Abstract

The refractive and the diffractive properties of planar micro-optical elements are investigated. The transition between purely refractive and purely diffractive planar microlenses is numerically simulated for the example of differently designed phase-matched Fresnel elements. Results obtained from numerical simulations and experiments show that the refractive and diffractive types exhibit a distinctly different behavior in the presence of small fabrication errors or wavelength deviations. Based on these results, design rules for various applications, including low- and high-numerical-aperture lenses and hybrid refractive–diffractive elements, are derived. For a high-numerical-aperture (f/# = 1.0) lens the experimental characterization of the irradiance distribution in the image space is presented and shown to agree well with theoretical predictions.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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