Abstract

The efficiency of an ion-etched blazed holographic grating was measured by the use of synchrotron radiation in the 125–133-Å wavelength range and at near-normal incidence. The grating had a Mo–Si multilayer interference coating that resulted in a peak normal-incidence efficiency of 13% in the second grating order and at a wavelength of 128 Å. This is the highest efficiency obtained to date from a multilayer-coated grating in this wavelength region and at normal incidence. These measurements are compared with similar measurements performed on the same grating 4.5 years later. Over this time the peak grating efficiency decreased from 13% to 8%, and this result is attributed to the decrease in the reflectance of the multilayer coating from 55% to 42%. Oxidation and contamination of the multilayer with carbon appear to be the causes of these losses. The groove efficiency of the grating substrate in the second order is 23%.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Barbee, S. Mrowka, M. C. Hettrick, “Molybdenum–silicon multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 883–886 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).
  7. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunterx, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” submitted as NRL mem. rep.
  9. T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a molybdenum/silicon multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Tarnishing of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6985–6990 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. H. Turner, “The analysis of surfaces by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” in Investigations of Surfaces and Interfaces—Part B, B. W. Rossiter, R. C. Baetzold, eds., 2nd ed. of Physical Methods of Chemistry Series (Wiley, New York, 1993), Vol. IXB, pp. 123–140.
  14. V. Rehn, “Carbon and other contaminants in vacuum systems,” Proc. Am. Inst. Phys. 236, 235–265 (1990).
  15. M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Seligson, L. Pan, P. King, P. Pianetta, “Soft x-ray dosimetry and its application on the lithography beam line at SSRL,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A266, 612–618 (1988).
  17. R. A. Rosenberg, D. C. Mancini, “Deposition of carbon on gold using synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A291, 101–106 (1990).
  18. Artifacts in SPM (Topometrix Corp., Santa Clara, Calif., 1993).
  19. J. E. Griffith, D. A. Grigg, “Dimensional metrology with scanning probe microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, R83–R109 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (6)

1990 (4)

R. A. Rosenberg, D. C. Mancini, “Deposition of carbon on gold using synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A291, 101–106 (1990).

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. Rehn, “Carbon and other contaminants in vacuum systems,” Proc. Am. Inst. Phys. 236, 235–265 (1990).

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

D. Seligson, L. Pan, P. King, P. Pianetta, “Soft x-ray dosimetry and its application on the lithography beam line at SSRL,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A266, 612–618 (1988).

1986 (2)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunterx, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Arai, A.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Boyer, C. N.

Brown, C. M.

Cao, J.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dohring, T.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, J. E.

J. E. Griffith, D. A. Grigg, “Dimensional metrology with scanning probe microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, R83–R109 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grigg, D. A.

J. E. Griffith, D. A. Grigg, “Dimensional metrology with scanning probe microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, R83–R109 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Tarnishing of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6985–6990 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidemann, B.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, K. F.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hettrick, M. C.

Hilgers, K.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G. E.

Hunter, W. R.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a molybdenum/silicon multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunterx, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” submitted as NRL mem. rep.

Kimura, H.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

King, P.

D. Seligson, L. Pan, P. King, P. Pianetta, “Soft x-ray dosimetry and its application on the lithography beam line at SSRL,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A266, 612–618 (1988).

Kleineberg, U.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kloidt, A.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Krumrey, M. K.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maehara, T.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, D. C.

R. A. Rosenberg, D. C. Mancini, “Deposition of carbon on gold using synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A291, 101–106 (1990).

Mizuide, T.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

Muller, P.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K.

Pan, L.

D. Seligson, L. Pan, P. King, P. Pianetta, “Soft x-ray dosimetry and its application on the lithography beam line at SSRL,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A266, 612–618 (1988).

Pianetta, P.

D. Seligson, L. Pan, P. King, P. Pianetta, “Soft x-ray dosimetry and its application on the lithography beam line at SSRL,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A266, 612–618 (1988).

Propper, M.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, S.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rehn, V.

V. Rehn, “Carbon and other contaminants in vacuum systems,” Proc. Am. Inst. Phys. 236, 235–265 (1990).

Rife, J. C.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a molybdenum/silicon multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunterx, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” submitted as NRL mem. rep.

Rosenberg, R. A.

R. A. Rosenberg, D. C. Mancini, “Deposition of carbon on gold using synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A291, 101–106 (1990).

Schmiedeskamp, B.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

Seligson, D.

D. Seligson, L. Pan, P. King, P. Pianetta, “Soft x-ray dosimetry and its application on the lithography beam line at SSRL,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A266, 612–618 (1988).

Stock, H. J.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tappe, T.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Turner, N. H.

N. H. Turner, “The analysis of surfaces by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” in Investigations of Surfaces and Interfaces—Part B, B. W. Rossiter, R. C. Baetzold, eds., 2nd ed. of Physical Methods of Chemistry Series (Wiley, New York, 1993), Vol. IXB, pp. 123–140.

Underwood, J. H.

Williams, R. T.

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunterx, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. E. Griffith, D. A. Grigg, “Dimensional metrology with scanning probe microscopes,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, R83–R109 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. (3)

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 252–255 (1986); J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunterx, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Seligson, L. Pan, P. King, P. Pianetta, “Soft x-ray dosimetry and its application on the lithography beam line at SSRL,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A266, 612–618 (1988).

R. A. Rosenberg, D. C. Mancini, “Deposition of carbon on gold using synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A291, 101–106 (1990).

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Dohring, M. Propper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. K. Krumrey, P. Muller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and MoxSiy/Si multilayer mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (2)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayers filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Am. Inst. Phys. (1)

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Other (3)

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” submitted as NRL mem. rep.

Artifacts in SPM (Topometrix Corp., Santa Clara, Calif., 1993).

N. H. Turner, “The analysis of surfaces by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” in Investigations of Surfaces and Interfaces—Part B, B. W. Rossiter, R. C. Baetzold, eds., 2nd ed. of Physical Methods of Chemistry Series (Wiley, New York, 1993), Vol. IXB, pp. 123–140.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Measured reflectance of the Mo–Si multilayer witness flat (lower curves) and the transmittances of the silicon filters (upper curves) that were used to establish the wavelength scale. The dates of the measurements are indicated. The reflectance was measured at an angle of incidence of 10°. (b) Time histories of the measured peak reflectance (squares and solid curves) and the exposure in Amp-hours (diamonds and dashed curves). The ordinate scale is the same for both curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoelectron spectrum of the multilayer witness flat made at the center.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Efficiency of the Mo–Si multilayer grating measured in March 1994 at an angle of incidence of 10° and for wavelengths of (a) 125.6 Å, (b) 129.5 Å, (c) 132.3 Å. The inside orders (m > 0) and outside orders (m < 0) are identified. The detector occulted the incident light beam for diffraction angles less than 1°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Peak grating efficiencies in the inside (m > 0) and outside (m < 0) second and third orders measured in March 1994 at an angle of incidence of 10°. (b) The grating efficiency summed over the observed orders (lower curve) and the multilayer reflectance (upper curve) that were measured in March 1994, both at angles of incidence of 10°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Curve with data points is the grating efficiency in the outside second order (m = −2) measured at an angle of incidence of 10° in March 1994; the curve without data points is the reflectance of the multilayer witness flat calculated at an angle of incidence of 13° and reduced by a factor of 0.19.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SPM image of the grating that covers a 1.3 μm × 1.3 μm area. The horizontal and vertical scaling has been adjusted to show the texture of the groove profile. The horizontal groove spacing is 2780 Å, and the groove depth is 130 Å.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) SPM scan across the grating grooves. (b) The fitted quadratic curves and the SPM data points. (c) The differences between the quadratic curves and the data points. Distance is given in micrometers.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Grating Efficiency and the Multilayer Reflectance

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