Abstract

On the basis of white-light interferometry and statistical optics, a theoretical model for low-coherence optical tomography is presented that establishes the relation of interference modulation with path-length-resolved reflectance and that can provide analytical expressions and numerical solutions by means of a Fourier transform. The Monte Carlo technique is used to simulate the path-length-resolved reflectance from different multilayer tissue phantoms. Theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results suggest that, unlike time-resolved spectroscopy, low-coherence optical tomography detects the local relative variations of path-length-resolved reflectance from the turbid tissues.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1993

R. Berg, O. Jarlman, S. Svanberg, “Medical transillumination imaging using short-pulse diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 572–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Briers, “Speckle fluctuations and biomedical optics: implications and applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 277–283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, “Line scan acquisition for time-resolved imaging through scattering media,” Opt. Eng. 32, 626–633 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, Y. Hasegawa, H. Maki, “Simulation of time-resolved optical computer tomography imaging,” Opt. Eng. 32, 634–641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, K. Kang, E. Sevick, “Photon diffusion in breast and brain: spectroscopy and imaging,” Opt. Photon. News 4 (10), 9–13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved Fourier spectrum and imaging in highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5043–5049 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Knüttel, J. M. Schmitt, J. R. Knuttson, “Spatial localization of absorbing bodies by interfering diffusive photon-density waves,” Appl. Opt. 32, 381–389 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Copy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32, 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Ultrafast laser-pulse transmission and imaging through biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32, 554–558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yoon, D. N. G. Roy, R. C. Straight, “Coherent backscattering in biological media: measurement and estimation of optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 32, 580–584 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Timed-resolved holography,” Nature 351, 487–489 (1991).

1990

1989

1988

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1422–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Adler, C. L.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Arons, E.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1422–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

Barlow, C. H.

C. H. Barlow, D. H. Burns, J. B. Callis, “Breast biopsy analysis by spectroscopic imaging,” in Photon Migration in Tissues, B. Chance ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), pp. 111–119.

Bashkansky, M.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R.

R. Berg, O. Jarlman, S. Svanberg, “Medical transillumination imaging using short-pulse diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 572–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, K. W.

K. W. Berndt, J. R. Lakowicz, “Detection and localization of absorbers in scattering media using frequency-domain principles,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 149–160 (1991).

Birngruber, R.

Y. T. Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-interaction-coefficient of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chaps. 2, 4, and 5.

Boretsky, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), Chap. X, pp. 491–554.

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, “Speckle fluctuations and biomedical optics: implications and applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 277–283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D. H.

C. H. Barlow, D. H. Burns, J. B. Callis, “Breast biopsy analysis by spectroscopic imaging,” in Photon Migration in Tissues, B. Chance ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), pp. 111–119.

Callis, J. B.

C. H. Barlow, D. H. Burns, J. B. Callis, “Breast biopsy analysis by spectroscopic imaging,” in Photon Migration in Tissues, B. Chance ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), pp. 111–119.

Chance, B.

B. Chance, K. Kang, E. Sevick, “Photon diffusion in breast and brain: spectroscopy and imaging,” Opt. Photon. News 4 (10), 9–13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Weng, M. Z. Zhang, K. Simons, B. Chance, “Measurement of biological tissue metabolism using phase modulation spectroscopic technology,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 161–170 (1991).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chim, S. S. C.

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1422–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Copy, M.

Delpy, D. T.

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Copy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32, 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1422–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dilworth, D.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dresel, T.

Drexler, W.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98–103 (1992).
[PubMed]

Durcan, M. D.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elwell, C. E.

Engelhardt, R.

Y. T. Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-interaction-coefficient of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Essenpreis, M.

Feinberg, J.

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Timed-resolved holography,” Nature 351, 487–489 (1991).

Fercher, A. F.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98–103 (1992).
[PubMed]

Finander, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectrometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Time-gated imaging with femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, R. R. Alfano, B. Chance, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 28–37 (1993).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 5.

Greenfield, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, Y.

Y. Yamada, Y. Hasegawa, H. Maki, “Simulation of time-resolved optical computer tomography imaging,” Opt. Eng. 32, 634–641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, G.

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, “Line scan acquisition for time-resolved imaging through scattering media,” Opt. Eng. 32, 626–633 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectrometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Time-gated imaging with femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, R. R. Alfano, B. Chance, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 28–37 (1993).

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98–103 (1992).
[PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectrometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chaps. 2, 4, and 5.

Hüttmann, G.

Y. T. Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-interaction-coefficient of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Izatt, J. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Time-gated imaging with femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, R. R. Alfano, B. Chance, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 28–37 (1993).

Jacobson, J. M.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Time-gated imaging with femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, R. R. Alfano, B. Chance, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 28–37 (1993).

Jacques, S. L.

Jarlman, O.

R. Berg, O. Jarlman, S. Svanberg, “Medical transillumination imaging using short-pulse diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 572–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K.

B. Chance, K. Kang, E. Sevick, “Photon diffusion in breast and brain: spectroscopy and imaging,” Opt. Photon. News 4 (10), 9–13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

Knüttel, A.

Knuttson, J. R.

Lakowicz, J. R.

K. W. Berndt, J. R. Lakowicz, “Detection and localization of absorbers in scattering media using frequency-domain principles,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 149–160 (1991).

Leigh, J. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leith, E.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Lopez, J.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maki, H.

Y. Yamada, Y. Hasegawa, H. Maki, “Simulation of time-resolved optical computer tomography imaging,” Opt. Eng. 32, 634–641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, J. A.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y. T.

Y. T. Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-interaction-coefficient of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Patterson, M. S.

Prewitt, J. M. S.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rebane, A.

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Timed-resolved holography,” Nature 351, 487–489 (1991).

Reintjes, J.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rosperich, J.

Y. T. Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-interaction-coefficient of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Roy, D. N. G.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick, E.

B. Chance, K. Kang, E. Sevick, “Photon diffusion in breast and brain: spectroscopy and imaging,” Opt. Photon. News 4 (10), 9–13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simons, K.

J. Weng, M. Z. Zhang, K. Simons, B. Chance, “Measurement of biological tissue metabolism using phase modulation spectroscopic technology,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 161–170 (1991).

Smith, D. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straight, R. C.

Sun, P.-C.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

R. Berg, O. Jarlman, S. Svanberg, “Medical transillumination imaging using short-pulse diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 572–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectrometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Time-gated imaging with femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, R. R. Alfano, B. Chance, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 28–37 (1993).

Tankersley, L. L.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van der Zee, P.

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Copy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32, 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1422–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Venzke, H.

Vossler, G.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Weng, J.

J. Weng, M. Z. Zhang, K. Simons, B. Chance, “Measurement of biological tissue metabolism using phase modulation spectroscopic technology,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 161–170 (1991).

Wilson, B. C.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), Chap. X, pp. 491–554.

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1422–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1422–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, Y. Hasegawa, H. Maki, “Simulation of time-resolved optical computer tomography imaging,” Opt. Eng. 32, 634–641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

Yoon, G.

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, M. Z.

J. Weng, M. Z. Zhang, K. Simons, B. Chance, “Measurement of biological tissue metabolism using phase modulation spectroscopic technology,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 161–170 (1991).

Appl. Opt.

R. Berg, O. Jarlman, S. Svanberg, “Medical transillumination imaging using short-pulse diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 572–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, “Time resolved propagation of ultrashort laser pulses within turbid tissues,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2223–2229 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Kino, S. S. C. Chim, “Mirau correlation microscope,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3775–3783 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved Fourier spectrum and imaging in highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5043–5049 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Knüttel, J. M. Schmitt, J. R. Knuttson, “Spatial localization of absorbing bodies by interfering diffusive photon-density waves,” Appl. Opt. 32, 381–389 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Copy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32, 418–425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Ultrafast laser-pulse transmission and imaging through biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 32, 554–558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yoon, D. N. G. Roy, R. C. Straight, “Coherent backscattering in biological media: measurement and estimation of optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 32, 580–584 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dresel, G. Häusler, H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces by coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 919–925 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98–103 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Lasers Surg. Med.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Timed-resolved holography,” Nature 351, 487–489 (1991).

Opt. Eng.

J. D. Briers, “Speckle fluctuations and biomedical optics: implications and applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 277–283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, “Line scan acquisition for time-resolved imaging through scattering media,” Opt. Eng. 32, 626–633 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, Y. Hasegawa, H. Maki, “Simulation of time-resolved optical computer tomography imaging,” Opt. Eng. 32, 634–641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Durcan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, K. Kang, E. Sevick, “Photon diffusion in breast and brain: spectroscopy and imaging,” Opt. Photon. News 4 (10), 9–13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1422–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfield, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, H. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. H. Barlow, D. H. Burns, J. B. Callis, “Breast biopsy analysis by spectroscopic imaging,” in Photon Migration in Tissues, B. Chance ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), pp. 111–119.

K. W. Berndt, J. R. Lakowicz, “Detection and localization of absorbers in scattering media using frequency-domain principles,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 149–160 (1991).

J. Weng, M. Z. Zhang, K. Simons, B. Chance, “Measurement of biological tissue metabolism using phase modulation spectroscopic technology,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 161–170 (1991).

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Time-gated imaging with femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, R. R. Alfano, B. Chance, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 28–37 (1993).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), Chap. X, pp. 491–554.

J. B. Develis, G. B. Parrent, G. O. Reynolds, B. J. Thompson, eds., The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorials in Fourier Optics, Vol. PMO1 of SPIE Press Monograph Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1989), Chaps. 18 and 23.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 5.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chaps. 2, 4, and 5.

Y. T. Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Hüttmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-interaction-coefficient of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2134A, 354–363 (1994).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of an optical low-coherence interferometer: SLD, superluminescence diode; PD, photodiode; L s 0, L r , round-trip optical path lengths of sample and reference arms, respectively; n 0, refractive index of air; v r , line speed of piezoelectric transducer scan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured autocorrelation function and power spectral distribution of a SLD. λ ¯ ≈ 0.85 μm, L c ≈ 15 μm. The solid curve is a least-squares fit of the Gaussian function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic that describes light transport and escaping geometry for M-C modeling: A, B, single-scattered and least-backscattered light, respectively; C, multiply scattered light; L s ′, l s 0, path length within the tissue and round-trip geometric length to the tissue surface (see l s 0 in Fig. 1). The shaded area represents microstructures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT transfer function H(k) and reflectance distribution R s (k) in the frequency domain: L c = 18 μm, λ ¯ = 0.8 μm, k ¯ = 2π/ λ ¯ ≈ 7.9 μm−1, Δk = 4 ln 2/L c ≈ 0.2 μm−1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated path-length-resolved reflectance R 1/2(L s ) and OCT modulation: (a) R 1/2(L s ) is simulated as a sum of two Gaussians [L 0 = 0.3 μm, and u(L s ) represents a step function]. (b) The interference modulation is calculated with Eq. (10) and plotted in arbitrary units.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated R(L s ) and measured OCT modulation of a glass slide (n g = 1.56) immersed d 1 = 1.2 mm deep in an Intralipid liquid (μ s = 50 cm−1, μ a = 0.08 cm−1, g = 0.8, n s = 1.37). R sp is the specular reflectance at the air–Intralipid surface.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relation of calculated OCT modulation with the mean wavelength λ ¯ of light.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Path-length-resolved diffuse reflectance R 1/2(L) for different μ s 2 of the lower layer: μ a 1 = μ a 2 = 0.1 cm−1, g 1 = g 2 = 0.83, n 1 = n 2 = 1.37, d 1 = 0.05 cm, d 2 = 0.05–2 cm, μ s 1 = 3 cm−1, μ s 2 = 20, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 cm−1. The dashed curve is fit by an exponential function.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Path-length-resolved diffuse reflectance R 1/2(L) for different μ a 2 of the lower layer: μ s 1 = 1 cm−1, μ s 2 = 100 cm−1, g 1 = g 2 = 0.83, n 1 = n 2 = 1.37, d 1 = 0–0.05 cm, d 2 = 0.05–2 cm, μ a 1 = 1 cm−1, μ a 2 = 1, 10, 20, 40 cm−1.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Path-length-resolved diffuse reflectance R 1/2(L) from semi-infinite phantoms with different scattering anisotropyg: μ a = 1 cm−1, μ s = 100 cm−1, n = 1.37, g = 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8. Specular reflectance at the air–phantom surface is neglected.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Path-length-resolved diffuse reflectance R 1/2(L) for a two-layer phantom with decreased scattering anisotropy g 2 in the lower layer: μ s 1 = μ s 2 = 100 cm−1, n 1 = n 2 = 1.37, d 1 = 0–0.05 cm, d 2 = 0.05–2 cm, μ a 1 = μ a 2 = 1 cm−1, g 1 = 0.9, g 2 = 0.7.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Path-length-resolved diffuse reflectance R 1/2(L) from a three-layer phantom with refractive-index mismatch: μ s 1 = μ s 2 = μ s 3 = 100 cm−1, μ a 1 = μ a 2 = μ a 3 = 1 cm−1, g 1 = g 2 = g 3 = 0.83, n 1 = n 3 = 1.37, n 2 = 1.47, d 1 = d 2 = 0.02 cm, L 1 = 2n 1 d 1 ≈ 550 μm, L 2 = 2 (n 1 d 1 + n 2 d 2) ≈ 1140 μm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Path-length-resolved reflectance R 1/2(L) from a mirror scanning longitudinally within the scattering liquid: μ s = 50 cm−1, μ a = 0.1 cm−1, g = 0.84, n = 1.33.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Normalized backreflected intensity from a mirror versus the mfp of light transport in the scattering medium: 1, narrow-beam transmittance; 2, calculated OCT interference; 3, measured interference signal.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Measured OCT modulation from two-layer scattering phantoms (d 1 = 0.7 mm). Curve 1 in Fig. 16 shows that the specular reflection at the interface is successfully rejected. R 1/2(L) that correspond to curves 1–4 are plotted in Fig. 16. V p 1 and V p 2 represent modulation amplitudes of specular reflectance at the surface and of backscattering at the interface that is due to increases of μ s 2, respectively.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Path-length-resolved reflectance from the interface of a two-layer scattering phantom: g 1 = g 2 = 0.84, n 1 = n 2 = 1.33, μ s 1 = 6 cm−1, d 1 = 0.07 cm, μ a 2 = 0.08 cm−1. 1, μ s 2 = μ s 1 = 6 cm−1; 2, μ s 2 = 496 cm−1, μ a 1 = 0.08 cm−1, broad beam; 3, μ s 2 = 496 cm−1, μ a 1 = 0.4 cm−1, broad beam; 4, μ s 2 = 496 cm−1, μ a 1 = 0.4 cm−1, narrow beam.

Equations (19)

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I d ( τ ) = [ E s ( t ) + E r ( t + τ ) ] [ E s ( t ) + E r ( t + τ ) ] * ,
f ( t ) = lim T 1 2 T - T T f ( t ) d t .
I d ( τ ) = I s + I r + 2 ( I s I r ) 1 / 2 Re [ V mc ( τ ) ] ,
V mc ( τ ) E s ( t ) E r * ( t + τ ) ( I s I r ) 1 / 2 .
I d ( τ ) = I s + I r + 2 ( I s I r ) 1 / 2 V tc ( τ ) cos 2 π ν ¯ τ .
I d ( Δ L ) = I s + I r + 2 ( I s I r ) 1 / 2 V tc ( Δ L ) cos k ¯ Δ L ,
V ( Δ L ) = exp [ - 4 ( Δ L / L c ) 2 ] ,
L c = ( 4 ln 2 π ) ( λ ¯ 2 Δ λ ) .
I d ( τ ) = [ L s 0 E s ( t , L s ) d L s + E r ( t + τ ) ] × [ L s 0 E s ( t , L s ) d L s + E r ( t + τ ) ] * ,
I d ( L r ) = I s + I r + 2 ( I r I s ) 1 / 2 - [ R ( L s ) ] 1 / 2 V tc ( Δ L ) × cos k ¯ Δ L d L s ,
I ˜ d ( L r ) = 2 ( I s I r ) 1 / 2 [ [ R ( L s ) ] 1 / 2 C ( L s ) ] ,
I ˜ d ( L r ) = 2 ( I s I r ) 1 / 2 F - 1 [ R s ( k ) H ( k ) ] ,
H ( k ) = K exp [ - ( k - k ¯ ) 2 ( L c / 4 ) 2 ] ,
I ˜ d ( L r ) exp ( - 4 k ¯ 2 L 0 2 ) exp [ - 4 ( L r - 500 ) 2 / L c 2 ] × cos [ k ¯ ( L r - 500 ) ] ,
Δ L = - ln ( ξ ) / μ t ,
n i + 1 cos θ i + 1 x ( y ) = n i cos θ i x ( y ) , n i + 1 cos θ i + 1 z = n i cos θ i z , Δ L i + 1 = ( Δ L - Δ L i ) μ t i / μ t i + 1 ,
R ( i , j , k ) = R ( i , j , k ) + w ,
R ( r r 0 , ϕ ϕ 0 , L ) = 1 N i i 0 j j 0 1 Δ L R ( i , j , k ) .
I 2 ( d 1 ) exp ( - μ b 2 d 1 ) ,

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