Abstract

An overview of the application of the photothermal technique for optical as well as thermophysical characterizations of thin films is given. The peculiarities of this technique are discussed in some detail, and selected important results are pointed out. Emphasis is placed on the influence of both residual absorption and randomly distributed inhomogeneities in thin films on their laser-damage resistance.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  122. P. Zimmerman, E. Welsch, “Modeling of signal detection by using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 97–101 (1994).
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  123. A. H. Guenther, J. McIver, “The role of thermal conductivity in the pulsed laser damage sensitivity of the optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 163, 203–214 and references therein (1988).
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  124. K. Mann, H. Gerhardt, “Automated damage test facility for excimer laser optics,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, L. L. Chase, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST Spec. Publ. 801 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1990), pp. 39–46.
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  125. S. E. Clark, D. C. Emmony, “The non-destructive prediction of laser-damage,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1988, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 775 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md.), pp. 62–72.
  126. M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, M. R. Torr, “Vacuum UV thin films. 1. Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
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  127. A. Bodemann, M. Reichling, N. Kaiser, E. Welsch, “Photothermal microscopy of defects and laser damage morphology in Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2114, 405–414 (1993).
  128. J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hoffman, F. Meyer, H. Schink, D. Ristau, “Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1624, 221–235 (1992).
  129. T. Izawa, N. Yamamura, R. Uchmura, S. Kimura, T. Yakuoh, “Damage threshold of fluoride HR coatings at 352 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1848, 322–329 (1993).
  130. H. Goldenberg, M. A. Tranter, “Heat flow in an infinite medium heated by a spherex,” Br. J. Appl. Phys. 2, 296–301 (1952).
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  131. T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. Nielsen, “Pulsed laser-induced damage to thin-film optical coatings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2941–2965 (1981).
  132. M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “The influence of the thermal and mechanical properties of optical materials in thin film form on their damage resistance to pulsed lasers,” Thin Solid Films 118, 49–59 (1984).
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  133. M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “Pulsed laser damage in thin film coatings: fluorides and oxides,” Thin Solid Films 125, 143–155 (1985).
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  134. J. Becker, V. Scheuer, “Coatings for optical applications produced by ion beam sputter deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4303–4309 (1990).
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  135. C. H. Gloede, N. Kaiser, R. Mattheis, H. Müller, “UV losses in MgF2 thin films induced by the evaporation boat,” Thin Solid Films 152, L139–L141 (1987).
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  136. J. Kolbe, H. Müller, H. Schink, H. Welling, “Laser induced damage threshold of dielectric coatings at 193 nm and correlation to optical constants and process parameters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, L. L. Chase, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST Spec. Publ. 801 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1990), pp. 404–416.
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  137. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
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  138. S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, D. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
  139. M. Itoh, A. Endo, K. Kuroda, S. Watanabe, J. Ogura, “Laser-induced damage threshold and absorption measurements in rare-gas-halide excimer laser components,” Opt. Commun. 74, 235–259 (1989).
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  140. M. Reichling, H. Groenbeck, “Harmonic heat flow in isotropic layered systems and its use for thin film thermal conductivity measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1914–1922 (1994) and references therein.
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  141. C. H. Henager, W. T. Pawlewicz, “Thermal conductivities of thin sputtered optical films,” Appl. Opt. 32, 91–101 (1993).
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  142. E. T. Swartz, R. O. Pohl, “Thermal resistance at interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2200–2202 (1987).
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  143. M. Vaez Iravani, M. Nikoonahad, “Photothermal waves in anisotropic media,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4065–4071 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  144. A. Redondo, J. G. Beery, “Thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3882–3885 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  145. R. T. Swimm, “Photoacoustic determination of thin-film thermal properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 955–957 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  146. R. T. Swimm, L. J. Hou, “Photothermal measurement of optical coating thermal transport properties,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1986, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 752 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1988), pp. 251–255.
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  147. R. T. Swimm, “Basic studies of optical coating thermal properties,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1987, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 756 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1988), pp. 328–336.
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  148. R. T. Swimm, G. Wiemokly, “Thermal transport studies of optical coatings, interfaces and surfaces by thermal diffusion wave interferometry,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, L. L. Chase, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST Spec. Publ. 801 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1990), pp. 291–298.
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  149. M. Z. Fuko, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “Effects of thermal conductivity and index of refraction variation on the inclusion dominated model of laser-induced damage,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, L. L. Chase, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST Spec. Publ. 801 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1990), pp. 576–583.
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  150. I. J. Hodgkinson, P. W. Wilson, “Microstructural-induced anisotropy in thin films for optical applications,” Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 27–61 (1988) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  151. J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  152. K. H. Guenther, “Growth structures in a thick vapor deposited MgF2 multiple layer coating,” Appl. Opt. 26, 188–190 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  153. R. T. Swimm, “Thermal transport properties of optical thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1441, 45–55 (1991).
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  154. M. Rohde, “Photoacoustic characterization of thermal transport properties in thin films and microstructures,” Thin Solid Films 238, 99–206 (1994).
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  155. M. L. Scott, “A review of UV coating material properties,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ. 688 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1985), pp. 329–339.
  156. W. Plass, R. Kupka, A. Giesen, H. E. Reedy, M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, “Laser damage studies of metal mirrors and ZnSe—optics by long pulse- and TEA-CO2-lasers at 10.6 μm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2114, 187–200 (1993).
  157. M. Dieckmann, D. Ristau, U. Willamowski, H. Schmidt, “Measurement of thermal conductivity in dielectric films by the thermal pulse method,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2253, 712–719 (1994).
  158. S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage thresholds determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
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  159. S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Shockwave detection, an efficient way to determine multiple-pulse damage thresholds,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, L. L. Chase, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST Spec. Publ. 801 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1990), pp. 180–186.
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  160. E. Matthias, H. Grönbeck, E. Hunger, J. Jauregui, H. Pietsch, M. Reichling, S. Petzoldt, E. Welsch, Z. L. Wu, in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bićanić, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Optical Science Series (Springer, Berlin, 1992), pp. 436–444.
  161. E. Matthias, R. W. Dreyfus, “From laser-induced desorption to surface damage,” in Ref. 94.
  162. E. Matthias, M. Reichling, J. Siegel, O. W. Käding, S. Petzoldt, H. Skurk, P. Bizenberger, E. Neske, “The influence of thermal diffusion on laser ablation of metal films,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 129–136 (1994).
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  163. M. Reichling, J. Siegel, E. Matthias, D. Schäfer, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, “The influence of preparation conditions on the laser damage threshold of oxide thin films at 248 nm measured by photoacoustic mirage detection,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2253, 849–855 (1994).

1994

P. Zimmermann, D. Ristau, E. Welsch, “Potentially of photothermal surface-displacement technique for the precisely performed absorption measurement of optical coatings,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 377–383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, M. Peters, H. Blaschke, W. Ziegler, “Application of photothermal probe beam deflection technique for ablation and damage measurements by using short UV-laser pulses,” J. Phys. (Paris) 55, 749–752 (1994).

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal microscopy defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Zimmerman, E. Welsch, “Modeling of signal detection by using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 97–101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Reichling, H. Groenbeck, “Harmonic heat flow in isotropic layered systems and its use for thin film thermal conductivity measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1914–1922 (1994) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Rohde, “Photoacoustic characterization of thermal transport properties in thin films and microstructures,” Thin Solid Films 238, 99–206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Matthias, M. Reichling, J. Siegel, O. W. Käding, S. Petzoldt, H. Skurk, P. Bizenberger, E. Neske, “The influence of thermal diffusion on laser ablation of metal films,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 129–136 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. H. Henager, W. T. Pawlewicz, “Thermal conductivities of thin sputtered optical films,” Appl. Opt. 32, 91–101 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, X.-Q. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5664 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Benedetto, R. Spagnolo, L. Boarino, “Photothermal displacement technique: a method to determine the variation of thermal conductivity versus temperature in silicon,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2229–2232 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, M. Reichling, “Micrometer resolved photothermal displacement inspection of optical coatings,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1455–1475 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Jauregui, E. Welsch, “Treatment of thermal gratings in the time and frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2173–2198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Lachaine, R. Pottier, D. A. Russell, “Photoacoustic and fluorescence spectroscopy for biological systems,” Spectrochim. Acta Rev. 15, 125–151 and references therein (1993).

M. Dieckmann, U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Antireflective coatings on optical fibers for high-power solid-state lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1848, 265–280 (1993).

1992

N. K. Sahoo, K. Y. S. R. Apparao, “Laser calorimeter for UV-absorption measurement of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6111–6116 (1992) and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Welsch, M. Reichling, C. Göpel, D. Schaefer, E. Matthias, “Modulated thermoreflectance imaging of hidden electric currents distributions in thin-film layered structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 916–918 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. Zimmermann, “A high sensitive adiabatic laser calorimeter for the temperature-dependent absorption measurement of film and substrate materials at 10.6 μm,” Exp. Tech. Phys. 39, 213–218 (1991).

E. Welsch, “Photothermal surface deformation technique—a goal for the nondestructive evaluation in thin-film optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2159–2176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Becker, V. Scheuer, “Coatings for optical applications produced by ion beam sputter deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4303–4309 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 272–288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Commandré, E. Pelletier, “Measurement of absorption losses in TiO2 films by a collinear photothermal deflection technique,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4276–4283 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Power, “Frequency modulation time delay thermal lens effect spectrometry: a new technique of transient photothermal calorimetry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 841–854 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hane, S. Hattori, “Photothermal bending of a layered sample in plate form,” Appl. Opt. 29, 145–150 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, M. R. Torr, “Vacuum UV thin films. 1. Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, T. Kitamori, T. Sawada, “Optical beam deflection signal from a single microparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 22–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, D. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).

M. Itoh, A. Endo, K. Kuroda, S. Watanabe, J. Ogura, “Laser-induced damage threshold and absorption measurements in rare-gas-halide excimer laser components,” Opt. Commun. 74, 235–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y.-X. Nie, L. Bertrand, “Separation of surface and volume absorption by photothermal deflection,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 438–447 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Rantala, J. Levoska, “A numerical simulation for the laser-induced temperature distribution,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4475–4479 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Maclachlan Spicer, W. D. Kerns, L. C. Aamodt, J. C. Murphy, “Measurement of coating physical properties and detection of coating disbonds by time-resolved infrared radiometry,” J. Nondestructive Eval. 8, 107–120 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, D. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

A. Juhl, D. Bimberg, “Calorimetric absorption and transmission spectroscopy for determination of quantum efficiencies and characterization of ultra thin layers and non radiative centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 303–309 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, Y. Ichimura, K. Sindoh, “Pyroelectric photothermal spectroscopy for thin solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1815–1819 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolf, B. Steiger, G. Zscherpe, D. Schaefer, “Absorption and laser damage resistance of TiO2 thin film deposited on laser-irradiated substrates,” Thin Solid Films 162, 217–221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Guenther, J. McIver, “The role of thermal conductivity in the pulsed laser damage sensitivity of the optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 163, 203–214 and references therein (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Müller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, P. Eckardt, L. Ton, “Low-absorption measurement of optical thin films using the photothermal surface-deformation technique,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 638–644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, P. W. Wilson, “Microstructural-induced anisotropy in thin films for optical applications,” Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 27–61 (1988) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage thresholds determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Hickernell, D. R. Larson, J. Phelan, L. E. Larson, “Waveguide loss measurement using photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2636–2638 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mandelis, J. F. Power, “Frequency-modulated impulse response photothermal detection through optical reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3397–3417 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. Shang-Zhong, J. F. Tang, “Measurement of weak absorption in optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2407–2409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Burgi, N. J. Dovichi, “Submicrometer resolution images of absorbance and thermal diffusivity with the photothermal microscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4665–4669 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, “Growth structures in a thick vapor deposited MgF2 multiple layer coating,” Appl. Opt. 26, 188–190 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. Swartz, R. O. Pohl, “Thermal resistance at interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2200–2202 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Vaez Iravani, M. Nikoonahad, “Photothermal waves in anisotropic media,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4065–4071 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. Mackechnie, D. F. Bezuidenhout, “Determination of thin film absorption coefficients from photoacoustic data,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1025–1030 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, H. J. Kuehn, G. Schirmer, “Optical losses of sputtered Ta2O5 films,” J. Phys. (Paris) 48, 1155–1159 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, “Measurement of optical losses and damage of ZnS–Na3AlF6 and TiO2–SiO2 laser mirrors depending on coatings design,” Thin Solid Films 152, 433–442 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, D. E. Horne, J. E. Fromm, “Pyroelectric calorimeter for photothermal studies of thin films and absorbates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2875–2889 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinrich, H. Güsten, “Determination of the thickness of thin TiO2 films from PAS interferences signals,” Thin Solid Films 155, 301–307 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Long, R. R. Anderson, T. F. Deutsch, “Pulsed photothermal radiometry for depth profiling of layered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2976–2978 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Gloede, N. Kaiser, R. Mattheis, H. Müller, “UV losses in MgF2 thin films induced by the evaporation boat,” Thin Solid Films 152, L139–L141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schaefer, “Aging influence on the absorption and laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1585–1588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Walther, E. Welsch, “Interpretation of photoacoustic thin film absorption measurements,” Sci. Instrum. (Warsaw) 2, 73–85 (1987).

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, H. J. Kuehn, “Localization of absorption losses in oxide single-layer films,” J. Phys. (Paris) 48, 419–424 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. C. Tam, “Applications of photoacoustic sensing techniques,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381–431 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Walther, E. Welsch, J. Opfermann, “Calculation and measurement of the absorption in multilayer films by means of photoacoustics,” Thin Solid Films 142, 27–35 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schäfer, “Absorption-influenced laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 coatings,” Opt. Acta 33, 919–924 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Mongeau, G. Rousset, L. Bertrand, “Separation of surface and volume absorption in photothermal spectroscopy,” Can. J. Phys. 64, 1056–1058 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Redondo, J. G. Beery, “Thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3882–3885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamaguchi, H. Tamura, S. Taga, S. Tsuchiya, “Interfacial optical absorption in TiO2–SiO2 multilayer coatings prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2703–2706 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ristau, J. Ebert, “Development of a thermographic laser calorimeter,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4571–4578 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “Pulsed laser damage in thin film coatings: fluorides and oxides,” Thin Solid Films 125, 143–155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, “Development of a wavelength scanning laser calorimeter,” Appl. Opt. 24, 464–471 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rousset, L. Bertrand, P. Cielo, “A pulsed thermoelastic analysis of photothermal surface displacements in layered materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4396–4405 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. Coriand, H.-G. Walther, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, “Measurement of the thickness dependence of absorption in HfO2, and ZnS single-layer films,” Thin Solid Films 130, 29–35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparrè, G. Schirmer, E. Schmidt, “Losses and reflectance of reactively evaporated dielectric multilayers for He–Ne-laser mirrors,” Exp. Tech. Phys. 33, 69–72 (1985).

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, W. L. Smith, D. L. Willenborg, “Detection of thermal waves through optical reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1013–1915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Nordal, S. O. Kanstad, “New developments in photothermal radiometry,” Infrared Phys. 25, 295–304 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, R. Wolf, D. Schäfer, L. W. Wieczorek, “Measurement of optical losses and damage thresholds of multilayer coatings,” Thin Solid Films 117, 87–94 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Walther, Eigenschaften eines photoakustischen Dünnschichtmeßplatzes, Exp. Tech. Phys. 32, 531–538 (1984).

M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “The influence of the thermal and mechanical properties of optical materials in thin film form on their damage resistance to pulsed lasers,” Thin Solid Films 118, 49–59 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, L. Zhou, K. Zhang, “Laser calorimetry for measuring the optical absorption coefficients of infrared-transmission materials,” Chin. J. Lasers 11, 743–746 (1984).

1983

B. K. Bein, J. Pelzl, “Theory of signal generation in a photoacoustic cell,” J. Phys. (Paris) 44, 27–34 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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S. M. J. Akhtar, D. Ristau, J. Ebert, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric films and correlation to damage threshold at 1064 nm,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 752 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1988), pp. 345–351.

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J. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, D. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
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J. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, D. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
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J. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, D. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
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M. Commandré, L. Bertrand, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Measurement of absorption losses of optical thin film components by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” in Optical Components and Systems, A. Masson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 128–136 (1987).

L. Bertrand, M. Commandré, Rapport Scientifique (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1992).

M. Commandré, P. Rolhe, J.-P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Effects of deposition conditions on thin film bulk and interface absorption,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2253, 1253–1262 (1994).

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S. M. J. Akhtar, D. Ristau, J. Ebert, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric films and correlation to damage threshold at 1064 nm,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 752 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1988), pp. 345–351.

D. Ristau, H. Schink, F. Mittendorf, J. Akhtar, J. Ebert, H. Welling, “Laser induced damage of dielectric systems with gradual interfaces at 1.06 μm,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1988, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 775 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1989), pp. 414–426.

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Welsch, E.

P. Zimmermann, D. Ristau, E. Welsch, “Potentially of photothermal surface-displacement technique for the precisely performed absorption measurement of optical coatings,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 377–383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, M. Peters, H. Blaschke, W. Ziegler, “Application of photothermal probe beam deflection technique for ablation and damage measurements by using short UV-laser pulses,” J. Phys. (Paris) 55, 749–752 (1994).

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal microscopy defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Zimmerman, E. Welsch, “Modeling of signal detection by using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 97–101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, M. Reichling, “Micrometer resolved photothermal displacement inspection of optical coatings,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1455–1475 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Jauregui, E. Welsch, “Treatment of thermal gratings in the time and frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2173–2198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, M. Reichling, C. Göpel, D. Schaefer, E. Matthias, “Modulated thermoreflectance imaging of hidden electric currents distributions in thin-film layered structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 916–918 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, “Photothermal surface deformation technique—a goal for the nondestructive evaluation in thin-film optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2159–2176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 272–288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Müller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, P. Eckardt, L. Ton, “Low-absorption measurement of optical thin films using the photothermal surface-deformation technique,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 638–644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schaefer, “Aging influence on the absorption and laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1585–1588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Walther, E. Welsch, “Interpretation of photoacoustic thin film absorption measurements,” Sci. Instrum. (Warsaw) 2, 73–85 (1987).

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, “Measurement of optical losses and damage of ZnS–Na3AlF6 and TiO2–SiO2 laser mirrors depending on coatings design,” Thin Solid Films 152, 433–442 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, H. J. Kuehn, G. Schirmer, “Optical losses of sputtered Ta2O5 films,” J. Phys. (Paris) 48, 1155–1159 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, H. J. Kuehn, “Localization of absorption losses in oxide single-layer films,” J. Phys. (Paris) 48, 419–424 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schäfer, “Absorption-influenced laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 coatings,” Opt. Acta 33, 919–924 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Walther, E. Welsch, J. Opfermann, “Calculation and measurement of the absorption in multilayer films by means of photoacoustics,” Thin Solid Films 142, 27–35 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Coriand, H.-G. Walther, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, “Measurement of the thickness dependence of absorption in HfO2, and ZnS single-layer films,” Thin Solid Films 130, 29–35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, R. Wolf, D. Schäfer, L. W. Wieczorek, “Measurement of optical losses and damage thresholds of multilayer coatings,” Thin Solid Films 117, 87–94 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, G. Lieder, H.-G. Walther, E. Hacker, “Measurement of the extinction of sputtered TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 91, 321–325 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Matthias, H. Grönbeck, E. Hunger, J. Jauregui, H. Pietsch, M. Reichling, S. Petzoldt, E. Welsch, Z. L. Wu, in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bićanić, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Optical Science Series (Springer, Berlin, 1992), pp. 436–444.

H.-G. Walther, E. Welsch, “High-sensitive photothermal absorption measurements on curved optical thin film optics,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena II, J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, eds., Vol. 62 of the Springer Optical Science Series (Springer, Berlin, 1990), pp. 319–321.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, E. Matthias, “Thin film characterization and photothermal absolute calibration measurements using high frequency electric currents,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1781, 205–213 (1992).

E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, “Photothermal absorption measurement of optical thin films,” presented at the European Conference on Quantum Electronics, Hanover, Germany, 1988.

E. Welsch, K. Mann, M. Reichling, K. Ettrich, “Time and frequency resolved investigation of thin film laser damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2114, 366–380 (1993).

A. Bodemann, M. Reichling, N. Kaiser, E. Welsch, “Photothermal microscopy of defects and laser damage morphology in Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2114, 405–414 (1993).

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1624, 271–281 (1992).

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

C. C. Williams, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Photothermal imaging with sub 100 nm spatial resolution,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena I, P. Hess, J. Pelzl, eds., Vol. 58 of the Springer Optical Science Series (Springer, Berlin, 1988), pp. 364–369.

Wieczorek, L. W.

E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, R. Wolf, D. Schäfer, L. W. Wieczorek, “Measurement of optical losses and damage thresholds of multilayer coatings,” Thin Solid Films 117, 87–94 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wiemokly, G.

R. T. Swimm, G. Wiemokly, “Thermal transport studies of optical coatings, interfaces and surfaces by thermal diffusion wave interferometry,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, L. L. Chase, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST Spec. Publ. 801 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1990), pp. 291–298.
[CrossRef]

Willamowski, U.

M. Dieckmann, U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Antireflective coatings on optical fibers for high-power solid-state lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1848, 265–280 (1993).

M. Dieckmann, D. Ristau, U. Willamowski, H. Schmidt, “Measurement of thermal conductivity in dielectric films by the thermal pulse method,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2253, 712–719 (1994).

Willenborg, D. L.

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, W. L. Smith, D. L. Willenborg, “Detection of thermal waves through optical reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1013–1915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, D. L. Willenborg, “Thermal-wave detection and thin-film thickness measurements with laser beam deflection,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3169–3176 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C. C.

C. C. Williams, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Photothermal imaging with sub 100 nm spatial resolution,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena I, P. Hess, J. Pelzl, eds., Vol. 58 of the Springer Optical Science Series (Springer, Berlin, 1988), pp. 364–369.

Wilson, P. W.

I. J. Hodgkinson, P. W. Wilson, “Microstructural-induced anisotropy in thin films for optical applications,” Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 27–61 (1988) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wolf, R.

R. Wolf, B. Steiger, G. Zscherpe, D. Schaefer, “Absorption and laser damage resistance of TiO2 thin film deposited on laser-irradiated substrates,” Thin Solid Films 162, 217–221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Müller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, “Measurement of optical losses and damage of ZnS–Na3AlF6 and TiO2–SiO2 laser mirrors depending on coatings design,” Thin Solid Films 152, 433–442 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schaefer, “Aging influence on the absorption and laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1585–1588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schäfer, “Absorption-influenced laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 coatings,” Opt. Acta 33, 919–924 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Coriand, H.-G. Walther, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, “Measurement of the thickness dependence of absorption in HfO2, and ZnS single-layer films,” Thin Solid Films 130, 29–35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, R. Wolf, D. Schäfer, L. W. Wieczorek, “Measurement of optical losses and damage thresholds of multilayer coatings,” Thin Solid Films 117, 87–94 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, T. Kitamori, T. Sawada, “Optical beam deflection signal from a single microparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 22–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. L.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, X.-Q. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5664 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matthias, H. Grönbeck, E. Hunger, J. Jauregui, H. Pietsch, M. Reichling, S. Petzoldt, E. Welsch, Z. L. Wu, in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bićanić, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Optical Science Series (Springer, Berlin, 1992), pp. 436–444.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1624, 271–281 (1992).

Yakuoh, T.

T. Izawa, N. Yamamura, R. Uchmura, S. Kimura, T. Yakuoh, “Damage threshold of fluoride HR coatings at 352 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1848, 322–329 (1993).

Yamaguchi, T.

Yamamura, N.

T. Izawa, N. Yamamura, R. Uchmura, S. Kimura, T. Yakuoh, “Damage threshold of fluoride HR coatings at 352 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1848, 322–329 (1993).

Zhang, K.

S. Zhang, L. Zhou, K. Zhang, “Laser calorimetry for measuring the optical absorption coefficients of infrared-transmission materials,” Chin. J. Lasers 11, 743–746 (1984).

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, L. Zhou, K. Zhang, “Laser calorimetry for measuring the optical absorption coefficients of infrared-transmission materials,” Chin. J. Lasers 11, 743–746 (1984).

Zhou, L.

S. Zhang, L. Zhou, K. Zhang, “Laser calorimetry for measuring the optical absorption coefficients of infrared-transmission materials,” Chin. J. Lasers 11, 743–746 (1984).

Ziegler, W.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, M. Peters, H. Blaschke, W. Ziegler, “Application of photothermal probe beam deflection technique for ablation and damage measurements by using short UV-laser pulses,” J. Phys. (Paris) 55, 749–752 (1994).

Zimmerman, P.

P. Zimmerman, E. Welsch, “Modeling of signal detection by using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 97–101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, P.

P. Zimmermann, D. Ristau, E. Welsch, “Potentially of photothermal surface-displacement technique for the precisely performed absorption measurement of optical coatings,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 377–383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Zimmermann, “A high sensitive adiabatic laser calorimeter for the temperature-dependent absorption measurement of film and substrate materials at 10.6 μm,” Exp. Tech. Phys. 39, 213–218 (1991).

Zscherpe, G.

R. Wolf, B. Steiger, G. Zscherpe, D. Schaefer, “Absorption and laser damage resistance of TiO2 thin film deposited on laser-irradiated substrates,” Thin Solid Films 162, 217–221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schaefer, “Aging influence on the absorption and laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1585–1588 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schäfer, “Absorption-influenced laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 coatings,” Opt. Acta 33, 919–924 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zukic, M.

Appl. Opt.

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Appl. Phys. A

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Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, X.-Q. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5664 (1993).
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S. Zhang, L. Zhou, K. Zhang, “Laser calorimetry for measuring the optical absorption coefficients of infrared-transmission materials,” Chin. J. Lasers 11, 743–746 (1984).

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R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schaefer, “Aging influence on the absorption and laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1585–1588 (1987).
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J. A. Jauregui, E. Welsch, “Treatment of thermal gratings in the time and frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2173–2198 (1993).
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E. Welsch, “Photothermal surface deformation technique—a goal for the nondestructive evaluation in thin-film optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2159–2176 (1991).
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J. Nondestructive Eval.

J. W. Maclachlan Spicer, W. D. Kerns, L. C. Aamodt, J. C. Murphy, “Measurement of coating physical properties and detection of coating disbonds by time-resolved infrared radiometry,” J. Nondestructive Eval. 8, 107–120 (1989).
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J. Phys. (Paris)

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, H. J. Kuehn, G. Schirmer, “Optical losses of sputtered Ta2O5 films,” J. Phys. (Paris) 48, 1155–1159 (1987).
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J. Phys. (Paris)

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, M. Peters, H. Blaschke, W. Ziegler, “Application of photothermal probe beam deflection technique for ablation and damage measurements by using short UV-laser pulses,” J. Phys. (Paris) 55, 749–752 (1994).

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, H. J. Kuehn, “Localization of absorption losses in oxide single-layer films,” J. Phys. (Paris) 48, 419–424 (1987).
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M. Dieckmann, U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Antireflective coatings on optical fibers for high-power solid-state lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1848, 265–280 (1993).

Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.

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Opt. Acta

R. Wolf, G. Zscherpe, E. Welsch, V. Goepner, D. Schäfer, “Absorption-influenced laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 coatings,” Opt. Acta 33, 919–924 (1986).
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Opt. Commun.

M. Itoh, A. Endo, K. Kuroda, S. Watanabe, J. Ogura, “Laser-induced damage threshold and absorption measurements in rare-gas-halide excimer laser components,” Opt. Commun. 74, 235–259 (1989).
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Opt. Eng.

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Rev. Mod. Phys.

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P. Zimmerman, E. Welsch, “Modeling of signal detection by using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 97–101 (1994).
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Sci. Instrum. (Warsaw)

H. G. Walther, E. Welsch, “Interpretation of photoacoustic thin film absorption measurements,” Sci. Instrum. (Warsaw) 2, 73–85 (1987).

Solid State Mater. Sci.

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A. Lachaine, R. Pottier, D. A. Russell, “Photoacoustic and fluorescence spectroscopy for biological systems,” Spectrochim. Acta Rev. 15, 125–151 and references therein (1993).

Thin Solid Films

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E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, R. Wolf, D. Schäfer, L. W. Wieczorek, “Measurement of optical losses and damage thresholds of multilayer coatings,” Thin Solid Films 117, 87–94 (1984).
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A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 272–288 (1990).
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C. H. Gloede, N. Kaiser, R. Mattheis, H. Müller, “UV losses in MgF2 thin films induced by the evaporation boat,” Thin Solid Films 152, L139–L141 (1987).
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Thin Solid Films

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M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “Pulsed laser damage in thin film coatings: fluorides and oxides,” Thin Solid Films 125, 143–155 (1985).
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F. Coriand, H.-G. Walther, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, “Measurement of the thickness dependence of absorption in HfO2, and ZnS single-layer films,” Thin Solid Films 130, 29–35 (1985).
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E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, “Measurement of optical losses and damage of ZnS–Na3AlF6 and TiO2–SiO2 laser mirrors depending on coatings design,” Thin Solid Films 152, 433–442 (1987).
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E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Müller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988).
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M. Rohde, “Photoacoustic characterization of thermal transport properties in thin films and microstructures,” Thin Solid Films 238, 99–206 (1994).
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N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, “Very high damage thresholds Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnom, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2114, 325–333 (1993).

K. Mann, E. Eva, A. Hopfmüller, “Damage testing and characterization of dielectric coatings for high power excimer lasers, in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2253, 731–742 (1994).

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P. A. Temple, “The measurement of absorption in thin films by laser calorimetry,” in Thin Film Technologies II, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 272–282 (1986) and references therein; P. A. Temple, “Thin film absorptance measurements using laser calorimetry, in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena I, P. Hess, J. Pelzl, eds., Vol. 58 of the Springer Series on Optical Science (Springer, Berlin, 1988), pp. 135–153.

E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, “Photothermal absorption measurement of optical thin films,” presented at the European Conference on Quantum Electronics, Hanover, Germany, 1988.

P. J. Baron, A. Culoma, A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, “Measurement of HR coatings absorptance at 10.6 microns by mirage effect,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1987, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 756 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1988), pp. 320–323.
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S. M. J. Akhtar, D. Ristau, J. Ebert, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric films and correlation to damage threshold at 1064 nm,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 752 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1988), pp. 345–351.

C. Gallou, P. Ishard, H. Piombini, B. Schmidt, “Low loss optical coatings for high power laser systems,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1782, 416–425 (1992).

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J. A. Sell, “Fluid velocitimetry using the photothermal deflection effect,” in Photothermal Investigations of Solids and Fluids, J. A. Sell, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1989), pp. 127–248.

M. Commandré, L. Bertrand, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Measurement of absorption losses of optical thin film components by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” in Optical Components and Systems, A. Masson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 128–136 (1987).

B.-X. Shi, K. Hu, W. B. Chen, “Weak absorbance measurement of optical thin films using photothermal deflection technique,” in Ref. 25, 207–208.

A. Schmid, D. Smith, M. Guardalla, J. Abate, “Photothermal deflection analysis of UV optical thin films,” in Excimer Lasers: Their Applications and New Frontiers in Lasers, R. W. Waynant, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 476, 136–142 (1984).

X. Liu, E. Pelletier, “Thermal deflection measurements for the study of loss mechanisms in a film used as waveguide,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper ThNN6, p. 218.

P. Eckardt, H.-G. Walther, W. Richter, “Photothermal measurement of the temperature dependent absorption of IR thin-film coatings,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1781, 199–204 (1992).

B. C. Li, Y. Deng, J. Cheng, “Separation of optical thin film and substrate absorption by obliquely-crossed photothermal deflection,” submitted to J. Mod. Opt.

D. Ristau, H. Schink, F. Mittendorf, J. Akhtar, J. Ebert, H. Welling, “Laser induced damage of dielectric systems with gradual interfaces at 1.06 μm,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1988, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 775 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1989), pp. 414–426.

M. F. Briggs, R. W. Gammon, “Photothermal deflection in a supercritical fluid,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2253, 1021–1030 (1994).

M. Commandré, P. Rolhe, J.-P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Surface contamination of base substrates. Mapping of absorption and influence on deposited thin films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailliard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Netterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, H. A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2253, 982–992 (1994).

H.-G. Walther, E. Welsch, “High-sensitive photothermal absorption measurements on curved optical thin film optics,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena II, J. C. Murphy, L. C. Aamodt, eds., Vol. 62 of the Springer Optical Science Series (Springer, Berlin, 1990), pp. 319–321.

M. Commandré, P. Rolhe, J.-P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Effects of deposition conditions on thin film bulk and interface absorption,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2253, 1253–1262 (1994).

P. Hess, ed., Photoacoustic, Photothermal and Photochemical Processes at Surfaces and in Thin Films, Vol. 47 of Topics in Current Physics Series (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1989).

H. Coufal, “Photothermal analysis of thin films,” in Ref. 94, pp. 129–156 and references therein.

A. C. Tam, “Photothermal Characterization of Surfaces and Interfaces,” in Ref. 94, pp. 157–170.

K. Mann, H. Gerhardt, “Automated damage test facility for excimer laser optics,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, L. L. Chase, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST Spec. Publ. 801 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1990), pp. 39–46.
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S. E. Clark, D. C. Emmony, “The non-destructive prediction of laser-damage,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1988, H. E. Bennett, ed., NIST Spec. Publ. 775 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md.), pp. 62–72.

H.-G. Walther, T. Lan, Institut für Optik und Quanten Elektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, D-07743 Jena, Germany Max-Wien-Platz 1 (private communication, 1986).

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1624, 271–281 (1992).

E. Welsch, K. Mann, M. Reichling, K. Ettrich, “Time and frequency resolved investigation of thin film laser damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2114, 366–380 (1993).

M. R. Kozlowski, R. Chow, “The role of nodule defects in laser damage of multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials:1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2114, 640–649 (1993).

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, E. Matthias, “Thin film characterization and photothermal absolute calibration measurements using high frequency electric currents,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1781, 205–213 (1992).

H. A. MacLeod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, 1986).
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M. L. Scott, “A review of UV coating material properties,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ. 688 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1985), pp. 329–339.

W. Plass, R. Kupka, A. Giesen, H. E. Reedy, M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, “Laser damage studies of metal mirrors and ZnSe—optics by long pulse- and TEA-CO2-lasers at 10.6 μm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2114, 187–200 (1993).

M. Dieckmann, D. Ristau, U. Willamowski, H. Schmidt, “Measurement of thermal conductivity in dielectric films by the thermal pulse method,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2253, 712–719 (1994).

S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Shockwave detection, an efficient way to determine multiple-pulse damage thresholds,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials 1989, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, L. L. Chase, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., NIST Spec. Publ. 801 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1990), pp. 180–186.
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E. Matthias, H. Grönbeck, E. Hunger, J. Jauregui, H. Pietsch, M. Reichling, S. Petzoldt, E. Welsch, Z. L. Wu, in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bićanić, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Optical Science Series (Springer, Berlin, 1992), pp. 436–444.

E. Matthias, R. W. Dreyfus, “From laser-induced desorption to surface damage,” in Ref. 94.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram that indicates the possible consequences of optical absorption that leads to prompt or delayed heat production compared with other deexcitation channels (from Ref. 4).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the mirage setup used by Bennett et al.41

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured absorption A (1) (triangles) and A (2) (circles) of a wedged-shaped Ta2O5 single layer with (filled symbols) and without (open symbols) a thin absorbing Ta2O x sublayer. Data were calculated from the photoacoustic signal at λ = 515 nm and f = 200 Hz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index n versus absorption constant k for the films measured in Ref. 41 with various techniques: E-B, EB evaporation; IAD, ion-assisted deposition; IBSD, ion-beam sputter deposition; IP, ion plating; ARE, activated-reactive evaporation; RFS, rf diode sputtering; DIP, dip coating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Left-hand column) PTD amplitude and (right-hand column) phase images of the λ MgF2/quartz sample showing a strongly absorbing site at 1 kHz (a) situated in an area of 500 μm × 500 μm, (b) magnified by a factor of 5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured total absorption A(p, q) for the TiO2/SiO2 HR multilayer coatings versus optical thickness of their high- and low-refracting components at the design and absorption wavelength λ = λ0 = 515 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio of the PTD signal and the absorptance versus the number of HR coatings: the samples are ZnSe/ThF4 on Ag-coated Cu (P CO2 = 28 W, f = 40 Hz, p < 1 mbar) (from Ref. 39).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A = A af + A f + A fs + A s = p af b af + p f β f d f + p fs b fs + p s β s d s ,
δ = L n 0 ( d n d T ) ( d T d z ) A ,
δ = 2 r U z ( r , 0 ) .
n H d H = ( 2 p + 1 ) λ 0 4 , n L d L = ( 2 q + 1 ) λ 0 4 .
A ( p , q ) = 2 n H - n L b HL + 2 π n H 2 - n L 2 [ ( 2 p + 1 ) k H ¯ + ( 2 q + 1 ) k L ¯ ]

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