Abstract

The solution of the lidar equation for profiles of backscatter and extinction in optically thin clouds is constrained by values of the cloud transmittance determined from the elastically scattered lidar signals below and above the cloud. The method is extended to those cases in which an aerosol layer lies below or above the cloud layer. Examples are given in both cases. An analytical expression for the average lidar ratio in the cloud is derived for those cases in which molecular scattering is significant.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds: I. Calculation of visible and infrared optical properties from lidar and radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 30, 1130–1143 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable back-scatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1638–1645 (1985).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. D. J. Gambling, K. Bartusek, “Lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 6, 181–190 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2344–2355 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. E. W. Pettifer, P. G. Healey, “Signal induced noise in a 56TUVP photomultiplier,” J. Phys. E 7, 617–620 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. A. Young, “Signal induced noise in photomultipliers used in lidar receivers,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 667–670 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, H. Shimzu, “Improvement on lidar data processing for stratospheric aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5299–5306 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3303–3315 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. C. M. R. Platt, J. C. Scott, A. C. Dilley, “Remote sounding of high clouds VI: optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 729–747 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 156–167 (1981).

1994

M. Matsumoto, N. Takeuchi, “Effects of misestimated far-end boundary values on two common lidar inversion solutions,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6451–6456 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

J. L. Gras, C. M. R. Platt, W. D. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, S. A. Young, S. M. Banks, D. J. Booth, “Southern Hemisphere tropospheric backscatter measurements—implications for a laser wind system,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5357–5367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2344–2355 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3303–3315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

F. F. Hall, R. E. Cupp, S. W. Troxel, “Cirrus cloud transmittance in the infrared measured with a CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2510–2516 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, “Sensitivity of lidar equation solution to boundary values and determination of the values,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 5, 229–241 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, H. Shimzu, “Improvement on lidar data processing for stratospheric aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5299–5306 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, J. C. Scott, A. C. Dilley, “Remote sounding of high clouds VI: optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 729–747 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable back-scatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1638–1645 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

1981

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 156–167 (1981).

1979

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds: I. Calculation of visible and infrared optical properties from lidar and radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 30, 1130–1143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Young, “Signal induced noise in photomultipliers used in lidar receivers,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 667–670 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

R. E. W. Pettifer, P. G. Healey, “Signal induced noise in a 56TUVP photomultiplier,” J. Phys. E 7, 617–620 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Cooke, G. W. Bethke, W. D. Conner, “Remote measurement of smoke plume transmittance using lidar,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1742–1748 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gambling, K. Bartusek, “Lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 6, 181–190 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967

E. W. Barrett, O. Ben-Dov, “Application of the lidar to air pollution measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 500–515 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banks, S. M.

J. L. Gras, C. M. R. Platt, W. D. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, S. A. Young, S. M. Banks, D. J. Booth, “Southern Hemisphere tropospheric backscatter measurements—implications for a laser wind system,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5357–5367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, E. W.

E. W. Barrett, O. Ben-Dov, “Application of the lidar to air pollution measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 500–515 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bartusek, K.

D. J. Gambling, K. Bartusek, “Lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 6, 181–190 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Dov, O.

E. W. Barrett, O. Ben-Dov, “Application of the lidar to air pollution measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 500–515 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bethke, G. W.

Booth, D. J.

J. L. Gras, C. M. R. Platt, W. D. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, S. A. Young, S. M. Banks, D. J. Booth, “Southern Hemisphere tropospheric backscatter measurements—implications for a laser wind system,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5357–5367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carnuth, W.

Carswell, A. I.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, W. Steinbrecht, A. I. Carswell, “Automated method for lidar determination of cloud base height and vertical extent,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1488–1494 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, B. S.

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Collis, R. T. H.

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Conner, W. D.

Cooke, C. S.

Cupp, R. E.

F. F. Hall, R. E. Cupp, S. W. Troxel, “Cirrus cloud transmittance in the infrared measured with a CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2510–2516 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Del Guasta, M.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dilley, A. C.

C. M. R. Platt, J. C. Scott, A. C. Dilley, “Remote sounding of high clouds VI: optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 729–747 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dombrowski, M.

Eberhard, W. L.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2344–2355 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Forgan, B.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gambling, D. J.

D. J. Gambling, K. Bartusek, “Lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 6, 181–190 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gimmestad, G. G.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gras, J. L.

J. L. Gras, C. M. R. Platt, W. D. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, S. A. Young, S. M. Banks, D. J. Booth, “Southern Hemisphere tropospheric backscatter measurements—implications for a laser wind system,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5357–5367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grigorov, I. V.

Grund, C. J.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2344–2355 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hall, F. F.

F. F. Hall, R. E. Cupp, S. W. Troxel, “Cirrus cloud transmittance in the infrared measured with a CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2510–2516 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, M.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Healey, P. G.

R. E. W. Pettifer, P. G. Healey, “Signal induced noise in a 56TUVP photomultiplier,” J. Phys. E 7, 617–620 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Huffaker, R. M.

J. L. Gras, C. M. R. Platt, W. D. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, S. A. Young, S. M. Banks, D. J. Booth, “Southern Hemisphere tropospheric backscatter measurements—implications for a laser wind system,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5357–5367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iikura, Y.

Jager, H.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, W. D.

J. L. Gras, C. M. R. Platt, W. D. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, S. A. Young, S. M. Banks, D. J. Booth, “Southern Hemisphere tropospheric backscatter measurements—implications for a laser wind system,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5357–5367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaprielov, B.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khmelevtsov, S. S.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable back-scatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1638–1645 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolev, I.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korb, C. L.

Kunkel, K. E.

K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. M.

J. V. Maher, D. M. Lee, Upper Air Statistics, Australia: Surface to 5 mb, 1957 to 1975 (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1977).

Lee, H. S.

Lenz, W. J.

Lindberg, J. D.

Lu, D-R.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lukas, R.

P. J. Webster, R. Lukas, “TOGA COARE: the coupled ocean-atmosphere response experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 73, 1377–1416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maher, J. V.

J. V. Maher, D. M. Lee, Upper Air Statistics, Australia: Surface to 5 mb, 1957 to 1975 (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1977).

Matsumoto, M.

McCormick, M. P.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Measure, E. M.

Michaelis, W.

Mitev, V. M.

Mizuno, Y.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S. R.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, W. Steinbrecht, A. I. Carswell, “Automated method for lidar determination of cloud base height and vertical extent,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1488–1494 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrilla, R. L.

Pettifer, R. E. W.

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. E. W. Pettifer, P. G. Healey, “Signal induced noise in a 56TUVP photomultiplier,” J. Phys. E 7, 617–620 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

J. L. Gras, C. M. R. Platt, W. D. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, S. A. Young, S. M. Banks, D. J. Booth, “Southern Hemisphere tropospheric backscatter measurements—implications for a laser wind system,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5357–5367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, J. C. Scott, A. C. Dilley, “Remote sounding of high clouds VI: optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 729–747 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 156–167 (1981).

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds: I. Calculation of visible and infrared optical properties from lidar and radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 30, 1130–1143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, C.

Qiu, J.

J. Qiu, “Sensitivity of lidar equation solution to boundary values and determination of the values,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 5, 229–241 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Reiter, R.

Riebesell, M.

Rubio, R.

Sasano, Y.

Sassen, K.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, R. L. Petrilla, “Lidar depolarization and multiple scattering in marine stratus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1450–1459 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schwemmer, G. K.

Scott, J. C.

C. M. R. Platt, J. C. Scott, A. C. Dilley, “Remote sounding of high clouds VI: optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 729–747 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shamanaev, V. S.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shimzu, H.

Simeonov, V. B.

Stefanutti, L.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrecht, W.

Sugimoto, N.

Takeuchi, N.

Troxel, S. W.

F. F. Hall, R. E. Cupp, S. W. Troxel, “Cirrus cloud transmittance in the infrared measured with a CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2510–2516 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Uthe, E. E.

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, R.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Viezee, W.

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webster, P. J.

P. J. Webster, R. Lukas, “TOGA COARE: the coupled ocean-atmosphere response experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 73, 1377–1416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weinman, J. A.

K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winker, D. M.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wooldridge, C.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, S. A.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gras, C. M. R. Platt, W. D. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, S. A. Young, S. M. Banks, D. J. Booth, “Southern Hemisphere tropospheric backscatter measurements—implications for a laser wind system,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5357–5367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Young, “Signal induced noise in photomultipliers used in lidar receivers,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 667–670 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Atmos. Sci.

J. Qiu, “Sensitivity of lidar equation solution to boundary values and determination of the values,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 5, 229–241 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

V. M. Mitev, I. V. Grigorov, V. B. Simeonov, “Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles: a comparison between two techniques—Klett inversion and pure rotational Raman scattering methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6469–6474 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsumoto, N. Takeuchi, “Effects of misestimated far-end boundary values on two common lidar inversion solutions,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6451–6456 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Carnuth, R. Reiter, “Cloud extinction profile measurements by lidar using Klett’s inversion method,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2899–2907 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Lindberg, W. J. Lenz, E. M. Measure, R. Rubio, “Lidar determinations of extinction in clouds,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2172–2177 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, R. L. Petrilla, “Lidar depolarization and multiple scattering in marine stratus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1450–1459 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Pal, W. Steinbrecht, A. I. Carswell, “Automated method for lidar determination of cloud base height and vertical extent,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1488–1494 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable back-scatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1638–1645 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Cooke, G. W. Bethke, W. D. Conner, “Remote measurement of smoke plume transmittance using lidar,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1742–1748 (1972).
[CrossRef]

F. F. Hall, R. E. Cupp, S. W. Troxel, “Cirrus cloud transmittance in the infrared measured with a CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2510–2516 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, H. Shimzu, “Improvement on lidar data processing for stratospheric aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5299–5306 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3303–3315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atmos. Environ.

D. J. Gambling, K. Bartusek, “Lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 6, 181–190 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

P. J. Webster, R. Lukas, “TOGA COARE: the coupled ocean-atmosphere response experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 73, 1377–1416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. Del Guasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jager, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprielov, D-R. Lu, K. Sassen, V. S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds: I. Calculation of visible and infrared optical properties from lidar and radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 30, 1130–1143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Barrett, O. Ben-Dov, “Application of the lidar to air pollution measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 500–515 (1967).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 156–167 (1981).

J. Atmos. Sci.

C. M. R. Platt, J. C. Scott, A. C. Dilley, “Remote sounding of high clouds VI: optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 729–747 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Young, “Signal induced noise in photomultipliers used in lidar receivers,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 667–670 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. L. Gras, C. M. R. Platt, W. D. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, S. A. Young, S. M. Banks, D. J. Booth, “Southern Hemisphere tropospheric backscatter measurements—implications for a laser wind system,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5357–5367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E

R. E. W. Pettifer, P. G. Healey, “Signal induced noise in a 56TUVP photomultiplier,” J. Phys. E 7, 617–620 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Weather Rev.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2344–2355 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. V. Maher, D. M. Lee, Upper Air Statistics, Australia: Surface to 5 mb, 1957 to 1975 (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1977).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Simulated lidar signal from a cirrus cloud. (b) Reference signal from molecular atmosphere. (c) Retrieved backscatter profile (× 10 −6 m−1 sr−1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Lidar signal from a cirrus cloud below the stratospheric layer. (b) Reference cloud-free signal. (c) Retrieved backscatter profile (× 10−6 m−1 sr−1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulated lidar signal from a stratocumulus cloud above the boundary-layer aerosol. (b) Simulated reference signal from a cloud-free atmosphere. (c) Retrieved backscatter profile (× 10−6 m −1 sr−1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Lidar signal from a stratocumulus cloud above the boundary layer. (b) Reference cloud-free signal. (c) Retrieved backscatter profile (× 10−6 m−1 sr−1).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Analysis of a Modeled Cirrus Cloud in a Clear Molecular Atmosphere

Tables Icon

Table 2 Analysis of a Measured Cirrus Cloud below an Aerosol Layer

Tables Icon

Table 3 Analysis of a Modeled Stratocumulus Cloud above an Aerosol Layera

Tables Icon

Table 4 Analysis of a Measured Stratocumulus Cloud above an Aerosol Layera

Equations (33)

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V ( r ) = K r 2 [ β M ( r ) + β C ( r ) ] T M 2 ( 0 , r ) T C 2 ( r b , r ) + V o ,
T M ( 0 , r ) = exp [ - 0 r σ M ( z ) d z ]
T C ( r b , r ) = exp [ - r b r η ( z ) σ C ( z ) d z ]
X ( r ) = [ V ( r ) - V o ] r 2 ,
S ( r ) = ln X ( r ) .
β ( r ) = k 1 σ ( r ) k 2 .
σ ( r ) = exp { [ S ( r ) - S ( r m ) ] / k 2 } [ 1 / σ ( r m ) ] + ( 2 / k 2 ) r r m exp { [ S ( z ) - S ( r m ) ] / k 2 } d z .
β M ( r ) + β C ( r ) = X ( r ) exp [ - 2 ( η F C - F M ) r c r β M ( z ) d z ] C ( r c ) + 2 η F C r c r X ( r ) exp [ - 2 ( η F C - F M ) r c z β M ( s ) d s ] d z ,
F M = σ M ( r ) / β M ( r ) = 8 π / 3
C ( r c ) = X ( r c ) / [ β M ( r c ) + β C ( r c ) ]
M ( r ) = β M ( r ) T M 2 ( 0 , r ) / r 2 .
M ( r ) = T M 2 ( 0 , r c ) β M ( r ) T M 2 ( r c , r ) / r 2 .
V ( r ) = [ K T C 2 ( r b , r t ) T M 2 ( 0 , r c ) β M ( r ) T M 2 ( r c , r ) / r 2 ] + V o , = K T C 2 ( r b , r t ) M ( r ) + V o .
T C = ( C 2 / C 1 ) 1 / 2 = [ K T C 2 ( r b , r t ) / K ] 1 / 2 .
W ( r ) = [ β M ( r ) + β A ( r ) ] T M 2 ( 0 , r ) T A 2 ( 0 , r ) / r 2 ,
V ( r ) = K [ β M ( r ) + β A ( r ) + β C ( r ) ] × T M 2 ( 0 , r ) T A 2 ( 0 , r ) T C 2 ( r b , r ) / r 2 + V o .
T A 2 ( r min , r c ) = exp [ - 2 r min r c σ A ( z ) d z ] .
C = K T A 2 ( 0 , r c ) .
K T A 2 ( 0 , r min ) = C / T A 2 ( r min , r c ) .
β A ( r min ) = [ X ( r min ) / K T A 2 ( 0 , r min ) T M 2 ( 0 , r min ) ] - β M ( r min ) .
R ( r ) = [ β M ( r ) + β A ( r ) ] / β M ( r )
η τ C ( r b , r ) = - ln [ T C ( r b , r ) ] ,
= η r b r σ C ( z ) d z ,
= η F C r b r β C ( z ) d z ,
X ( r ) / [ K T M 2 ( 0 , r b ) T A 2 ( 0 , r b ) T M 2 ( r b , r ) ] - β M ( r ) T C 2 ( r b , r ) = β C ( r ) T C 2 ( r b , r ) .
[ 1 / K T M 2 ( 0 , r b ) T A 2 ( 0 , r b ) ] r b r t X ( z ) / T M 2 ( r b , z ) d z - r b r t β M ( z ) T C 2 ( r b , z ) d z = [ 1 - T C 2 ( r b , r t ) ] / 2 η F C .
T C 2 ( r b , z ) = exp [ - 2 η σ ( z - r b ) ] .
η F C = 0.5 [ 1 - T C 2 ( r b , r t ) ] / G ( r b , r t ) ,
G ( r b , r t ) = [ 1 / K T M 2 ( 0 , r b ) T A 2 ( 0 , r b ) ] r b r t X ( z ) / T M 2 ( r b , z ) d z - r b r t β M ( z ) exp [ - 2 η σ ( z - r b ) ] d z .
η F C , 1 = η F C ( η τ C , m / η τ C , c ) ,
η F C , n = η F C , n - 1 + ( η τ C , m - η τ C , n - 1 ) × ( η F C , n - 1 - η F C , n - 2 ) / ( η τ C , n - 1 - η τ C , n - 2 ) .
d ( η τ ) = 0.5 d T 2 / T 2 = 0.5 [ ( d B 1 / B 1 ) 2 + ( d B 2 / B 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
d ( η F C ) / η F C d T 2 / ( 1 - T 2 ) 0.5 d T 2 / η τ .

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