Abstract

The development of multilayer mirror technology capable of operating in the range of 3–30 nm and the construction of thin membranes with excellent uniformity and strength have made it possible to design and implement a Mach–Zehnder interferometer operating at 15.5 nm. We have tested this interferometer by using a soft x-ray laser as a source, and we show its use in probing high-density plasmas.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. T. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–186 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. E. Young, “Spatial profiles of stimulated Brillouin scattering ion waves in a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1939–1942 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. E. Young, “Experimental study of filamentation in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2331–2336 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Bergamin, G. Cavagnero, G. Mana, “Accuracy assessment of a least-squares estimator for scanning x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 725–734 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. K. Bowen, D. G. Chetwynd, D. R. Schwarzenberger, “Subnamometre displacements calibration using x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 107–119 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Holloway, “X-ray interferometry and its application to determination of layer thickness and strain in quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6229–6236 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Chakrabarti, D. M. Cotton, J. S. Vickers, B. C. Bush, “Self-compensating, all reflection interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2596–2602 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Svatos, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, F. Polack, “Soft-x-ray interferometer for measuring the refractive index of materials,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1367–1369 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a Mo/Si multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high reflectance Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by planar magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).
  14. A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1987).
  15. L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. G. Levi, “Veil of secrecy is lifted from parts of Livermore’s laser fusion program,” Phys. Today 47, 17–19 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (3)

P. E. Young, “Spatial profiles of stimulated Brillouin scattering ion waves in a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1939–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chakrabarti, D. M. Cotton, J. S. Vickers, B. C. Bush, “Self-compensating, all reflection interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2596–2602 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Levi, “Veil of secrecy is lifted from parts of Livermore’s laser fusion program,” Phys. Today 47, 17–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

P. E. Young, “Experimental study of filamentation in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2331–2336 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high reflectance Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by planar magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Bergamin, G. Cavagnero, G. Mana, “Accuracy assessment of a least-squares estimator for scanning x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 725–734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

D. K. Bowen, D. G. Chetwynd, D. R. Schwarzenberger, “Subnamometre displacements calibration using x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 107–119 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Holloway, “X-ray interferometry and its application to determination of layer thickness and strain in quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6229–6236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. T. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–186 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

D. T. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–186 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J. M.

D. T. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–186 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Bergamin, A.

A. Bergamin, G. Cavagnero, G. Mana, “Accuracy assessment of a least-squares estimator for scanning x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 725–734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, U.

U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, R. A.

M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, D. K.

D. K. Bowen, D. G. Chetwynd, D. R. Schwarzenberger, “Subnamometre displacements calibration using x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 107–119 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Busch, G. E.

M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bush, B. C.

Cauble, B.

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Cavagnero, G.

A. Bergamin, G. Cavagnero, G. Mana, “Accuracy assessment of a least-squares estimator for scanning x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 725–734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1987).

Chakrabarti, S.

Chetwynd, D. G.

D. K. Bowen, D. G. Chetwynd, D. R. Schwarzenberger, “Subnamometre displacements calibration using x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 107–119 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cotton, D. M.

Craxton, R. S.

M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Da Silva, L. B.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Danzmann, K.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1987).

Estabrook, K. G.

M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Freiders, G.

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Hart, M.

U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Harte, J. A.

M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1987).

Holloway, H.

H. Holloway, “X-ray interferometry and its application to determination of layer thickness and strain in quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6229–6236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

Joyeux, D.

Koch, J. A.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Kollin, J. S.

M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Kühne, M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1987).

Lee, P. H. Y.

D. T. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–186 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Levi, B. G.

B. G. Levi, “Veil of secrecy is lifted from parts of Livermore’s laser fusion program,” Phys. Today 47, 17–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

MacGowan, B. J.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Mana, G.

A. Bergamin, G. Cavagnero, G. Mana, “Accuracy assessment of a least-squares estimator for scanning x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 725–734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. L.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Mrowka, S.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Müller, P.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1987).

Phalippou, D.

Polack, F.

Prasad, M. K.

M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ress, D. B.

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Rife, J. C.

Rosen, R. S.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high reflectance Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by planar magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzenberger, D. R.

D. K. Bowen, D. G. Chetwynd, D. R. Schwarzenberger, “Subnamometre displacements calibration using x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 107–119 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high reflectance Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by planar magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1987).

Svatos, J.

Sweeney, D. W.

D. T. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–186 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Underwood, J. H.

Vernon, S. P.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high reflectance Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by planar magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, J. S.

Weiland, T. L.

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

Wende, B.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1987).

Young, P. E.

P. E. Young, “Spatial profiles of stimulated Brillouin scattering ion waves in a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1939–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Young, “Experimental study of filamentation in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2331–2336 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Holloway, “X-ray interferometry and its application to determination of layer thickness and strain in quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6229–6236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high reflectance Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by planar magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

A. Bergamin, G. Cavagnero, G. Mana, “Accuracy assessment of a least-squares estimator for scanning x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 725–734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Bowen, D. G. Chetwynd, D. R. Schwarzenberger, “Subnamometre displacements calibration using x-ray interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 107–119 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Fluids B (2)

P. E. Young, “Experimental study of filamentation in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2331–2336 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Prasad, K. G. Estabrook, J. A. Harte, R. S. Craxton, R. A. Bosch, G. E. Busch, J. S. Kollin, “Holographic interferograms from laser fusion code simulations,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 1569–1575 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. T. Attwood, D. W. Sweeney, J. M. Auerbach, P. H. Y. Lee, “Interferometric confirmation of radiation-pressure effects in laser-plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 184–186 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Young, “Spatial profiles of stimulated Brillouin scattering ion waves in a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1939–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

B. G. Levi, “Veil of secrecy is lifted from parts of Livermore’s laser fusion program,” Phys. Today 47, 17–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. B. Da Silva, B. Cauble, G. Freiders, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, S. Mrowka, D. B. Ress, J. E. Trebes, T. L. Weiland, “Imaging with x-ray lasers,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2012, 158–161 (1994).

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 688, 81–90 (1987).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the XUV Mach–Zehnder interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferogram obtained with the neonlike yttrium x-ray laser (λ = 15.5 nm). The horizontal bar (dark band) is an alignment reference at the object plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vertical lineout through the interferogram of Fig. 2 at X = 2 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferogram of Mylar target irradiated at 1.5 × 1014 W/cm2 with a 600-ps square optical laser and probed 500 ps after start of pulse. The bright region is self-emission from the laser-heated plasma. One fringe shift corresponds to an electron density of 1.5 × 1020 cm−3 for a plasma length of 1 mm.

Equations (1)

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N Fringe n e 2 n cr L λ = 4.54 × 10 - 22 n e λ L ,

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