Abstract

The refractive and the diffractive properties of planar micro-optical elements are investigated. The transition between purely refractive and purely diffractive planar microlenses is numerically simulated for the example of differently designed phase-matched Fresnel elements. Results obtained from numerical simulations and experiments show that the refractive and diffractive types exhibit a distinctly different behavior in the presence of small fabrication errors or wavelength deviations. Based on these results, design rules for various applications, including low- and high-numerical-aperture lenses and hybrid refractive–diffractive elements, are derived. For a high-numerical-aperture (f/# = 1.0) lens the experimental characterization of the irradiance distribution in the image space is presented and shown to agree well with theoretical predictions.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
Related Articles
Binary high-frequency-carrier diffractive optical elements: electromagnetic theory

Eero Noponen and Jari Turunen
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(3) 1097-1109 (1994)

Relaxed fabrication tolerances for low-Fresnel-number lenses

Thomas Hessler and Rino E. Kunz
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(7) 1599-1606 (1997)

Fabrication and characterization of diffractive optical elements in InP for monolithic integration with surface-emitting components

Josip Vukusic, Jörgen Bengtsson, Marco Ghisoni, Anders Larsson, Carl-Fredrik Carlström, and Gunnar Landgren
Appl. Opt. 39(3) 398-401 (2000)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (10)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Tables (1)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article tables are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (22)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription