Abstract

Details are presented of the design, fabrication, and use of a hybrid lens employed to interconnect two-dimensional arrays of optical transceivers. The hybrid lens consists of a custom-designed, 42-mm focal length, f/5 compound lens followed by an array of afocal telescope compound microlenses.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  32. K. Mersereau, R. J. Crisci, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, D. Daly, M. C. Hutley, “Testing and measurement of microlenses,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1992, 210–215 (1993).
  33. M. Holz, M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, “Testing binary optics: accurate high-precision efficiency measurements of microlens arrays in the visible,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 75–89 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Haselbeck, H. Scheiber, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

1994 (4)

S. M. Prince, F. A. P. Tooley, C. Beauchamp, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlens relays: a case study,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, F. Sauer, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, A. Y. Feldblum, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, “Parallel optical interconnections using surface emitting microlasers as a hybrid imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 109, 328–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “The relationship between speed and tolerances for S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1354–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (9)

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetric self electro-optic effect cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalised shuffle switching networks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–633 (1993), Fig. 11.
[CrossRef]

P. C. H. Poon, M. G. Robinson, D. R. Selviah, D. J. Daly, J. E. Midwinter, “Long focal length microlenses,” EOS Trans. 20, pp. 13–16 (1993).

S. Haselbeck, H. Scheiber, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, “Electromagnetic theory and design of diffractive-lens arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 434–443 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Farn, M. B. Stern, W. B. Veldkamp, S. S. Medeiros, “Color separation by use of binary optics,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1214–1216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (8)

R. A. Nordin, A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnection technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Synthetic diffractive elements for optical interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 221–242 (1992).

M. C. Hutley, P. Savander, M. Schrader, “The use of microlenses for making spatially variant optical interconnections,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 337–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wakelin, F. A. P. Tooley, “The tolerance to spatial noise of differential logic gates,” Opt. Comput. and Process. 2, 115–126 (1992).

N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dhoedt, P. de Dobblaere, L. Buydens, R. Baets, B. Houssay, “Optical free-space board-to-board interconnect: options for optical pathways,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5508–5516 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LeMarche, M. M. Downs, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of arrays of S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2841–2843 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 S-SEED arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1979 (1)

Anderson, R. H.

Anderson, R. J.

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, R. J. Anderson, L. G. Hale, W. J. Gunning, M. Holz, “High speed binary optic microlens array in GaAs,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Raychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 33–44 (1991).

Ashcroft, S.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Baets, R.

Baillie, D.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Barrett, C. P.

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, “Focal length considerations in the design and manufacture of lenses for optical computing,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994.

Beauchamp, C.

S. M. Prince, F. A. P. Tooley, C. Beauchamp, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlens relays: a case study,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beckman, M. G.

Boisset, G. C.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

Brown-Goebeler, K. F.

J. Jahns, F. Sauer, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, A. Y. Feldblum, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, “Parallel optical interconnections using surface emitting microlasers as a hybrid imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 109, 328–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 S-SEED arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Buydens, L.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LeMarche, M. M. Downs, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of arrays of S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2841–2843 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalised shuffle switching networks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–633 (1993), Fig. 11.
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 S-SEED arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Connell, G. A. N.

Craft, N. C.

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 S-SEED arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Mersereau, R. J. Crisci, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, D. Daly, M. C. Hutley, “Testing and measurement of microlenses,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1992, 210–215 (1993).

D’Asaro, L. A.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LeMarche, M. M. Downs, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of arrays of S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2841–2843 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daly, D.

M. C. Hutley, D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, “The testing of microlens arrays,” in Microlens Arrays, M. C. Hutley, ed. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1991), Vol. 30, pp. 67–81.

K. Mersereau, R. J. Crisci, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, D. Daly, M. C. Hutley, “Testing and measurement of microlenses,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1992, 210–215 (1993).

Daly, D. J.

P. C. H. Poon, M. G. Robinson, D. R. Selviah, D. J. Daly, J. E. Midwinter, “Long focal length microlenses,” EOS Trans. 20, pp. 13–16 (1993).

de Dobblaere, P.

Desmulliez, M. P. Y.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Dhoedt, B.

Dines, J. A. B.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Downs, M. M.

Farn, M. W.

M. W. Farn, M. B. Stern, W. B. Veldkamp, S. S. Medeiros, “Color separation by use of binary optics,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1214–1216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Farn, “Microconcentrators for focal plane arrays,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication, C. Raychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 106–117 (1992).

Feldblum, A. Y.

J. Jahns, F. Sauer, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, A. Y. Feldblum, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, “Parallel optical interconnections using surface emitting microlasers as a hybrid imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 109, 328–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Focht, M. W.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Foulk, P. W.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Goodwill, D. J.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Grant, N. L.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Gunning, W. J.

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, R. J. Anderson, L. G. Hale, W. J. Gunning, M. Holz, “High speed binary optic microlens array in GaAs,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Raychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 33–44 (1991).

Guth, G.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hale, L. G.

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, R. J. Anderson, L. G. Hale, W. J. Gunning, M. Holz, “High speed binary optic microlens array in GaAs,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Raychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 33–44 (1991).

Hamanaka, K.

Haselbeck, S.

S. Haselbeck, H. Scheiber, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalised shuffle switching networks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–633 (1993), Fig. 11.
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

Holz, M.

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, R. J. Anderson, L. G. Hale, W. J. Gunning, M. Holz, “High speed binary optic microlens array in GaAs,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Raychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 33–44 (1991).

M. Holz, M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, “Testing binary optics: accurate high-precision efficiency measurements of microlens arrays in the visible,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 75–89 (1991).

Houssay, B.

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley, P. Savander, M. Schrader, “The use of microlenses for making spatially variant optical interconnections,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 337–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Mersereau, R. J. Crisci, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, D. Daly, M. C. Hutley, “Testing and measurement of microlenses,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1992, 210–215 (1993).

M. C. Hutley, D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, “The testing of microlens arrays,” in Microlens Arrays, M. C. Hutley, ed. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1991), Vol. 30, pp. 67–81.

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, F. Sauer, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, A. Y. Feldblum, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, “Parallel optical interconnections using surface emitting microlasers as a hybrid imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 109, 328–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. H.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

Kishimoto, T.

Knowlden, R. E.

M. Holz, M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, “Testing binary optics: accurate high-precision efficiency measurements of microlens arrays in the visible,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 75–89 (1991).

Laskowiski, E. J.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

LeMarche, R. E.

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “The relationship between speed and tolerances for S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1354–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalised shuffle switching networks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–633 (1993), Fig. 11.
[CrossRef]

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 S-SEED arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

R. A. Nordin, A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnection technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

R. A. Nordin, A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnection technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A.

A. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lui, Y. S.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalised shuffle switching networks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–633 (1993), Fig. 11.
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 S-SEED arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, “Free-space interconnection techniques,” in Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1993), Chap. 15.

McKnight, D. J.

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

Medeiros, S. S.

M. W. Farn, M. B. Stern, W. B. Veldkamp, S. S. Medeiros, “Color separation by use of binary optics,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1214–1216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Holz, M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, “Testing binary optics: accurate high-precision efficiency measurements of microlens arrays in the visible,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 75–89 (1991).

Mersereau, K.

K. Mersereau, R. J. Crisci, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, D. Daly, M. C. Hutley, “Testing and measurement of microlenses,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1992, 210–215 (1993).

Mersereau, K. O.

J. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Midwinter, J. E.

P. C. H. Poon, M. G. Robinson, D. R. Selviah, D. J. Daly, J. E. Midwinter, “Long focal length microlenses,” EOS Trans. 20, pp. 13–16 (1993).

Morrison, R. L.

Motamedi, M. E.

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, R. J. Anderson, L. G. Hale, W. J. Gunning, M. Holz, “High speed binary optic microlens array in GaAs,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Raychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 33–44 (1991).

Neilson, D. T.

C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, “Focal length considerations in the design and manufacture of lenses for optical computing,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994.

Nemoto, H.

Nijander, C. R.

J. Jahns, F. Sauer, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, A. Y. Feldblum, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, “Parallel optical interconnections using surface emitting microlasers as a hybrid imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 109, 328–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Mersereau, R. J. Crisci, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, D. Daly, M. C. Hutley, “Testing and measurement of microlenses,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1992, 210–215 (1993).

Noponen, E.

Nordin, R. A.

R. A. Nordin, A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnection technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nottenburg, R. N.

R. A. Nordin, A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnection technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

O’Gorman, J.

R. A. Nordin, A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnection technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, M.

Okuda, E.

Otaza, M. R.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

Pavlasek, D.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

Pei, S. S.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

Poon, P. C. H.

P. C. H. Poon, M. G. Robinson, D. R. Selviah, D. J. Daly, J. E. Midwinter, “Long focal length microlenses,” EOS Trans. 20, pp. 13–16 (1993).

Popovic, Z. D.

Prince, S. M.

S. M. Prince, F. A. P. Tooley, C. Beauchamp, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlens relays: a case study,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prise, M. E.

Redmond, I. R.

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

Richards, G. W.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalised shuffle switching networks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–633 (1993), Fig. 11.
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

Robertson, W. M.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

Robinson, M. G.

P. C. H. Poon, M. G. Robinson, D. R. Selviah, D. J. Daly, J. E. Midwinter, “Long focal length microlenses,” EOS Trans. 20, pp. 13–16 (1993).

Sasian, J.

J. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

Sauer, F.

J. Jahns, F. Sauer, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, A. Y. Feldblum, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, “Parallel optical interconnections using surface emitting microlasers as a hybrid imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 109, 328–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Savander, P.

M. C. Hutley, P. Savander, M. Schrader, “The use of microlenses for making spatially variant optical interconnections,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 337–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scheiber, H.

S. Haselbeck, H. Scheiber, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, M.

M. C. Hutley, P. Savander, M. Schrader, “The use of microlenses for making spatially variant optical interconnections,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 337–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

S. Haselbeck, H. Scheiber, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Selviah, D. R.

P. C. H. Poon, M. G. Robinson, D. R. Selviah, D. J. Daly, J. E. Midwinter, “Long focal length microlenses,” EOS Trans. 20, pp. 13–16 (1993).

Smith, G.

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

Smith, L. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), p. 342.

Southwell, W. H.

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, R. J. Anderson, L. G. Hale, W. J. Gunning, M. Holz, “High speed binary optic microlens array in GaAs,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Raychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 33–44 (1991).

Sprague, R. A.

Stern, M. B.

M. W. Farn, M. B. Stern, W. B. Veldkamp, S. S. Medeiros, “Color separation by use of binary optics,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1214–1216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Holz, M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, “Testing binary optics: accurate high-precision efficiency measurements of microlens arrays in the visible,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 75–89 (1991).

Stevens, R. F.

M. C. Hutley, D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, “The testing of microlens arrays,” in Microlens Arrays, M. C. Hutley, ed. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1991), Vol. 30, pp. 67–81.

Streibl, N.

S. Haselbeck, H. Scheiber, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Synthetic diffractive elements for optical interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 221–242 (1992).

Tanbun-Ek, T.

R. A. Nordin, A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnection technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tell, B.

J. Jahns, F. Sauer, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, A. Y. Feldblum, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, “Parallel optical interconnections using surface emitting microlasers as a hybrid imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 109, 328–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

S. M. Prince, F. A. P. Tooley, C. Beauchamp, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlens relays: a case study,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “The relationship between speed and tolerances for S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1354–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetric self electro-optic effect cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Wakelin, F. A. P. Tooley, “The tolerance to spatial noise of differential logic gates,” Opt. Comput. and Process. 2, 115–126 (1992).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 S-SEED arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Townsend, W. P.

J. Jahns, F. Sauer, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, A. Y. Feldblum, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, “Parallel optical interconnections using surface emitting microlasers as a hybrid imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 109, 328–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Mersereau, R. J. Crisci, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, D. Daly, M. C. Hutley, “Testing and measurement of microlenses,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1992, 210–215 (1993).

Turunen, J.

E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, “Electromagnetic theory and design of diffractive-lens arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 434–443 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Synthetic diffractive elements for optical interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 221–242 (1992).

Vasara, A.

Veldkamp, W. B.

Wakelin, S.

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetric self electro-optic effect cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wakelin, F. A. P. Tooley, “The tolerance to spatial noise of differential logic gates,” Opt. Comput. and Process. 2, 115–126 (1992).

Walker, A. C.

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

Walker, S. L.

Webb, R.

J. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Wojcik, M. J.

Woodward, T. K.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

R. H. Anderson, “Close-up imaging of documents with lens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 18, 477–484 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. D. Popovic, R. A. Sprague, G. A. N. Connell, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1281–1284 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, T. Kishimoto, “Multiple imaging and multiple Fourier transformation using planar microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4064–4070 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LeMarche, M. M. Downs, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of arrays of S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2841–2843 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Craft, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnects based on arrays of surface emitting lasers and lenslets,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1735–1739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEEDs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dhoedt, P. de Dobblaere, L. Buydens, R. Baets, B. Houssay, “Optical free-space board-to-board interconnect: options for optical pathways,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5508–5516 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetric self electro-optic effect cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “The relationship between speed and tolerances for S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1354–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect smart pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 S-SEED arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

EOS Trans. (1)

P. C. H. Poon, M. G. Robinson, D. R. Selviah, D. J. Daly, J. E. Midwinter, “Long focal length microlenses,” EOS Trans. 20, pp. 13–16 (1993).

IEE Conf. Publ. (London) (1)

A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, F. A. P. Tooley, G. Smith, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, “Construction of a matrix–matrix crossbar optical interconnect employing diffractive fan-out and fan-in lements,” IEE Conf. Publ. (London) 379, 31–34 (1993).

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. A. Nordin, A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, J. O’Gorman, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, “A systems perspective on digital interconnection technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 811–827 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowiski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor SEED smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalised shuffle switching networks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–633 (1993), Fig. 11.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

M. C. Hutley, P. Savander, M. Schrader, “The use of microlenses for making spatially variant optical interconnections,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 337–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Prince, F. A. P. Tooley, C. Beauchamp, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlens relays: a case study,” JEOS Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Jahns, F. Sauer, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, A. Y. Feldblum, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, “Parallel optical interconnections using surface emitting microlasers as a hybrid imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 109, 328–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comput. and Process. (1)

S. Wakelin, F. A. P. Tooley, “The tolerance to spatial noise of differential logic gates,” Opt. Comput. and Process. 2, 115–126 (1992).

Opt. Comput. Process. (1)

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Synthetic diffractive elements for optical interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 221–242 (1992).

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Haselbeck, H. Scheiber, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, “Microlenses fabricated by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, “Focal length considerations in the design and manufacture of lenses for optical computing,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994.

F. B. McCormick, “Free-space interconnection techniques,” in Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1993), Chap. 15.

B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, H. S. Hinton, Y. S. Lui, N. H. Kim, M. R. Otaza, D. Pavlasek, D. V. Plant, W. M. Robertson, “Design of a lenslet array based free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” presented at the ICO Conference on Optical Computing, Edinburgh, UK22–25 August 1994, paper WP19.

M. W. Farn, “Microconcentrators for focal plane arrays,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication, C. Raychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 106–117 (1992).

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, R. J. Anderson, L. G. Hale, W. J. Gunning, M. Holz, “High speed binary optic microlens array in GaAs,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Raychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 33–44 (1991).

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

M. C. Hutley, D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, “The testing of microlens arrays,” in Microlens Arrays, M. C. Hutley, ed. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1991), Vol. 30, pp. 67–81.

K. Mersereau, R. J. Crisci, C. R. Nijander, W. P. Townsend, D. Daly, M. C. Hutley, “Testing and measurement of microlenses,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1992, 210–215 (1993).

M. Holz, M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, “Testing binary optics: accurate high-precision efficiency measurements of microlens arrays in the visible,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 75–89 (1991).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), p. 342.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagrams of three schemes to image active pixel devices onto one another: (a) macrolens approach, (b) microlens relay, (c) hybrid lens relay (adapted from Ref. 7).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Details of the 42-mm, f/5 lens designed for this study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the hybrid-lens approach suggested in Ref. 9.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Off-axis hybrid lens showing (a) the reflected chief ray is not parallel to the optical axis when a singlet is used, and (b) the afocal telecentric telescope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Afocal telescope composed of two doublet microlens arrays.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of a Mach–Zehnder microlens interferometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Interferogram of an f/2 microlens taken at 633 nm and showing 0.2 waves of aberration across the 150-μm aperture.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Graph of the experimentally measured P-V aberration versus the field for the microlens triplet.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Graph of both predicted and measured spot sizes across the field of view of the microlens triplet.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Commercial and Custom-Designed Lenses Used in Optical Computing Demonstrators

Tables Icon

Table 2 CODE V Predicted Spot Sizes for an f/3 Microlens Used at Three Field Angles, at Two Stop Positions, and with the Lens Underfilled

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of f/1 Singlet and Doublet Microlenses Showing the Effect of Field Angle and Multiple Passes on the Spot Size

Metrics