Abstract

Optical waveguides have been obtained by field-assisted Cu+–Na+ exchanged on glass. The refractive index profiles of the waveguides are determined by means of the prism-coupling technique and Chiang’s method [J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385 (1985)], and they correlate with the index profile calculated as a function of the glass composition. The composition profile is examined with the aid of a scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and the diffusion process is explained by the one-dimensional diffusion equation.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Findakly, “Glass waveguides by ion exchange: a review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985).
  3. R. Ludwing, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).
  4. S. I. Najafi, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech, Boston, 1992).
  5. S. Gevorgyan, “Single-step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted copper ion-exchange,” Electron. Lett. 26, 38–39 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kobayashi, “Optical and EPR studies on redox interaction layers of Ag+ and Cu+ ions diffusing into soda-lime glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 20, 21–24 (1979).
  7. S. Sakka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu-Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).
  9. H. Marquez, D. Salazar, E. Razon, G. Paez, “Planar optical waveguides in glass by diffusion of copper films,” in Gradient Index Optical Systems, Vol. 12 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 27–30.
  10. W. L. Jolly, The Principles of Inorganic Chemistry (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976).
  11. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  12. S. D. Fantone, “Refractive index and spectral models for gradient-index materials,” Appl. Opt. 22, 432–440 (1983).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. L. Huggins, “The refractive index of silicate glasses as a function of composition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 495–504 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. I. Najafi, P. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Silver film-diffused glass waveguides: diffusion and optical properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2213–2218 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Li, P. F. Johnson, “A general analytical solution for the concentration profiles of ion-exchanged planar waveguides,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 357–362 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Marquez, J. Ma. Rincon, L. E. Celaya, “Experimental study of CdCl2-CuCl photochromic coatings,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3699–3703 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. I. Najafi, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Wavelength-dependent propagation characteristics of Ag+–Na+ exchanged planar glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1840–1843 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (2)

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

X. Li, P. F. Johnson, “A general analytical solution for the concentration profiles of ion-exchanged planar waveguides,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 357–362 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

H. Marquez, J. Ma. Rincon, L. E. Celaya, “Experimental study of CdCl2-CuCl photochromic coatings,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3699–3703 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gevorgyan, “Single-step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted copper ion-exchange,” Electron. Lett. 26, 38–39 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Ludwing, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).

1988 (1)

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

S. I. Najafi, P. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Silver film-diffused glass waveguides: diffusion and optical properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2213–2218 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Najafi, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Wavelength-dependent propagation characteristics of Ag+–Na+ exchanged planar glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1840–1843 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Findakly, “Glass waveguides by ion exchange: a review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985).

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

S. Sakka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu-Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

K. Kobayashi, “Optical and EPR studies on redox interaction layers of Ag+ and Cu+ ions diffusing into soda-lime glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 20, 21–24 (1979).

1940 (2)

Battaglin, G.

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

Celaya, L. E.

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fantone, S. D.

Findakly, T.

T. Findakly, “Glass waveguides by ion exchange: a review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985).

Gevorgyan, S.

S. Gevorgyan, “Single-step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted copper ion-exchange,” Electron. Lett. 26, 38–39 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gonella, F.

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

Huggins, M. L.

Johnson, P. F.

X. Li, P. F. Johnson, “A general analytical solution for the concentration profiles of ion-exchanged planar waveguides,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 357–362 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jolly, W. L.

W. L. Jolly, The Principles of Inorganic Chemistry (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976).

Kamiya, K.

S. Sakka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu-Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

S. Sakka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu-Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kittel, C.

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, “Optical and EPR studies on redox interaction layers of Ag+ and Cu+ ions diffusing into soda-lime glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 20, 21–24 (1979).

Li, X.

X. Li, P. F. Johnson, “A general analytical solution for the concentration profiles of ion-exchanged planar waveguides,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 357–362 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Losaco, A.

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

Ludwing, R.

R. Ludwing, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).

Marchi, G.

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

Marquez, H.

H. Marquez, J. Ma. Rincon, L. E. Celaya, “Experimental study of CdCl2-CuCl photochromic coatings,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3699–3703 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Marquez, D. Salazar, E. Razon, G. Paez, “Planar optical waveguides in glass by diffusion of copper films,” in Gradient Index Optical Systems, Vol. 12 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 27–30.

Mazzoldi, P.

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

Miotello, A.

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

Najafi, S. I.

S. I. Najafi, P. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Silver film-diffused glass waveguides: diffusion and optical properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2213–2218 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Najafi, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Wavelength-dependent propagation characteristics of Ag+–Na+ exchanged planar glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1840–1843 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Najafi, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech, Boston, 1992).

Paez, G.

H. Marquez, D. Salazar, E. Razon, G. Paez, “Planar optical waveguides in glass by diffusion of copper films,” in Gradient Index Optical Systems, Vol. 12 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 27–30.

Quaranta, A.

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

Ramaswamy, R. V.

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Najafi, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Wavelength-dependent propagation characteristics of Ag+–Na+ exchanged planar glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1840–1843 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Najafi, P. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Silver film-diffused glass waveguides: diffusion and optical properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2213–2218 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Razon, E.

H. Marquez, D. Salazar, E. Razon, G. Paez, “Planar optical waveguides in glass by diffusion of copper films,” in Gradient Index Optical Systems, Vol. 12 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 27–30.

Rincon, J. Ma.

Sakka, S.

S. Sakka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu-Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Salazar, D.

H. Marquez, D. Salazar, E. Razon, G. Paez, “Planar optical waveguides in glass by diffusion of copper films,” in Gradient Index Optical Systems, Vol. 12 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 27–30.

Srivastava, R.

Suchoski, P.

S. I. Najafi, P. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Silver film-diffused glass waveguides: diffusion and optical properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2213–2218 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, A.

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C (1)

G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Gevorgyan, “Single-step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted copper ion-exchange,” Electron. Lett. 26, 38–39 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Glastech. Ber. (1)

R. Ludwing, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. I. Najafi, P. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Silver film-diffused glass waveguides: diffusion and optical properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2213–2218 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

S. Sakka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu-Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

X. Li, P. F. Johnson, “A general analytical solution for the concentration profiles of ion-exchanged planar waveguides,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 357–362 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Findakly, “Glass waveguides by ion exchange: a review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985).

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

K. Kobayashi, “Optical and EPR studies on redox interaction layers of Ag+ and Cu+ ions diffusing into soda-lime glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 20, 21–24 (1979).

Other (4)

S. I. Najafi, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech, Boston, 1992).

H. Marquez, D. Salazar, E. Razon, G. Paez, “Planar optical waveguides in glass by diffusion of copper films,” in Gradient Index Optical Systems, Vol. 12 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 27–30.

W. L. Jolly, The Principles of Inorganic Chemistry (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976).

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1976).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Composition profile of a Cu ion-exchanged planar waveguide by SEM/EDX.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index profile calculated from the composition profile of the waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current density versus time for Cu–glass waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Logarithm of the diffusion coefficient as a function of 1/T.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effective depth versus square root of the diffusion time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Copper profiles from the diffusion equation and SEM/EDX microanalysis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Principle of operation of the prism-coupling technique.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Refractive index profiles of the waveguide obtained from optical analysis and from the composition profile.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Compositional Data for a Glass Substrate

Tables Icon

Table 2 Effective Mode Indices of Cu-Diffused Waveguides at 632.8 nm

Equations (5)

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n d ( χ ) = 1 + R ( χ ) V ( χ ) = 1 + a M N M ( χ ) k + b S i + C M N M ( χ ) ,
Δ n χ V 0 ( Δ R - R 0 Δ V V 0 ) ,
C = c 0 2 [ erfc ( x - μ E t w 0 ) + exp ( μ E x D ) erfc ( x + μ E t W 0 ) ] ,
D = D 0 exp ( - E a R T ) ,
N m = n p sin [ sin - 1 ( sin θ m n p ) + A ] ,

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