Abstract

A simple technique for high-resolution imaging of distant objects is described and experimentally demonstrated. The technique, referred to as Fourier telescopy, is a variant of Fourier microscopy, which additionally uses phase closure for correction of intervening aberrations. It is an active-illumination technique that is scalable to angular resolutions of 1 nrad and to illuminators of extremely low power. A laboratory experiment demonstrates reconstruction of images of two simple objects with an angular resolution of 83 μrad.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. R. Holmes, “Applications of lasers to imaging of distant objects,” in Intense Laser Beams and Applications, W. E. McDermott, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1871, 306–315 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Dainty, “Stellar speckle interferometry,” Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. R. Dainty, ed. (Springer Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 255–320.
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    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Holmes, A. MacGovern, A. Bhowmik, P. White, P. Idell, “An active imaging technique that attains ultra-high resolution with ultra-low transmitter power,” in Proceedings of the 1994 Space Surveillance Workshop, K. P. Schwan, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1994), pp. 135–140.

1993 (1)

1991 (3)

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ebstein, “High-light-level variance of estimators for intensity interferometry and fourth-order correlation interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1450–1456 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Sica, “Estimator and signal-to-noise ratio for an integrative synthetic-aperture imaging technique,” Appl. Opt. 30, 206–213 (1991);see also “Image speckle contrast reduction resulting from integrative synthetic aperture imaging,” Appl. Opt. 31, 120–125 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

N. D. Ustinov, A. V. Anufriev, A. L. Volpov, Yu. A. Zimin, A. I. Tolmachev, “Active aperture synthesis on observation of objects via distorting media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 108–110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

1968 (1)

1964 (1)

1958 (1)

R. C. Jennison, “A phase sensitive interferometer technique for the measurement of the Fourier transforms of spatial brightness distributions of small angular extent,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 118, 276–284 (1958).

Aleksoff, C.

Ameer, G. A.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anufriev, A. V.

N. D. Ustinov, A. V. Anufriev, A. L. Volpov, Yu. A. Zimin, A. I. Tolmachev, “Active aperture synthesis on observation of objects via distorting media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 108–110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bhowmik, A.

R. Holmes, A. MacGovern, A. Bhowmik, P. White, P. Idell, “An active imaging technique that attains ultra-high resolution with ultra-low transmitter power,” in Proceedings of the 1994 Space Surveillance Workshop, K. P. Schwan, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1994), pp. 135–140.

Boeke, B. R.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. P.

W. P. Brown, “Coherent light visibility imaging,” in Digital Image Synthesis and Inverse Optics, A. F. Gmitro, P. S. Idell, I. J. Lattaie, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1351, 749–756 (1990).

Browne, S. L.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. R.

J. R. Dainty, “Stellar speckle interferometry,” Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. R. Dainty, ed. (Springer Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 255–320.

DeVelis, J. B.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorial in Fourier Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Washington, 1989), pp. 503–535.

Ebstein, S. M.

Fried, D. L.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

Holmes, R.

R. Holmes, “Applications of lasers to imaging of distant objects,” in Intense Laser Beams and Applications, W. E. McDermott, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1871, 306–315 (1993).

R. Holmes, A. MacGovern, A. Bhowmik, P. White, P. Idell, “An active imaging technique that attains ultra-high resolution with ultra-low transmitter power,” in Proceedings of the 1994 Space Surveillance Workshop, K. P. Schwan, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1994), pp. 135–140.

Hufnagel, R. E.

Hutchin, R. A.

R. A. Hutchin, “Microscope for producing high resolution images without precision optics,” U.S. patent4,584,484 (22April, 1986).

Idell, P.

R. Holmes, A. MacGovern, A. Bhowmik, P. White, P. Idell, “An active imaging technique that attains ultra-high resolution with ultra-low transmitter power,” in Proceedings of the 1994 Space Surveillance Workshop, K. P. Schwan, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1994), pp. 135–140.

Jennison, R. C.

R. C. Jennison, “A phase sensitive interferometer technique for the measurement of the Fourier transforms of spatial brightness distributions of small angular extent,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 118, 276–284 (1958).

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Lefebvre, J. E.

MacGovern, A.

R. Holmes, A. MacGovern, A. Bhowmik, P. White, P. Idell, “An active imaging technique that attains ultra-high resolution with ultra-low transmitter power,” in Proceedings of the 1994 Space Surveillance Workshop, K. P. Schwan, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1994), pp. 135–140.

Moran, J. M.

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Parrent, G. B.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorial in Fourier Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Washington, 1989), pp. 503–535.

Reynolds, G. O.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorial in Fourier Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Washington, 1989), pp. 503–535.

Roberts, P. H.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rogstad, D. H.

Ruane, R. E.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sica, L.

Stanley, N. R.

Swenson, G. W.

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Tai, A. M.

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).

Thompson, A. R.

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Thompson, B. J.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorial in Fourier Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Washington, 1989), pp. 503–535.

Tolmachev, A. I.

N. D. Ustinov, A. V. Anufriev, A. L. Volpov, Yu. A. Zimin, A. I. Tolmachev, “Active aperture synthesis on observation of objects via distorting media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 108–110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, G. A.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, N. D.

N. D. Ustinov, A. V. Anufriev, A. L. Volpov, Yu. A. Zimin, A. I. Tolmachev, “Active aperture synthesis on observation of objects via distorting media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 108–110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Volpov, A. L.

N. D. Ustinov, A. V. Anufriev, A. L. Volpov, Yu. A. Zimin, A. I. Tolmachev, “Active aperture synthesis on observation of objects via distorting media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 108–110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

White, P.

R. Holmes, A. MacGovern, A. Bhowmik, P. White, P. Idell, “An active imaging technique that attains ultra-high resolution with ultra-low transmitter power,” in Proceedings of the 1994 Space Surveillance Workshop, K. P. Schwan, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1994), pp. 135–140.

Wopat, L. M.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zimin, Yu. A.

N. D. Ustinov, A. V. Anufriev, A. L. Volpov, Yu. A. Zimin, A. I. Tolmachev, “Active aperture synthesis on observation of objects via distorting media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 108–110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

R. C. Jennison, “A phase sensitive interferometer technique for the measurement of the Fourier transforms of spatial brightness distributions of small angular extent,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 118, 276–284 (1958).

Nature (1)

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide star,” Nature 353, 144–148 (1991);see also C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric distortion using a synthetic beacon,” Nature 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. D. Ustinov, A. V. Anufriev, A. L. Volpov, Yu. A. Zimin, A. I. Tolmachev, “Active aperture synthesis on observation of objects via distorting media,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 108–110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Wiley, New York, 1986).

R. A. Hutchin, “Microscope for producing high resolution images without precision optics,” U.S. patent4,584,484 (22April, 1986).

W. P. Brown, “Coherent light visibility imaging,” in Digital Image Synthesis and Inverse Optics, A. F. Gmitro, P. S. Idell, I. J. Lattaie, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1351, 749–756 (1990).

R. Holmes, “Applications of lasers to imaging of distant objects,” in Intense Laser Beams and Applications, W. E. McDermott, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1871, 306–315 (1993).

J. R. Dainty, “Stellar speckle interferometry,” Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. R. Dainty, ed. (Springer Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 255–320.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorial in Fourier Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Washington, 1989), pp. 503–535.

R. Holmes, A. MacGovern, A. Bhowmik, P. White, P. Idell, “An active imaging technique that attains ultra-high resolution with ultra-low transmitter power,” in Proceedings of the 1994 Space Surveillance Workshop, K. P. Schwan, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1994), pp. 135–140.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).

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