Abstract

For fused tapered fiber couplers with weakly fused cross sections, power coupling takes place between two touching tapered cladding cylinders embedded in the air, and the cylinders then become a strongly guiding structure. We provide accurate polarization-dependent coupling coefficients for such a structure, on the basis of a rigorous vectorial numerical calculation. Our results for the corresponding weakly guiding structure are compared with previous vector perturbation methods base on scalar fields. It is found that the scalar theories are not applicable to those cases with large normalized frequencies or with small fiber separations when the polarization-splitting effect is concerned.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconicaltaper single-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Lett. 6, 321–323 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. J. Tekippe, “Passive fiber optic components made by the fused biconical taper process,” in Optical Fibers and Their Applications V, R. S. Romaniuk, M. Szustakowski, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1085, 88–115 (1990).
  3. T. Bricheno, V. Baker, “All-fiber polarization splitter/combiner,” Electron. Lett. 21, 251–252 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, M. S. Yataki, “Polarisation analysis of strongly fused and weakly fused tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561–563 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Bures, S. Lacroix, J. Lapierre, “Analysis of fused single-mode optical fibre bidirectional couplers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1918–1922 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguides (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983).
  8. A. Ankiewicz, A. Altintas, A. W. Snyder, X.-H. Zheng, “Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—critical examination,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1317–1323 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Renner, “Optical fiber couplers: scalar supermodes and polarization corrections,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 728–734 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H.-C. Chang, T.-H. Lin, “Modeling of fused tapered optical fiber couplers through more rigorous modal analysis,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 266.
  11. H. S. Huang, H.-C. Chang, “Analysis of optical fiber directional coupling based on the HE11 modes—Part I: The identical-core case,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 823–831 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Wijngaard, “Guided normal modes of two parallel circular dielectric rods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 944–950 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. H. Zheng, “Finite-element analysis of fused couplers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 804–805 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of fused fiber couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 998–999 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of weakly fused fiber-optic couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 687–691 (1994).
  16. M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of fused fiber couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 998–999 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of weakly fused fiber-optic couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 687–691 (1994).

1992 (1)

H. Renner, “Optical fiber couplers: scalar supermodes and polarization corrections,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 728–734 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. S. Huang, H.-C. Chang, “Analysis of optical fiber directional coupling based on the HE11 modes—Part I: The identical-core case,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 823–831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

A. Ankiewicz, A. Altintas, A. W. Snyder, X.-H. Zheng, “Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—critical examination,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1317–1323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zheng, “Finite-element analysis of fused couplers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 804–805 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

T. Bricheno, V. Baker, “All-fiber polarization splitter/combiner,” Electron. Lett. 21, 251–252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, M. S. Yataki, “Polarisation analysis of strongly fused and weakly fused tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561–563 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconicaltaper single-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Lett. 6, 321–323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Altintas, A.

A. Ankiewicz, A. Altintas, A. W. Snyder, X.-H. Zheng, “Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—critical examination,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1317–1323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

A. Ankiewicz, A. Altintas, A. W. Snyder, X.-H. Zheng, “Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—critical examination,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1317–1323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baker, V.

T. Bricheno, V. Baker, “All-fiber polarization splitter/combiner,” Electron. Lett. 21, 251–252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bricheno, T.

T. Bricheno, V. Baker, “All-fiber polarization splitter/combiner,” Electron. Lett. 21, 251–252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bures, J.

Chang, H.-C.

T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of fused fiber couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 998–999 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of weakly fused fiber-optic couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 687–691 (1994).

H. S. Huang, H.-C. Chang, “Analysis of optical fiber directional coupling based on the HE11 modes—Part I: The identical-core case,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 823–831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Chang, T.-H. Lin, “Modeling of fused tapered optical fiber couplers through more rigorous modal analysis,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 266.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eisenmann, M.

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconicaltaper single-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Lett. 6, 321–323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. S.

H. S. Huang, H.-C. Chang, “Analysis of optical fiber directional coupling based on the HE11 modes—Part I: The identical-core case,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 823–831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hussey, C. D.

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, M. S. Yataki, “Polarisation analysis of strongly fused and weakly fused tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561–563 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconicaltaper single-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Lett. 6, 321–323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

Lamont, R. G.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconicaltaper single-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Lett. 6, 321–323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lapierre, J.

Lin, T.-H.

H.-C. Chang, T.-H. Lin, “Modeling of fused tapered optical fiber couplers through more rigorous modal analysis,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 266.

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguides (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983).

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, M. S. Yataki, “Polarisation analysis of strongly fused and weakly fused tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561–563 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Renner, H.

H. Renner, “Optical fiber couplers: scalar supermodes and polarization corrections,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 728–734 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. Ankiewicz, A. Altintas, A. W. Snyder, X.-H. Zheng, “Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—critical examination,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1317–1323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguides (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983).

Tekippe, V. J.

V. J. Tekippe, “Passive fiber optic components made by the fused biconical taper process,” in Optical Fibers and Their Applications V, R. S. Romaniuk, M. Szustakowski, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1085, 88–115 (1990).

Weidel, E.

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wijngaard, W.

Wu, T.-L.

T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of fused fiber couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 998–999 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of weakly fused fiber-optic couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 687–691 (1994).

Yataki, M. S.

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, M. S. Yataki, “Polarisation analysis of strongly fused and weakly fused tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561–563 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X. H.

X. H. Zheng, “Finite-element analysis of fused couplers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 804–805 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.-H.

A. Ankiewicz, A. Altintas, A. W. Snyder, X.-H. Zheng, “Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—critical examination,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1317–1323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (4)

T. Bricheno, V. Baker, “All-fiber polarization splitter/combiner,” Electron. Lett. 21, 251–252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, M. S. Yataki, “Polarisation analysis of strongly fused and weakly fused tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561–563 (1985).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zheng, “Finite-element analysis of fused couplers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 804–805 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of fused fiber couplers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 998–999 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

T.-L. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “Rigorous analysis of form birefringence of weakly fused fiber-optic couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 687–691 (1994).

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Huang, H.-C. Chang, “Analysis of optical fiber directional coupling based on the HE11 modes—Part I: The identical-core case,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 823–831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Ankiewicz, A. Altintas, A. W. Snyder, X.-H. Zheng, “Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—critical examination,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1317–1323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Renner, “Optical fiber couplers: scalar supermodes and polarization corrections,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 728–734 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconicaltaper single-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Lett. 6, 321–323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

V. J. Tekippe, “Passive fiber optic components made by the fused biconical taper process,” in Optical Fibers and Their Applications V, R. S. Romaniuk, M. Szustakowski, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1085, 88–115 (1990).

H.-C. Chang, T.-H. Lin, “Modeling of fused tapered optical fiber couplers through more rigorous modal analysis,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 266.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguides (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coupling coefficient versus normalized frequency V for the structure consisting of two touching fibers. The dotted curve is obtained with the theory in Ref. 8.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization effect versus normalized frequency V for different Δ values and for core separation D = 2 and 3, as predicted by different theories. The dotted curve and the circles represent the scalar theory results of Refs. 8 and 9, respectively, for D = 2 and Δ = 0.00275. The X’s represent the scalar theory results of Ref. 9 for D = 3 and Δ = 0.00547. The other four curves represent our results based on the circular-harmonics expansion method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the normalized frequency V corresponding to Cx = Cy for different core separations D, with Δ = 0.00547.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results of the normalized power coupled from the input fiber to the other fiber versus the draw length for a weakly fused coupler and for three different polarization conditions.

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