Abstract

Faraday rotator mirror elements have been used in a number of applications as compensators for induced birefringence in retracing paths. In interferometric systems, such as the fiber-optic Michelson interferometer, this approach proved to be useful in providing maximum fringe visibility and insensitivity to the polarization state of light injected into the interferometer. However, it is found that, when the characteristics of the fiber coupler depend on the polarization state of the input beam, the efficiency of the Faraday mirror elements is limited. Theoretical analysis and experimental results in support of this statement are presented.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Jackson, J. Jones, “Fibre optic sensors,” Opt. Acta 33, 1469–1503 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Dependence of visibility on input polarization in interferometric fiber-optic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 13, 288–290 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Optimization and stabilization of visibility in interferometric fiber-optic sensors using input-polarization control,” J. Light-wave Technol. 6, 1599–1609 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, “Analysis of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors and its reduction using polarization scrambling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838–845 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. C. Lefevre, “Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers,” Electron. Lett. 16, 778–780 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fiber interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. H. Wanser, N. H. Safar, “Remote polarization control for fiber-optic interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 217–219 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, “Input polarization scanning technique for overcoming polarization-induced signal fading in interferometric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 931–933 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–519 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. A. Davis, K. H. Wanser, A. D. Kersey, “Polarization-independent reflectometric fiber ring-resonator configuration,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Associazione Electtrotecnica ed Electtronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), p. 233.
  11. N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Electric current measurement with a vibration insensitive optical fiber current sensor,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Associazione Electtrotecnica ed Electtronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), p. 423.
  12. I. Sanz, M. A. Muriel, “Measurement technique for characterization of 2 × 2 couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1303–1305 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Schliep, R. Hereth, “Phase sensitive measurement technique for single-mode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1538–1540 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Schliep, D. Garus, R. Hereth, “Polarization dependence of the phase shift of 2 × 2 singlemode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 78–80 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Martinelli, “A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracing beam,” Opt. Commun. 72, 341–344 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Polarization noise suppression in retracing optical fiber circuits,” Opt. Lett. 16, 711–713 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. E. Brinkmeyer, “Forward-backward transmission in birefringent single-mode fibers: interpretation of polarization-sensitive measurements,” Opt. Lett. 6, 575–577 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Yariv, “Operator algebra for propagation problems involving phase conjugation and nonreciprocal elements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4538–4540 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

F. Schliep, D. Garus, R. Hereth, “Polarization dependence of the phase shift of 2 × 2 singlemode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 78–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

I. Sanz, M. A. Muriel, “Measurement technique for characterization of 2 × 2 couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1303–1305 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. Schliep, R. Hereth, “Phase sensitive measurement technique for single-mode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1538–1540 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Polarization noise suppression in retracing optical fiber circuits,” Opt. Lett. 16, 711–713 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–519 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, “Analysis of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors and its reduction using polarization scrambling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838–845 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

M. Martinelli, “A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracing beam,” Opt. Commun. 72, 341–344 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (3)

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Dependence of visibility on input polarization in interferometric fiber-optic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 13, 288–290 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Optimization and stabilization of visibility in interferometric fiber-optic sensors using input-polarization control,” J. Light-wave Technol. 6, 1599–1609 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, “Input polarization scanning technique for overcoming polarization-induced signal fading in interferometric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 931–933 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

D. Jackson, J. Jones, “Fibre optic sensors,” Opt. Acta 33, 1469–1503 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fiber interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

H. C. Lefevre, “Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers,” Electron. Lett. 16, 778–780 (1980).
[Crossref]

Brinkmeyer, E.

Dandridge, A.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, “Analysis of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors and its reduction using polarization scrambling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838–845 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Optimization and stabilization of visibility in interferometric fiber-optic sensors using input-polarization control,” J. Light-wave Technol. 6, 1599–1609 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Dependence of visibility on input polarization in interferometric fiber-optic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 13, 288–290 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fiber interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[Crossref]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–519 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. A. Davis, K. H. Wanser, A. D. Kersey, “Polarization-independent reflectometric fiber ring-resonator configuration,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Associazione Electtrotecnica ed Electtronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), p. 233.

Frigo, N. J.

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fiber interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[Crossref]

Garus, D.

F. Schliep, D. Garus, R. Hereth, “Polarization dependence of the phase shift of 2 × 2 singlemode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 78–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hereth, R.

F. Schliep, D. Garus, R. Hereth, “Polarization dependence of the phase shift of 2 × 2 singlemode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 78–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Schliep, R. Hereth, “Phase sensitive measurement technique for single-mode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1538–1540 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jackson, D.

D. Jackson, J. Jones, “Fibre optic sensors,” Opt. Acta 33, 1469–1503 (1986).
[Crossref]

Jones, J.

D. Jackson, J. Jones, “Fibre optic sensors,” Opt. Acta 33, 1469–1503 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–519 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, “Analysis of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors and its reduction using polarization scrambling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838–845 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Optimization and stabilization of visibility in interferometric fiber-optic sensors using input-polarization control,” J. Light-wave Technol. 6, 1599–1609 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, “Input polarization scanning technique for overcoming polarization-induced signal fading in interferometric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 931–933 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Dependence of visibility on input polarization in interferometric fiber-optic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 13, 288–290 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Davis, K. H. Wanser, A. D. Kersey, “Polarization-independent reflectometric fiber ring-resonator configuration,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Associazione Electtrotecnica ed Electtronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), p. 233.

Lefevre, H. C.

H. C. Lefevre, “Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers,” Electron. Lett. 16, 778–780 (1980).
[Crossref]

Marrone, M. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–519 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, “Analysis of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors and its reduction using polarization scrambling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838–845 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Optimization and stabilization of visibility in interferometric fiber-optic sensors using input-polarization control,” J. Light-wave Technol. 6, 1599–1609 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, “Input polarization scanning technique for overcoming polarization-induced signal fading in interferometric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 931–933 (1988).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, M.

N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Polarization noise suppression in retracing optical fiber circuits,” Opt. Lett. 16, 711–713 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Martinelli, “A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracing beam,” Opt. Commun. 72, 341–344 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Electric current measurement with a vibration insensitive optical fiber current sensor,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Associazione Electtrotecnica ed Electtronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), p. 423.

Muriel, M. A.

I. Sanz, M. A. Muriel, “Measurement technique for characterization of 2 × 2 couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1303–1305 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pistoni, N. C.

N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Polarization noise suppression in retracing optical fiber circuits,” Opt. Lett. 16, 711–713 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Electric current measurement with a vibration insensitive optical fiber current sensor,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Associazione Electtrotecnica ed Electtronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), p. 423.

Safar, N. H.

Sanz, I.

I. Sanz, M. A. Muriel, “Measurement technique for characterization of 2 × 2 couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1303–1305 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schliep, F.

F. Schliep, D. Garus, R. Hereth, “Polarization dependence of the phase shift of 2 × 2 singlemode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 78–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Schliep, R. Hereth, “Phase sensitive measurement technique for single-mode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1538–1540 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tveten, A. B.

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Dependence of visibility on input polarization in interferometric fiber-optic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 13, 288–290 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Optimization and stabilization of visibility in interferometric fiber-optic sensors using input-polarization control,” J. Light-wave Technol. 6, 1599–1609 (1988).
[Crossref]

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fiber interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[Crossref]

Wanser, K. H.

K. H. Wanser, N. H. Safar, “Remote polarization control for fiber-optic interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 217–219 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Davis, K. H. Wanser, A. D. Kersey, “Polarization-independent reflectometric fiber ring-resonator configuration,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Associazione Electtrotecnica ed Electtronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), p. 233.

Yariv, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (7)

H. C. Lefevre, “Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers,” Electron. Lett. 16, 778–780 (1980).
[Crossref]

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fiber interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 319–320 (1984).
[Crossref]

I. Sanz, M. A. Muriel, “Measurement technique for characterization of 2 × 2 couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1303–1305 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. Schliep, R. Hereth, “Phase sensitive measurement technique for single-mode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1538–1540 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. Schliep, D. Garus, R. Hereth, “Polarization dependence of the phase shift of 2 × 2 singlemode fiber directional couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 78–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, “Input polarization scanning technique for overcoming polarization-induced signal fading in interferometric fiber sensors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 931–933 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–519 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Light-wave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Optimization and stabilization of visibility in interferometric fiber-optic sensors using input-polarization control,” J. Light-wave Technol. 6, 1599–1609 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, “Analysis of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors and its reduction using polarization scrambling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838–845 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (1)

D. Jackson, J. Jones, “Fibre optic sensors,” Opt. Acta 33, 1469–1503 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Martinelli, “A universal compensator for polarization changes induced by birefringence on a retracing beam,” Opt. Commun. 72, 341–344 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

M. A. Davis, K. H. Wanser, A. D. Kersey, “Polarization-independent reflectometric fiber ring-resonator configuration,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Associazione Electtrotecnica ed Electtronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), p. 233.

N. C. Pistoni, M. Martinelli, “Electric current measurement with a vibration insensitive optical fiber current sensor,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Associazione Electtrotecnica ed Electtronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), p. 423.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of an all-fiber Michelson interferometer with the retardations of its components represented by Jones matrices [C], [D], and [F]; FR, Faraday rotator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Splitting ratio of the coupler as a function of the azimuth ( Ø) of the linearly polarized input state.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental arrangement used to test the effectiveness of the Faraday rotators. TS1 and TS2, translation stages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal at output 2 with a 40-Hz perturbation applied to the fiber lead and with the PC adjusted to an optimum position (a) without Faraday rotators and (b) with Faraday rotators.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signal at output 2 with a 40-Hz perturbation applied to the fiber lead and with the PC adjusted to a new position where the effect of Faraday rotator mirrors is minimum (a) without Faraday rotators and (b) with Faraday rotators.

Equations (7)

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E 2 = 1 2 [ ( 1 - α [ P F ] ) · ( 1 - α [ P C ] ) ] 1 / 2 · [ F ] · [ X ] · [ C ] · [ FRM ] · [ C ] · [ X ] · [ F ] · E in × exp [ i ( 2 ϕ F + 2 ϕ C - ϕ [ P F ] 2 - ϕ [ P C ] 2 ) ] + 1 2 ( α [ P F ] · α [ P D ] ) 1 / 2 · [ F ] · [ X ] · [ D ] · [ FRM ] · [ D ] · [ X ] · [ F ] · E in × exp [ i ( 2 ϕ F + 2 ϕ D + ϕ [ P F ] 2 + ϕ [ P D ] 2 ) ] .
ϕ [ P i ] = π 2 + γ ( P i ) ,
[ MFR ] = [ 0 - 1 - 1 0 ] ,
[ F ] = [ R ] · [ F ] t · [ R ] - 1 ,
[ R ] = [ - 1 0 0 - 1 ]
I 2 = { ( 1 - α [ P F ] ) · ( 1 - α [ P C ] ) + α [ P F ] · α [ P D ] } · E in · E in + [ ( 1 - α [ P F ] ) · ( 1 - α [ P C ] ) · α [ P F ] · α [ P D ] ] 1 / 2 · { E in · E in · exp ( - i Δ ϕ ) + E in · E in · exp ( + i Δ ϕ ) } .
Δ ϕ = 2 ( ϕ C - ϕ D ) - γ [ P F ] - γ [ P C ] 2 - γ [ P D ] 2 - π .

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