Abstract

The contrast ratio and the speed of a 16 × 16 electrically addressed spatial light modulator, composed of a ferroelectric liquid-crystal layer on top of a VLSI silicon backplane, are measured with different methods but consistent results. The results are presented and compared with recently reported results on a similar spatial light modulator [Appl. Opt. 33, 2775 (1994)].

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 77–82 (1986).
  2. D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, R. A. Serati, “256 × 256 liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2775–2784 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, P. J. Ayliffe, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, “Evolutionary development of advanced liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4740–4747 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, “Smectic-C ‘chevron,’ a planar liquid-crystal defect: implications for the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal geometry,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 1053– 1056 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1992), pp. 211–213.
  6. H. Dammann, E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Opt. Acta 24, 505–515 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. S. Patel, S. Lee, J. W. Goodby, “Electric-field-induced layer reorientation in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2854–2856 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. O'Hara, J. R. Hannah, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. J. Holwill, “Mirror quality and efficiency improvements of reflective spatial light modulator by the use of dielectric coatings and chemical mechanical polishing,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5549–5556 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).
  10. F. M. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1989 (3)

F. M. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, P. J. Ayliffe, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, “Evolutionary development of advanced liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4740–4747 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Patel, S. Lee, J. W. Goodby, “Electric-field-induced layer reorientation in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2854–2856 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, “Smectic-C ‘chevron,’ a planar liquid-crystal defect: implications for the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal geometry,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 1053– 1056 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 77–82 (1986).

1977 (1)

H. Dammann, E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Opt. Acta 24, 505–515 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Al-Chalabi, A. O.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Ayliffe, P. J.

Birch, M. J.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Bradford, G.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Clark, N. A.

N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, “Smectic-C ‘chevron,’ a planar liquid-crystal defect: implications for the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal geometry,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 1053– 1056 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collings, N.

Crossland, W. A.

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, P. J. Ayliffe, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, “Evolutionary development of advanced liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4740–4747 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Opt. Acta 24, 505–515 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fancey, N. E.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Goodby, J. W.

J. S. Patel, S. Lee, J. W. Goodby, “Electric-field-induced layer reorientation in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2854–2856 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gourlay, J.

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1992), pp. 211–213.

Hannah, J. R.

Holwill, R. J.

Johnson, K. M.

Klotz, E.

H. Dammann, E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Opt. Acta 24, 505–515 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Latham, S. C.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Lee, S.

J. S. Patel, S. Lee, J. W. Goodby, “Electric-field-induced layer reorientation in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2854–2856 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCormick, F. M.

F. M. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).

McKnight, D. J.

McOwan, P.

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1992), pp. 211–213.

O'Hara, A.

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel, S. Lee, J. W. Goodby, “Electric-field-induced layer reorientation in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2854–2856 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieker, T. P.

N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, “Smectic-C ‘chevron,’ a planar liquid-crystal defect: implications for the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal geometry,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 1053– 1056 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serati, R. A.

Sillitto, R. M.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 77–82 (1986).

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Sparks, A. P.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Underwood, I.

A. O'Hara, J. R. Hannah, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. J. Holwill, “Mirror quality and efficiency improvements of reflective spatial light modulator by the use of dielectric coatings and chemical mechanical polishing,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5549–5556 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, P. J. Ayliffe, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, “Evolutionary development of advanced liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4740–4747 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 77–82 (1986).

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1992), pp. 211–213.

Vass, D. G.

A. O'Hara, J. R. Hannah, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. J. Holwill, “Mirror quality and efficiency improvements of reflective spatial light modulator by the use of dielectric coatings and chemical mechanical polishing,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5549–5556 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, P. J. Ayliffe, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, “Evolutionary development of advanced liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4740–4747 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 77–82 (1986).

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1992), pp. 211–213.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Worboys, M.

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1992), pp. 211–213.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEE Proc. Pt. J (1)

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 77–82 (1986).

Opt. Acta (1)

H. Dammann, E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Opt. Acta 24, 505–515 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. M. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. S. Patel, S. Lee, J. W. Goodby, “Electric-field-induced layer reorientation in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2854–2856 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, “Smectic-C ‘chevron,’ a planar liquid-crystal defect: implications for the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal geometry,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 1053– 1056 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1992), pp. 211–213.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Goodkin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the static random-access memory circuitry used for driving the FLC at each pixel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contrast measurements of 16 pixels: plane of polarization of input illumination constant.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2 but optimized for each set of readings.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Voltages used to drive successive on and off states of the liquid crystal and the reflection state of the latter (FLC).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Arrangement of components for illuminating and viewing the SLM with structured illumination.

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