Abstract

The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) at 355 nm has been retrieved from airborne laser-induced and water Raman-normalized CDOM fluorescence. Four combined airborne and ship field experiments have demonstrated that (1) the airborne CDOM fluorescence-to--water Raman ratio is linearly related to concurrent quinine-sulfate-standardized CDOM shipboard fluorescence measurements over a wide range of water masses (coastal to blue water); (2) the vicarious calibration of the airborne fluorosensor in units traceable to a fluorescence standard can be established and then maintained over an extended time period by tungsten lamp calibration; (3) the vicariously calibrated airborne CDOM fluorescence-to-water Raman ratio can be directly applied to previously developed shipboard fluorescence-to-absorption algorithms to retrieve CDOM absorption; and (4) the retrieval is not significantly affected by long-path multiple scattering, differences in attenuation at the excitation and emission wavelengths, or measurement in the 180° backscatter configuration. Airborne CDOM absorption measurements will find immediate application to (a) forward and inverse modeling of oceanic water-leaving radiance and (b) validation of satellite-retrieved products such as CDOM absorption.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. N. V. Blough, O. C. Zafiriou, J. Bonilla, “Optical absorption spectra of waters from the Orinoco River outflow: terrestrial input of colored organic matter to the Caribbean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2271–2278 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. del Giorgio, R. H. Peters, “Patterns in planktonic P:R ratios in lakes: influence of lake trophy and dissolved organic carbon,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 772–787 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
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  24. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).
  25. J. S. Cleveland, R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Spectral absorption coefficients measured with an integrating cavity absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 176–186 (1990).

1995 (1)

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentrations in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. A. Green, N. V. Blough, “Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903–1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. del Giorgio, R. H. Peters, “Patterns in planktonic P:R ratios in lakes: influence of lake trophy and dissolved organic carbon,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 772–787 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

R. L. Valentine, R. G. Zepp, “Formation of carbon monoxide from the photodegradation of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in natural waters,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 409–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Hedges, J. Farrington, “Comments from the editors on the Suzuki statement,” Mar. Chem. 41, 289–290 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Blough, O. C. Zafiriou, J. Bonilla, “Optical absorption spectra of waters from the Orinoco River outflow: terrestrial input of colored organic matter to the Caribbean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2271–2278 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. O. Andreae, R. J. Ferek, “Photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide in seawater and its emission to the atmosphere,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 175–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “On the accuracy of determining light absorption by ‘yellow substance’ through measurements of induced fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 777–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. J. Kieber, J. McDaniel, K. Mopper, “Photochemical source of biological substrates in seawater: implication for carbon cycling,” Nature 341, 637–639 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1981 (3)

Andreae, M. O.

M. O. Andreae, R. J. Ferek, “Photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide in seawater and its emission to the atmosphere,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 175–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. A.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

Bartz, R.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, J. C. Kitchen, “A reflective-tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 124–136 (1990).

Blough, N. V.

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentrations in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Green, N. V. Blough, “Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903–1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Blough, O. C. Zafiriou, J. Bonilla, “Optical absorption spectra of waters from the Orinoco River outflow: terrestrial input of colored organic matter to the Caribbean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2271–2278 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Blough, R. G. Zepp, “Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in natural waters,” in Reactive Oxygen Species in Chemistry, C. S. Foote, J. S. Valentine, eds. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1995), pp. 280–333.

Bonilla, J.

N. V. Blough, O. C. Zafiriou, J. Bonilla, “Optical absorption spectra of waters from the Orinoco River outflow: terrestrial input of colored organic matter to the Caribbean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2271–2278 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, M.

Brown, O. B.

Bundy, D.

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, J. S.

J. S. Cleveland, R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Spectral absorption coefficients measured with an integrating cavity absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 176–186 (1990).

del Giorgio, R. A.

R. A. del Giorgio, R. H. Peters, “Patterns in planktonic P:R ratios in lakes: influence of lake trophy and dissolved organic carbon,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 772–787 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

Evans, R. H.

Farrington, J.

J. I. Hedges, J. Farrington, “Comments from the editors on the Suzuki statement,” Mar. Chem. 41, 289–290 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferek, R. J.

M. O. Andreae, R. J. Ferek, “Photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide in seawater and its emission to the atmosphere,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 175–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G. M.

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “On the accuracy of determining light absorption by ‘yellow substance’ through measurements of induced fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 777–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

J. S. Cleveland, R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Spectral absorption coefficients measured with an integrating cavity absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 176–186 (1990).

Furtek, F.

Gammon, R. H.

R. H. Gammon, K. C. Kelly, “Photochemical production of carbon monoxide in surface waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans,” in Effects of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Biogeochemical Dynamics in Aquatic Environments, N. V. Blough, R. G. Zepp, eds., Tech. Rep. WHOI-90-09 (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., 1990), pp. 58–60.

Green, S. A.

S. A. Green, N. V. Blough, “Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903–1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hedges, J. I.

J. I. Hedges, J. Farrington, “Comments from the editors on the Suzuki statement,” Mar. Chem. 41, 289–290 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentrations in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne mapping of laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, ed., Advances in Chemistry Ser. No. 209 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 353–372.

Kelly, K. C.

R. H. Gammon, K. C. Kelly, “Photochemical production of carbon monoxide in surface waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans,” in Effects of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Biogeochemical Dynamics in Aquatic Environments, N. V. Blough, R. G. Zepp, eds., Tech. Rep. WHOI-90-09 (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., 1990), pp. 58–60.

Kieber, D. J.

D. J. Kieber, J. McDaniel, K. Mopper, “Photochemical source of biological substrates in seawater: implication for carbon cycling,” Nature 341, 637–639 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, J. C. Kitchen, “A reflective-tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 124–136 (1990).

McDaniel, J.

D. J. Kieber, J. McDaniel, K. Mopper, “Photochemical source of biological substrates in seawater: implication for carbon cycling,” Nature 341, 637–639 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mielenz, K. D.

R. A. Velapoldi, K. D. Mielenz, Standard Reference Materials: A Fluorescence Standard Reference Material, Quinine Sulfate Dihydrate, NBS Special Publ. 260-64 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1980).

Mitchell, B. G.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, R. L.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Mopper, K.

D. J. Kieber, J. McDaniel, K. Mopper, “Photochemical source of biological substrates in seawater: implication for carbon cycling,” Nature 341, 637–639 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, D.

Peltzer, E. T.

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentrations in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R. H.

R. A. del Giorgio, R. H. Peters, “Patterns in planktonic P:R ratios in lakes: influence of lake trophy and dissolved organic carbon,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 772–787 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

J. S. Cleveland, R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Spectral absorption coefficients measured with an integrating cavity absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 176–186 (1990).

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sogandares, F.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Steward, R. G.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentrations in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne mapping of laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, ed., Advances in Chemistry Ser. No. 209 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 353–372.

Tassan, S.

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “On the accuracy of determining light absorption by ‘yellow substance’ through measurements of induced fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 777–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, R. L.

R. L. Valentine, R. G. Zepp, “Formation of carbon monoxide from the photodegradation of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in natural waters,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 409–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Velapoldi, R. A.

R. A. Velapoldi, K. D. Mielenz, Standard Reference Materials: A Fluorescence Standard Reference Material, Quinine Sulfate Dihydrate, NBS Special Publ. 260-64 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1980).

Vodacek, A.

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentrations in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J. K.

A. Vodacek, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, E. T. Peltzer, N. V. Blough, “The use of in situ and airborne fluorescence measurements to determine UV absorption coefficients and DOC concentrations in surface waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 411–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zafiriou, O. C.

N. V. Blough, O. C. Zafiriou, J. Bonilla, “Optical absorption spectra of waters from the Orinoco River outflow: terrestrial input of colored organic matter to the Caribbean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2271–2278 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, J. C. Kitchen, “A reflective-tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 124–136 (1990).

Zepp, R. G.

R. L. Valentine, R. G. Zepp, “Formation of carbon monoxide from the photodegradation of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in natural waters,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 409–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Blough, R. G. Zepp, “Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in natural waters,” in Reactive Oxygen Species in Chemistry, C. S. Foote, J. S. Valentine, eds. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1995), pp. 280–333.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. L. Valentine, R. G. Zepp, “Formation of carbon monoxide from the photodegradation of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in natural waters,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 409–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

M. O. Andreae, R. J. Ferek, “Photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide in seawater and its emission to the atmosphere,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 175–183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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N. V. Blough, R. G. Zepp, “Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in natural waters,” in Reactive Oxygen Species in Chemistry, C. S. Foote, J. S. Valentine, eds. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1995), pp. 280–333.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne mapping of laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, ed., Advances in Chemistry Ser. No. 209 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 353–372.

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J. S. Cleveland, R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Spectral absorption coefficients measured with an integrating cavity absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 176–186 (1990).

R. A. Velapoldi, K. D. Mielenz, Standard Reference Materials: A Fluorescence Standard Reference Material, Quinine Sulfate Dihydrate, NBS Special Publ. 260-64 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1980).

R. H. Gammon, K. C. Kelly, “Photochemical production of carbon monoxide in surface waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans,” in Effects of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Biogeochemical Dynamics in Aquatic Environments, N. V. Blough, R. G. Zepp, eds., Tech. Rep. WHOI-90-09 (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., 1990), pp. 58–60.

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