Abstract

A molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating was applied to a holographic ion-etched blazed grating substrate that had 2400 grooves/mm and a radius of curvature of 2.2 m. Scanning probe microscopy yielded the same surface microroughness (5 Å rms) before and after deposition of the multilayer. The efficiency and polarization performance of the grating was measured by synchrotron radiation in the 135–250-Å wavelength region. In the second grating order and the second Bragg order of the multilayer coating, the peak normal-incidence efficiency was 7.5% at a wavelength of 147 Å, representing a groove efficiency of 27%. At an angle of incidence of 35°, the polarization performance of the grating was 95%–100% in the 210–250-Å wavelength region. In a Seya–Namioka spectrometer mount at an angle of incidence of 30°–40°, the grating is a nearly perfect polarizing optical element in the wavelength bands between 125 and 300 Å, which are covered by the multilayer coating.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, “Multilayer-coated grating spectrometer operating in the extreme-ultraviolet region and based on the Seya–Namioka mount,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6288–6293 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).
  7. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
  8. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  9. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142 Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Calculation of the power spectral density from surface profile data,” Appl. Opt. 34, 201–208 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, M. P. Kowalski, “Optical constants of thin silicon films near the silicon L2,3 absorption edge,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7367–7370 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1993 (4)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1986 (2)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).

Barbee, T. W.

Bennett, J. M.

Boyer, C. N.

Brown, C. M.

Cruddace, R. G.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elson, J. M.

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G. E.

Hunter, W. R.

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142 Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, M. P. Kowalski, “Optical constants of thin silicon films near the silicon L2,3 absorption edge,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7367–7370 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Kowalski, M. P.

Rife, J. C.

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142 Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, M. P. Kowalski, “Optical constants of thin silicon films near the silicon L2,3 absorption edge,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7367–7370 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Seely, J. F.

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, “Multilayer-coated grating spectrometer operating in the extreme-ultraviolet region and based on the Seya–Namioka mount,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6288–6293 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142 Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, M. P. Kowalski, “Optical constants of thin silicon films near the silicon L2,3 absorption edge,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7367–7370 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Williams, R. T.

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (7)

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142 Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, “Multilayer-coated grating spectrometer operating in the extreme-ultraviolet region and based on the Seya–Namioka mount,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6288–6293 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Calculation of the power spectral density from surface profile data,” Appl. Opt. 34, 201–208 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, M. P. Kowalski, “Optical constants of thin silicon films near the silicon L2,3 absorption edge,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7367–7370 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (2)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

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