table 2 Concentration of Dye in PMMA Samples

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Table 3 Concentrations of Dye in Polycom Glass Samples and the Initial MMA Concentrations where Applicable

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Table 4 Long-Pulse-Length Laser Results with Flash-Lamp Pumped Dye Laser (3 μs, 506 nm)a

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Table 5 Lasing Characteristics of Rhodamine 590, Pyrromethene 567, Perylene Orange, and Perylene Red under 6-ns, 532-nm Excitationa

Equations (1)

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C s = ( C i V i - C f V f ) V s ,

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