Abstract

We describe a low-pass filter that provides high in-band transmittance and excellent rejection at ν > 100 cm−1. The transmittance of the filter components was measured at liquid-helium temperatures from 10 to 10,000 cm−1. The total transmittance is >50% for ν < 50 cm−1 and is calculated to be <10−9 for ν > 300 cm−1. The filter was successfully used in a liquid-helium-cooled, rocketborne, far-infrared absolute photometer.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Yamada, A. Mitsuishi, H. Yoshinaga, “Transmission filters in the far-infrared region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 17–19 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Blea, W. F. Parks, P. A. R. Ade, R. J. Bell, “Optical properties of black polyethylene from 3 to 4000 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 603–606 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).
  6. For details of the LP100 filter, contact Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, Conn. 06856.
  7. S. Zwerdling, J. P. Theriault, “The low temperature transmittance of two far infrared LWP filters,” Appl. Opt. 7, 209–210 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. E. Lange, E. Kreysa, S. E. McBride, P. L. Richards, E. E. Haller, “Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 689–706 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Winston, “Light collection within the framework of geometrical optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 245–247 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

1994 (2)

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

1993 (1)

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. E. Lange, E. Kreysa, S. E. McBride, P. L. Richards, E. E. Haller, “Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 689–706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

1968 (1)

1962 (1)

Ade, P. A. R.

Bell, R. J.

Blea, J. M.

Bock, J. J.

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

A. E. Lange, E. Kreysa, S. E. McBride, P. L. Richards, E. E. Haller, “Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 689–706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, M. G.

M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

Hristov, V. V.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, M.

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kelsall, T.

M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

Kreysa, E.

A. E. Lange, E. Kreysa, S. E. McBride, P. L. Richards, E. E. Haller, “Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 689–706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lange, A. E.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lange, E. Kreysa, S. E. McBride, P. L. Richards, E. E. Haller, “Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 689–706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhara, H.

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mauskopf, P. D.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McBride, S. E.

A. E. Lange, E. Kreysa, S. E. McBride, P. L. Richards, E. E. Haller, “Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 689–706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuishi, A.

Moseley, S. H.

M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

Murdock, T.

M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

Parks, W. F.

Richards, P. L.

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lange, E. Kreysa, S. E. McBride, P. L. Richards, E. E. Haller, “Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 689–706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Silverberg, R. F.

M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

Spiesman, W.

M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

Tanaka, M.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Theriault, J. P.

Toller, G.

M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

Weiland, J.

M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

Winston, R.

Yamada, Y.

Yoshinaga, H.

Zwerdling, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (2)

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, A. E. Lange, “Observation of [Cii] 158-μm emission from the diffuse interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. 410, L115–L118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves (1)

A. E. Lange, E. Kreysa, S. E. McBride, P. L. Richards, E. E. Haller, “Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 689–706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. (1)

H. Matsuhara, M. Kawada, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, M. Tanaka, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, “A rocket-borne instrument for observations of near-infrared and far-infrared extended astrophysical emission,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, 665–676 (1994).

Other (2)

For details of the LP100 filter, contact Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, Conn. 06856.

M. G. Hauser, T. Kelsall, S. H. Moseley, R. F. Silverberg, T. Murdock, G. Toller, W. Spiesman, J. Weiland, “The diffuse infrared background: COBE and other observations,” in Trends in Astroparticle Physics, D. Cline, R. Peccei, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 211–228.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the instrument used to measure the transmittance of the filters. Radiation from the Fourier-transform spectrometer is coupled into a light pipe, passes through two filter wheels, and is concentrated onto a bolometer. The apparatus is immersed in superfluid 4He, except for the bolometer and the concentrator, which are housed inside an evacuated can sealed against the liquid helium by a polypropylene window. The spectral coverage is selected by a fixed low-pass filter placed in front of the bolometer and by low-pass filters placed on the upper filter wheel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the in-band transmittance of a 360-μm-thick sample from a LP100 filter (solid curve) and from a 245-μm-thick sample from a LP250 filter (dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of the out-of-band transmittances measured at superfluid-helium temperatures of (a) 55-, 105-, and 360-μm-thick samples from the LP100 filter, and (b) 20-, 40-, 100-, and 245-μm-thick samples from the LP250 filter. The data were obtained when multiple measurements are co-added into logarithmic frequency bins [Δ log10(ν) = 0.01]. The minimum measurable transmittance, indicated by the dotted curve, is defined to be 3 times the statistical rms deviation in each frequency bin from the measurement of the closed aperture. The solid horizontal lines at the bottoms of the graphs indicate the bands of frequencies over which each of the filter components provides significant blocking.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated transmittance of a low-pass filter stack consisting of two 360-μm sheets of the LP100 component and one 245-μm sheet of the LP250 component. The transmittance is <10−9 for ν > 300 cm−1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral brightness spectra (solid curves) of a region of the astrophysical sky with low galactic emission that is viewed at a large solar elongation. In order of increasing frequency, the brightness is dominated by the cosmic microwave background (CMB), thermal emission from interstellar dust (ISD), and thermal emission and scattering by interplanetary dust (IPD). The ISD spectrum is scaled to a region that had a neutral hydrogen column density, N HI = 1 × 1020 cm−2, as determined from an observation at a high galactic latitude.3 The IPD spectra were taken from an observation of the astrophysical sky brightness at the south ecliptic pole.10 The sky brightness multiplied by the transmittance of the low-pass filter stack is indicated by the dashed curve.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Composition of the Low-Pass-Filter Components

Equations (1)

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T ( 1 - R n ) 2 exp ( - α t ) ,

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