Abstract

We describe an encrypted holographic data-storage system that combines orthogonal-phase-code multiplexing with a random-phase key. The system offers the security advantages of random-phase coding but retains the low cross-talk performance and the minimum code storage requirements typical in an orthogonal-phase-code-multiplexing system.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding technique,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Taketomi, J. E. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, “Incremental recording for photorefractive hologram multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1774–1776 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Technique for arbitrary linear combination of stored data pages based on phase-code multiplexing in volume holography,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1079–1081 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Taketomi, J. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. Lee, “Multimode operations of a holographic memory using orthogonal phase codes,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 126–129.
  5. A. E. Krasnov, “Thick-film phase holograms recorded by means of coded reference waves,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1147–1148 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. C. Bashaw, J. F. Heanue, A. Aharoni, J. F. Walkup, L. Hesselink, “Cross-talk considerations for angular and phase-encoded multiplexing in volume holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1820–1836 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. G. Beauchamp, Applications of Walsh and Related Functions (Academic, London, 1984) Chap. 4, pp. 137–171.
  8. B. Javidi, J. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752–1756 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1991 (2)

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding technique,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taketomi, J. E. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, “Incremental recording for photorefractive hologram multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1774–1776 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. E. Krasnov, “Thick-film phase holograms recorded by means of coded reference waves,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1147–1148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aharoni, A.

Bashaw, M. C.

Beauchamp, K. G.

K. G. Beauchamp, Applications of Walsh and Related Functions (Academic, London, 1984) Chap. 4, pp. 137–171.

Denz, C.

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding technique,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Y. Taketomi, J. E. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, “Incremental recording for photorefractive hologram multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1774–1776 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Taketomi, J. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. Lee, “Multimode operations of a holographic memory using orthogonal phase codes,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 126–129.

Ford, J.

Y. Taketomi, J. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. Lee, “Multimode operations of a holographic memory using orthogonal phase codes,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 126–129.

Ford, J. E.

Heanue, J. F.

Hesselink, L.

Horner, J.

B. Javidi, J. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752–1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

B. Javidi, J. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752–1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krasnov, A. E.

A. E. Krasnov, “Thick-film phase holograms recorded by means of coded reference waves,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1147–1148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Y. Taketomi, J. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. Lee, “Multimode operations of a holographic memory using orthogonal phase codes,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 126–129.

Lee, S. H.

Ma, J.

Y. Taketomi, J. E. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, “Incremental recording for photorefractive hologram multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1774–1776 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Taketomi, J. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. Lee, “Multimode operations of a holographic memory using orthogonal phase codes,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 126–129.

Pauliat, G.

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding technique,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding technique,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

Y. Taketomi, J. E. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, “Incremental recording for photorefractive hologram multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1774–1776 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Taketomi, J. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. Lee, “Multimode operations of a holographic memory using orthogonal phase codes,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 126–129.

Taketomi, Y.

Y. Taketomi, J. E. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, “Incremental recording for photorefractive hologram multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1774–1776 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Taketomi, J. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. Lee, “Multimode operations of a holographic memory using orthogonal phase codes,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 126–129.

Tschudi, T.

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding technique,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walkup, J. F.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Denz, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, T. Tschudi, “Volume hologram multiplexing using a deterministic phase encoding technique,” Opt. Commun. 85, 171–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Javidi, J. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752–1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Krasnov, “Thick-film phase holograms recorded by means of coded reference waves,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1147–1148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. G. Beauchamp, Applications of Walsh and Related Functions (Academic, London, 1984) Chap. 4, pp. 137–171.

Y. Taketomi, J. Ford, H. Sasaki, J. Ma, Y. Fainman, S. Lee, “Multimode operations of a holographic memory using orthogonal phase codes,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 126–129.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement used to demonstrate encrypted data storage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Recall of image 1 from the encrypted memory, (b) recall of image 2, and (c) noise that results when an incorrect phase key is used.

Equations (7)

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R m ( x , t ) = n = 1 N r n m exp [ j ( k n x ω t + ϕ n m ) ] + c . c . ,
| R m = | r 1 m exp ( j ϕ 1 m ) , r 2 m exp ( j ϕ 2 m ) , , r N m exp ( j ϕ N m ) .
| k i = | 0 , 0 , , 1 , , 0 , 0 ,
| S out = B 0 m = 1 M R m | R p | S m ,
I out ¯ = I correct + 1 2 M N 2 ¯ I 1 ,
I out ¯ = 1 2 M N I 1 .
P N 2 N .

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