Abstract

As the demands of lithographic fabrication of computer chips push toward ever-decreasing feature sizes, projection extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography becomes an increasingly attractive technology. The radiation source of choice for this approach is a laser plasma with a high repetition rate. We report an investigation of a new candidate laser plasma source for EUV lithography that is based on line emission from ice-water targets. This radiation source has the potential to meet all the strict requirements of EUV conversion, debris elimination, operation, and cost for a demonstration lithographic system.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, R. C. Spitzer, “X-ray production ~13 nm from laser-produced plasma for projection x-ray lithography application,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6897–6900 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.
  4. A. G. Michette, “X-ray microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 51, 1525–1604 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Hawryluk, L. Seppala, “Soft x-ray projection lithography using an x-ray reduction camera,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 2162–2166 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil’ev, D. Salzmann, “Mass-limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2015, 151–159 (1993).
  7. S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, J. Hunter, “Prototype high-speed tape target transport for a laser plasma soft-x-ray projection lithography source,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6934–6937 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michette, R. E. Burge, “A study of the feasibility of x-ray microscopy with a laser-plasma source,” in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 58.
  9. M. Richardson, K. Gabel, F. Jin, W. T. Silfvast, “Cryogenic targets for laser plasma x-ray lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 156–162.
  10. M. C. Richardson, K. Gabel, M. Kado, F. Jin, “Water laser plasma x-ray point source and apparatus,” U.S. patent pending (1994).
  11. N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “Soft x-ray projection lithography system design,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of American, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 5–10.
  12. R. C. Spitzer, R. L. Kauffman, T. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, C. Cerjan, “X-ray production from laser produced plasmas for SXPL application,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993) pp. 142–145.
  13. Data derived from the spectra database created by A. Ya. Falenov, I. Ya. Skobelev (1993).
  14. R. Lee, User Manual for ration (University of California and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1990).
  15. I. C. E. Turcu, G. J. Tallents, M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michett, “High repetition rate laser-plasma x-ray source for microscopy,” in X-ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 54.
  16. M. Richardson, W. T. Silfvast, H. A. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. P. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Characterization and control of laser plasma flux parameters for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6901–6910 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1987), Chap. 2, p. 36.
  18. A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, “Wavelength considerations in soft x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7062–7067 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. A. Rodgers, A. M. Rogoyski, R. S. Y. Rose, med101: A Laser-Plasma Simulation Code, User guide (Appleton, Ruther-ford, N.J., 1989).
  20. R. Fabbro, C. Max, E. Fabre, “Planar laser-driven ablation: effect of inhibited electron thermal conduction,” Phys. Fluids 28, 1463–1481 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. P. Yanovsky, M. C. Richardson, E. J. Miesak, “Compact, single-frequency, high-power Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 884–886 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. L. Henke, F. G. Fukiwara, M. A. Tester, C. H. Dittmore, M. A. Palmer, “Low-energy x-ray response of photographic films. II. Experimental characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 828–849 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. L. Henke, S. L. Kwok, J. Y. Uejio, H. T. Yamada, G. C. Young, “Low-energy response of photographic films. I. Mathematical models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 818–827 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. T. Silfvast, H. Bender, A. M. Eligon, D. O’Connell, A. Hanzo, M. C. Richardson, “Laser plasma source characterization for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 117–126.

1994 (1)

V. P. Yanovsky, M. C. Richardson, E. J. Miesak, “Compact, single-frequency, high-power Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 884–886 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

1992 (1)

W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

A. G. Michette, “X-ray microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 51, 1525–1604 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Hawryluk, L. Seppala, “Soft x-ray projection lithography using an x-ray reduction camera,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 2162–2166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Fabbro, C. Max, E. Fabre, “Planar laser-driven ablation: effect of inhibited electron thermal conduction,” Phys. Fluids 28, 1463–1481 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

Bender, H.

W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Silfvast, H. Bender, A. M. Eligon, D. O’Connell, A. Hanzo, M. C. Richardson, “Laser plasma source characterization for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 117–126.

Bender, H. A.

Berger, K. W.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Boker, J.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Burge, R. E.

M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michette, R. E. Burge, “A study of the feasibility of x-ray microscopy with a laser-plasma source,” in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 58.

Ceglio, N. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, “Wavelength considerations in soft x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7062–7067 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “Soft x-ray projection lithography system design,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of American, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 5–10.

Cerjan, C.

R. C. Spitzer, R. L. Kauffman, T. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, C. Cerjan, “X-ray production from laser produced plasmas for SXPL application,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993) pp. 142–145.

Dittmore, C. H.

Eicher, L.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Eligon, A. M.

W. T. Silfvast, H. Bender, A. M. Eligon, D. O’Connell, A. Hanzo, M. C. Richardson, “Laser plasma source characterization for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 117–126.

Fabbro, R.

R. Fabbro, C. Max, E. Fabre, “Planar laser-driven ablation: effect of inhibited electron thermal conduction,” Phys. Fluids 28, 1463–1481 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, E.

R. Fabbro, C. Max, E. Fabre, “Planar laser-driven ablation: effect of inhibited electron thermal conduction,” Phys. Fluids 28, 1463–1481 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Falenov, A. Ya.

Data derived from the spectra database created by A. Ya. Falenov, I. Ya. Skobelev (1993).

Freeman, R. R.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Fukiwara, F. G.

Gabel, K.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil’ev, D. Salzmann, “Mass-limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2015, 151–159 (1993).

M. Richardson, K. Gabel, F. Jin, W. T. Silfvast, “Cryogenic targets for laser plasma x-ray lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 156–162.

M. C. Richardson, K. Gabel, M. Kado, F. Jin, “Water laser plasma x-ray point source and apparatus,” U.S. patent pending (1994).

Haney, S. J.

Hanzo, A.

M. Richardson, W. T. Silfvast, H. A. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. P. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Characterization and control of laser plasma flux parameters for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6901–6910 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Silfvast, H. Bender, A. M. Eligon, D. O’Connell, A. Hanzo, M. C. Richardson, “Laser plasma source characterization for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 117–126.

Hawryluk, A. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, “Wavelength considerations in soft x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7062–7067 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Hawryluk, L. Seppala, “Soft x-ray projection lithography using an x-ray reduction camera,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 2162–2166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “Soft x-ray projection lithography system design,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of American, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 5–10.

Henke, B. L.

Huang, K.

K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1987), Chap. 2, p. 36.

Hunter, J.

Jewell, T. E.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Jin, F.

M. Richardson, W. T. Silfvast, H. A. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. P. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Characterization and control of laser plasma flux parameters for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6901–6910 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil’ev, D. Salzmann, “Mass-limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2015, 151–159 (1993).

M. C. Richardson, K. Gabel, M. Kado, F. Jin, “Water laser plasma x-ray point source and apparatus,” U.S. patent pending (1994).

M. Richardson, K. Gabel, F. Jin, W. T. Silfvast, “Cryogenic targets for laser plasma x-ray lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 156–162.

Kado, M.

M. C. Richardson, K. Gabel, M. Kado, F. Jin, “Water laser plasma x-ray point source and apparatus,” U.S. patent pending (1994).

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil’ev, D. Salzmann, “Mass-limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2015, 151–159 (1993).

Kauffman, R. L.

R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, R. C. Spitzer, “X-ray production ~13 nm from laser-produced plasma for projection x-ray lithography application,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6897–6900 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Spitzer, R. L. Kauffman, T. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, C. Cerjan, “X-ray production from laser produced plasmas for SXPL application,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993) pp. 142–145.

Kubiak, G. D.

Kwok, S. L.

Lee, R.

R. Lee, User Manual for ration (University of California and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1990).

MacDowell, A. A.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Mansfield, W. M.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Max, C.

R. Fabbro, C. Max, E. Fabre, “Planar laser-driven ablation: effect of inhibited electron thermal conduction,” Phys. Fluids 28, 1463–1481 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Michett, A. G.

I. C. E. Turcu, G. J. Tallents, M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michett, “High repetition rate laser-plasma x-ray source for microscopy,” in X-ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 54.

Michette, A. G.

A. G. Michette, “X-ray microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 51, 1525–1604 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michette, R. E. Burge, “A study of the feasibility of x-ray microscopy with a laser-plasma source,” in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 58.

Miesak, E. J.

V. P. Yanovsky, M. C. Richardson, E. J. Miesak, “Compact, single-frequency, high-power Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 884–886 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, D.

W. T. Silfvast, H. Bender, A. M. Eligon, D. O’Connell, A. Hanzo, M. C. Richardson, “Laser plasma source characterization for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 117–126.

Orzechowski, T.

R. C. Spitzer, R. L. Kauffman, T. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, C. Cerjan, “X-ray production from laser produced plasmas for SXPL application,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993) pp. 142–145.

Palmer, M. A.

Phillion, D. W.

R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, R. C. Spitzer, “X-ray production ~13 nm from laser-produced plasma for projection x-ray lithography application,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6897–6900 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Spitzer, R. L. Kauffman, T. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, C. Cerjan, “X-ray production from laser produced plasmas for SXPL application,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993) pp. 142–145.

Richardson, M.

M. Richardson, W. T. Silfvast, H. A. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. P. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Characterization and control of laser plasma flux parameters for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6901–6910 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Richardson, K. Gabel, F. Jin, W. T. Silfvast, “Cryogenic targets for laser plasma x-ray lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 156–162.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil’ev, D. Salzmann, “Mass-limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2015, 151–159 (1993).

Richardson, M. C.

V. P. Yanovsky, M. C. Richardson, E. J. Miesak, “Compact, single-frequency, high-power Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 884–886 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Richardson, K. Gabel, M. Kado, F. Jin, “Water laser plasma x-ray point source and apparatus,” U.S. patent pending (1994).

W. T. Silfvast, H. Bender, A. M. Eligon, D. O’Connell, A. Hanzo, M. C. Richardson, “Laser plasma source characterization for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 117–126.

Rockett, P. D.

Rodgers, P. A.

P. A. Rodgers, A. M. Rogoyski, R. S. Y. Rose, med101: A Laser-Plasma Simulation Code, User guide (Appleton, Ruther-ford, N.J., 1989).

Rogoyski, A. M.

P. A. Rodgers, A. M. Rogoyski, R. S. Y. Rose, med101: A Laser-Plasma Simulation Code, User guide (Appleton, Ruther-ford, N.J., 1989).

Rose, R. S. Y.

P. A. Rodgers, A. M. Rogoyski, R. S. Y. Rose, med101: A Laser-Plasma Simulation Code, User guide (Appleton, Ruther-ford, N.J., 1989).

Salzmann, D.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil’ev, D. Salzmann, “Mass-limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2015, 151–159 (1993).

Schulz, M. S.

M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michette, R. E. Burge, “A study of the feasibility of x-ray microscopy with a laser-plasma source,” in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 58.

I. C. E. Turcu, G. J. Tallents, M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michett, “High repetition rate laser-plasma x-ray source for microscopy,” in X-ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 54.

Seppala, L.

A. M. Hawryluk, L. Seppala, “Soft x-ray projection lithography using an x-ray reduction camera,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 2162–2166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T.

M. Richardson, W. T. Silfvast, H. A. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. P. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Characterization and control of laser plasma flux parameters for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6901–6910 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Richardson, K. Gabel, F. Jin, W. T. Silfvast, “Cryogenic targets for laser plasma x-ray lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 156–162.

W. T. Silfvast, H. Bender, A. M. Eligon, D. O’Connell, A. Hanzo, M. C. Richardson, “Laser plasma source characterization for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 117–126.

Skobelev, I. Ya.

Data derived from the spectra database created by A. Ya. Falenov, I. Ya. Skobelev (1993).

Spitzer, R. C.

R. L. Kauffman, D. W. Phillion, R. C. Spitzer, “X-ray production ~13 nm from laser-produced plasma for projection x-ray lithography application,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6897–6900 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Spitzer, R. L. Kauffman, T. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, C. Cerjan, “X-ray production from laser produced plasmas for SXPL application,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993) pp. 142–145.

Szeto, L. H.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Tallents, G. J.

I. C. E. Turcu, G. J. Tallents, M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michett, “High repetition rate laser-plasma x-ray source for microscopy,” in X-ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 54.

Tennant, D. M.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Tester, M. A.

Thorpe, J.

M. Richardson, W. T. Silfvast, H. A. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. P. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Characterization and control of laser plasma flux parameters for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6901–6910 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Turcu, I. C. E.

I. C. E. Turcu, G. J. Tallents, M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michett, “High repetition rate laser-plasma x-ray source for microscopy,” in X-ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 54.

Uejio, J. Y.

Vasil’ev, A. F.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil’ev, D. Salzmann, “Mass-limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2015, 151–159 (1993).

Waskiewicz, W. K.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

White, D. L.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Windt, D. L.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Wood, O. R.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

Yamada, H. T.

Yanovsky, V.

W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V. P.

Young, G. C.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. P. Yanovsky, M. C. Richardson, E. J. Miesak, “Compact, single-frequency, high-power Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 884–886 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. M. Hawryluk, L. Seppala, “Soft x-ray projection lithography using an x-ray reduction camera,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 2162–2166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. T. Silfvast, M. C. Richardson, H. Bender, A. Hanzo, V. Yanovsky, F. Jin, J. Thorpe, “Laser-produced plasmas for soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3126–3133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

R. Fabbro, C. Max, E. Fabre, “Planar laser-driven ablation: effect of inhibited electron thermal conduction,” Phys. Fluids 28, 1463–1481 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. G. Michette, “X-ray microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 51, 1525–1604 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Boker, L. Eicher, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “High-resolution soft x-ray projection imaging,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–42.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil’ev, D. Salzmann, “Mass-limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography,” in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, M. C. Richardson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2015, 151–159 (1993).

K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1987), Chap. 2, p. 36.

M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michette, R. E. Burge, “A study of the feasibility of x-ray microscopy with a laser-plasma source,” in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 58.

M. Richardson, K. Gabel, F. Jin, W. T. Silfvast, “Cryogenic targets for laser plasma x-ray lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 156–162.

M. C. Richardson, K. Gabel, M. Kado, F. Jin, “Water laser plasma x-ray point source and apparatus,” U.S. patent pending (1994).

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “Soft x-ray projection lithography system design,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, J. Bokor, ed., Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of American, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 5–10.

R. C. Spitzer, R. L. Kauffman, T. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, C. Cerjan, “X-ray production from laser produced plasmas for SXPL application,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993) pp. 142–145.

Data derived from the spectra database created by A. Ya. Falenov, I. Ya. Skobelev (1993).

R. Lee, User Manual for ration (University of California and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1990).

I. C. E. Turcu, G. J. Tallents, M. S. Schulz, A. G. Michett, “High repetition rate laser-plasma x-ray source for microscopy,” in X-ray Microscopy III, A. G. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 54.

P. A. Rodgers, A. M. Rogoyski, R. S. Y. Rose, med101: A Laser-Plasma Simulation Code, User guide (Appleton, Ruther-ford, N.J., 1989).

W. T. Silfvast, H. Bender, A. M. Eligon, D. O’Connell, A. Hanzo, M. C. Richardson, “Laser plasma source characterization for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 117–126.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy levels of Li-like oxygen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ion population for different electron densities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of Li-like ions for different electron densities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of electron temperature and density profile for a typical laser-produced plasma.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation results of four strong x-ray lines. Calculated dependence on (a) laser intensity, (b) wavelength, (c) pulse width.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup for x-ray measurement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Seed-injected 500-MW Nd:YAG laser system: PM, polarization mirror; FR, Faraday rotator.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated and measured x-ray spectra: (a) ice and synthetic spectra, (b) tin and ice radiation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental results of four strong x-ray lines. Variation with (a) laser energy, (b) laser intensity.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Debris from tin and ice targets: (a) tin target, (b) ice target, (c) cross section of thickness.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Unit Price and Single-Shot Cost of Materials

Equations (4)

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T = R 7 W 3 ( d Ω / π ) S P x , P x = η P L ,
n total = i = 1 8 n i , n e = i = 1 8 i n i = 10 21 cm - 3 ,
r c = 2 σ m ρ k T 1 ln [ P r ( T ) / P ( T ) ] ,
T i > C T b + H v - ( 3 α / ρ r ) + ½ V 2 C

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