Abstract

The performance and measurement accuracy of Na narrowband wind–temperature lidar systems are characterized. Error budgets are derived that include several effects not previously reported, such as power-dependent spectral characteristics in the frequency reference, magnetic-field-dependent oscillator line strengths (Hanle effect), saturation, and optical pumping. It is shown that the overall system uncertainty is dependent on the power, pulse temporal characteristics, and beam divergence of the laser transmitter. Results indicate that even systems with significant saturation can produce accurate measurements, which implies the prospect of continuous daytime wind and temperature measurements on semidiurnal and diurnal time periods.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, C. Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30, 13–21 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, J. W. Huang, C. Nagasawa, C. S. Gardner, “Na temperature lidar measurements of gravity wave perturbations of winds, density, and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1329–1331 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Chen, “Observed thermal structure of a midlatitude mesopause,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 567–570 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, S. J. Franke, “Na Doppler/temperature lidar: initial mesopause region observations and comparison with the Urbana medium frequency radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22701–22707 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, T. J. Beatty, R. E. Bills, C. Hostetler, “Rayleigh and sodium lidar techniques for measuring middle atmosphere density, temperature and wind perturbations and their spectra,” in World Ionosphere/Thermosphere Study (WITS) Handbood, C. H. Liu, ed. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics, Urbana, Illinois, 1989).
  6. J. M. C. Plane, “The chemistry of meteoric metals in the earth's atmosphere,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 10, 55–106 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Latifi, R. E. Bills, “High-spectral-resolution fluorescence light detection and ranging for mesospheric sodium temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2095–2106 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, “Mesopause temperatures derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499–512 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing—Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  10. E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, “Experimental determinations of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. M. Reid, “MF Doppler and spaced antenna radar measurements of upper middle atmosphere winds,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 50, 117–134 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Corney, Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1977).
  13. B. Welsh, C. S. Gardner, “Nonlinear resonant absorption effects on the design of resonance fluorescence lidars and laser guide stars,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4141–4153 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. von der Gathen, “Saturation effects in Na lidar temperature measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 3679–3690 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. C. Senft, C. S. Gardner, “Seasonal variability of gravity wave activity and spectra in the mesopause region at Urbana,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 17229–17264 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, “Iron and sodium Doppler/temperature lidar studies of the upper mesosphere,” Rep. EOSL 91–002 (Electro-Optic Systems Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill., 1991).
  17. A. Gaupp, P. Kuske, H. J. Andrä, “Accurate lifetime measurements of the 2P1/2 states in neutral lithium and sodium,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3351–3359 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. W. Atkins, Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1983).
  19. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  20. M. I. D'Yakonov, “Theory of resonance scattering of light by a gas in the presence of a magnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1484–1489 (1965).
  21. R. N. Zare, Angular Momentum—Understanding Spatial Aspects in Chemistry and Physics (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  22. D. Zimmermann, “Determination of the lifetime of the 4P1/2 state of potassium by Hanle-effect,” Z. Phys. A 275, 5–10 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  23. International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Division 1, Working Group 1, “International Geomagnetic Reference Fields: DGRF 1965, DGRF 1970, DGRF 1975 and IGRF 1980,” EOS Trans. AGU 62, 1169 (1981).
  24. J. R. Morris, “Efficient excitation of a mesospheric sodium laser guide star by intermediate-duration pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 832–845 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. W. Milonni, L. E. Throde, “Theory of mesospheric sodium fluorescence excited by pulse trains,” Appl. Opt. 31, 785–799 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. A. Hostetler, C. S. Gardner, “Observations of horizontal and vertical wave-number spectra of gravity wave motions in the stratosphere and mesosphere over the mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1283–1302 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994

C. A. Hostetler, C. S. Gardner, “Observations of horizontal and vertical wave-number spectra of gravity wave motions in the stratosphere and mesosphere over the mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1283–1302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Morris, “Efficient excitation of a mesospheric sodium laser guide star by intermediate-duration pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 832–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Chen, “Observed thermal structure of a midlatitude mesopause,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 567–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, C. Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30, 13–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, J. W. Huang, C. Nagasawa, C. S. Gardner, “Na temperature lidar measurements of gravity wave perturbations of winds, density, and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1329–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, S. J. Franke, “Na Doppler/temperature lidar: initial mesopause region observations and comparison with the Urbana medium frequency radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22701–22707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Plane, “The chemistry of meteoric metals in the earth's atmosphere,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 10, 55–106 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. von der Gathen, “Saturation effects in Na lidar temperature measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 3679–3690 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Senft, C. S. Gardner, “Seasonal variability of gravity wave activity and spectra in the mesopause region at Urbana,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 17229–17264 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

I. M. Reid, “MF Doppler and spaced antenna radar measurements of upper middle atmosphere winds,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 50, 117–134 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, “Mesopause temperatures derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499–512 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982

A. Gaupp, P. Kuske, H. J. Andrä, “Accurate lifetime measurements of the 2P1/2 states in neutral lithium and sodium,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3351–3359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Division 1, Working Group 1, “International Geomagnetic Reference Fields: DGRF 1965, DGRF 1970, DGRF 1975 and IGRF 1980,” EOS Trans. AGU 62, 1169 (1981).

1977

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, “Experimental determinations of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

D. Zimmermann, “Determination of the lifetime of the 4P1/2 state of potassium by Hanle-effect,” Z. Phys. A 275, 5–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1965

M. I. D'Yakonov, “Theory of resonance scattering of light by a gas in the presence of a magnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1484–1489 (1965).

Andrä, H. J.

A. Gaupp, P. Kuske, H. J. Andrä, “Accurate lifetime measurements of the 2P1/2 states in neutral lithium and sodium,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3351–3359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, “Experimental determinations of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, P. W.

P. W. Atkins, Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1983).

Beatty, T. J.

C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, T. J. Beatty, R. E. Bills, C. Hostetler, “Rayleigh and sodium lidar techniques for measuring middle atmosphere density, temperature and wind perturbations and their spectra,” in World Ionosphere/Thermosphere Study (WITS) Handbood, C. H. Liu, ed. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics, Urbana, Illinois, 1989).

Bills, R. E.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Latifi, R. E. Bills, “High-spectral-resolution fluorescence light detection and ranging for mesospheric sodium temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2095–2106 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, C. Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30, 13–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, S. J. Franke, “Na Doppler/temperature lidar: initial mesopause region observations and comparison with the Urbana medium frequency radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22701–22707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, T. J. Beatty, R. E. Bills, C. Hostetler, “Rayleigh and sodium lidar techniques for measuring middle atmosphere density, temperature and wind perturbations and their spectra,” in World Ionosphere/Thermosphere Study (WITS) Handbood, C. H. Liu, ed. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics, Urbana, Illinois, 1989).

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, “Iron and sodium Doppler/temperature lidar studies of the upper mesosphere,” Rep. EOSL 91–002 (Electro-Optic Systems Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill., 1991).

Chen, H.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Chen, “Observed thermal structure of a midlatitude mesopause,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 567–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Corney, A.

A. Corney, Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1977).

D'Yakonov, M. I.

M. I. D'Yakonov, “Theory of resonance scattering of light by a gas in the presence of a magnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1484–1489 (1965).

Franke, S. J.

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, S. J. Franke, “Na Doppler/temperature lidar: initial mesopause region observations and comparison with the Urbana medium frequency radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22701–22707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fricke, K. H.

K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, “Mesopause temperatures derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499–512 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, C. S.

C. A. Hostetler, C. S. Gardner, “Observations of horizontal and vertical wave-number spectra of gravity wave motions in the stratosphere and mesosphere over the mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1283–1302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Senft, C. S. Gardner, “Seasonal variability of gravity wave activity and spectra in the mesopause region at Urbana,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 17229–17264 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, S. J. Franke, “Na Doppler/temperature lidar: initial mesopause region observations and comparison with the Urbana medium frequency radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22701–22707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, J. W. Huang, C. Nagasawa, C. S. Gardner, “Na temperature lidar measurements of gravity wave perturbations of winds, density, and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1329–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, C. Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30, 13–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Welsh, C. S. Gardner, “Nonlinear resonant absorption effects on the design of resonance fluorescence lidars and laser guide stars,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4141–4153 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, “Iron and sodium Doppler/temperature lidar studies of the upper mesosphere,” Rep. EOSL 91–002 (Electro-Optic Systems Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill., 1991).

C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, T. J. Beatty, R. E. Bills, C. Hostetler, “Rayleigh and sodium lidar techniques for measuring middle atmosphere density, temperature and wind perturbations and their spectra,” in World Ionosphere/Thermosphere Study (WITS) Handbood, C. H. Liu, ed. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics, Urbana, Illinois, 1989).

Gaupp, A.

A. Gaupp, P. Kuske, H. J. Andrä, “Accurate lifetime measurements of the 2P1/2 states in neutral lithium and sodium,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3351–3359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C.

C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, T. J. Beatty, R. E. Bills, C. Hostetler, “Rayleigh and sodium lidar techniques for measuring middle atmosphere density, temperature and wind perturbations and their spectra,” in World Ionosphere/Thermosphere Study (WITS) Handbood, C. H. Liu, ed. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics, Urbana, Illinois, 1989).

Hostetler, C. A.

C. A. Hostetler, C. S. Gardner, “Observations of horizontal and vertical wave-number spectra of gravity wave motions in the stratosphere and mesosphere over the mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1283–1302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. W.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, J. W. Huang, C. Nagasawa, C. S. Gardner, “Na temperature lidar measurements of gravity wave perturbations of winds, density, and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1329–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, “Experimental determinations of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kuske, P.

A. Gaupp, P. Kuske, H. J. Andrä, “Accurate lifetime measurements of the 2P1/2 states in neutral lithium and sodium,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3351–3359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Latifi, H.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing—Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Milonni, P. W.

Morris, J. R.

Nagasawa, C.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, J. W. Huang, C. Nagasawa, C. S. Gardner, “Na temperature lidar measurements of gravity wave perturbations of winds, density, and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1329–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Plane, J. M. C.

J. M. C. Plane, “The chemistry of meteoric metals in the earth's atmosphere,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 10, 55–106 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reid, I. M.

I. M. Reid, “MF Doppler and spaced antenna radar measurements of upper middle atmosphere winds,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 50, 117–134 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Senft, D. C.

D. C. Senft, C. S. Gardner, “Seasonal variability of gravity wave activity and spectra in the mesopause region at Urbana,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 17229–17264 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, T. J. Beatty, R. E. Bills, C. Hostetler, “Rayleigh and sodium lidar techniques for measuring middle atmosphere density, temperature and wind perturbations and their spectra,” in World Ionosphere/Thermosphere Study (WITS) Handbood, C. H. Liu, ed. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics, Urbana, Illinois, 1989).

She, C. Y.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Chen, “Observed thermal structure of a midlatitude mesopause,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 567–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Latifi, R. E. Bills, “High-spectral-resolution fluorescence light detection and ranging for mesospheric sodium temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2095–2106 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, C. Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30, 13–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, J. W. Huang, C. Nagasawa, C. S. Gardner, “Na temperature lidar measurements of gravity wave perturbations of winds, density, and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1329–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Throde, L. E.

Violino, P.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, “Experimental determinations of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).
[CrossRef]

von der Gathen, P.

P. von der Gathen, “Saturation effects in Na lidar temperature measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 3679–3690 (1991).
[CrossRef]

von Zahn, U.

K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, “Mesopause temperatures derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499–512 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B.

Yu, J. R.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Chen, “Observed thermal structure of a midlatitude mesopause,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 567–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Latifi, R. E. Bills, “High-spectral-resolution fluorescence light detection and ranging for mesospheric sodium temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2095–2106 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, J. W. Huang, C. Nagasawa, C. S. Gardner, “Na temperature lidar measurements of gravity wave perturbations of winds, density, and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1329–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

R. N. Zare, Angular Momentum—Understanding Spatial Aspects in Chemistry and Physics (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Zimmermann, D.

D. Zimmermann, “Determination of the lifetime of the 4P1/2 state of potassium by Hanle-effect,” Z. Phys. A 275, 5–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

EOS Trans. AGU

International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Division 1, Working Group 1, “International Geomagnetic Reference Fields: DGRF 1965, DGRF 1970, DGRF 1975 and IGRF 1980,” EOS Trans. AGU 62, 1169 (1981).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, J. W. Huang, C. Nagasawa, C. S. Gardner, “Na temperature lidar measurements of gravity wave perturbations of winds, density, and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1329–1331 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Chen, “Observed thermal structure of a midlatitude mesopause,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 567–570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

J. M. C. Plane, “The chemistry of meteoric metals in the earth's atmosphere,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 10, 55–106 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.

K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, “Mesopause temperatures derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499–512 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Reid, “MF Doppler and spaced antenna radar measurements of upper middle atmosphere winds,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 50, 117–134 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. von der Gathen, “Saturation effects in Na lidar temperature measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 3679–3690 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Senft, C. S. Gardner, “Seasonal variability of gravity wave activity and spectra in the mesopause region at Urbana,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 17229–17264 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, S. J. Franke, “Na Doppler/temperature lidar: initial mesopause region observations and comparison with the Urbana medium frequency radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22701–22707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hostetler, C. S. Gardner, “Observations of horizontal and vertical wave-number spectra of gravity wave motions in the stratosphere and mesosphere over the mid-Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1283–1302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, C. Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30, 13–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

A. Gaupp, P. Kuske, H. J. Andrä, “Accurate lifetime measurements of the 2P1/2 states in neutral lithium and sodium,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3351–3359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, “Experimental determinations of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

M. I. D'Yakonov, “Theory of resonance scattering of light by a gas in the presence of a magnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1484–1489 (1965).

Z. Phys. A

D. Zimmermann, “Determination of the lifetime of the 4P1/2 state of potassium by Hanle-effect,” Z. Phys. A 275, 5–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. N. Zare, Angular Momentum—Understanding Spatial Aspects in Chemistry and Physics (Wiley, New York, 1988).

P. W. Atkins, Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1983).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, “Iron and sodium Doppler/temperature lidar studies of the upper mesosphere,” Rep. EOSL 91–002 (Electro-Optic Systems Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill., 1991).

A. Corney, Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1977).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing—Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984).

C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, T. J. Beatty, R. E. Bills, C. Hostetler, “Rayleigh and sodium lidar techniques for measuring middle atmosphere density, temperature and wind perturbations and their spectra,” in World Ionosphere/Thermosphere Study (WITS) Handbood, C. H. Liu, ed. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics, Urbana, Illinois, 1989).

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