Abstract

The algorithmic, electronic, and optical aspects of the implementation of a perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter are analyzed. The performance metrics such as the bit output data rate and the power consumption of the system are quantified. The sorting module is designed to demonstrate the parallel nonlocal interconnection of smart-pixel arrays and the use of optical-image control masks in a functioning information processor.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1994 (5)

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1194 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode clamped smart pixel optical receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlenses: a case study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Prince, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Implementation of optical perfect-shuffle module,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1775–1782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (7)

P. R. Prucnal, “Optically processed self-routing, synchronization, and contention resolution for 1-D and 2-D photonic switching architecture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 600–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Gluch, H. Koboll, K. Zürl, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Demonstration for an optoelectronic switching network,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1857–1869 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Godwin, C. D. Carey, S. H. Song, D. R. Selviah, J. E. Midwinter, “Perfect shuffle interconnections using Fresnel computer generated holograms in a planar-optic configuration,” IEE Hologr. Syst. Components Appl. 379, 15–21 (1993).

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, G. L. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetrical self-electro-optic-effect device cellular image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cheng, J. M. Wang, A. A. Sawchuk, “Design of space-multiplexed three-dimensional Omega networks and their optical implementation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6482–6492 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (7)

N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, E. Hasman, “Realization of perfect-shuffle and inverse perfect-shuffle transforms with holographic elements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1810–1812 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, E. Hasman, “On the limits of optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5426–5430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Wang, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Optical two-dimensional perfect shuffles based on a one-copy algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5464–5467 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. L. Hollman, J. H. VinLint, “Nonblocking self-routing switching networks,” Discrete Appl. Math. 37, 319–340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Synthetic diffractive elements for optical interconnection,” Opt. Comput. and Process. 2, 221–242 (1992).

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Giglmayr, “Properties of optically implemented shuffle interconnections,” Opt. Commun. 93, 112–115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (6)

1989 (3)

1988 (5)

1987 (2)

S. Y. Kung, S. C. Lu, S. N. Jem, J. N. Hwang, “Wavefront array processors, concepts to implementation,” Computer (July1987), 18–33.
[CrossRef]

S. D. Smith, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, B. S. Wherrett, “The demonstration of restoring digital optical logic,” Nature (London) 325, 27–31 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1981 (2)

C. L. Wu, T. Y. Fend, “The universality of the shuffle-exchange network,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 324–340 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Nassimi, S. Sahni, “A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 332–340 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

C. R. Jesshope, “The implementation of fast radix 2 transforms on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput., C-29, 20–27 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Parker, “Notes on shuffle/exchange-type switching networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 213–222 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

T. Lang, H. S. Stone, “A shuffle-exchange network with simplified control,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-25, 55–65 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Akl, S. G.

S. G. Akl, “Parallel sorting algorithms,” Notes and Reports in Computer Science and Applied Mathematics (Academic, London, 1985), pp. 61–79.

Atale, R. A.

Athale, R. A.

C. W. Shirk, R. A. Athale, “Sorting with optical compare-and-exchange modules,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1721–1726 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Batcher, K. E.

K. E. Batcher, “Sorting networks and their applications,” in Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference (American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Reston, Virginia, 1968), Vol. 32, pp. 307–314.

Beauchamp, C. P.

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlenses: a case study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Optoelectronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S. P.

Bowman, S.

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 333–346 (1993).

Brenner, K.-H.

Buller, G. S.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 373–377 (1993).

Carey, C. D.

D. P. Godwin, C. D. Carey, S. H. Song, D. R. Selviah, J. E. Midwinter, “Perfect shuffle interconnections using Fresnel computer generated holograms in a planar-optic configuration,” IEE Hologr. Syst. Components Appl. 379, 15–21 (1993).

Cheng, L.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode clamped smart pixel optical receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chou, H. M.

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

Craig, R. G. A.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, S. D. Smith, “Optical cellular logic image processor: implementation and programming of a single channel digital optical circuit,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2297–2308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 373–377 (1993).

Crowder, G. J.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, G. J. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, “Arrays of processing nodes of massively parallel sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” presented at the First International Conference on Application-Specific Integrated Circuits, Beijing, China, 18–21 October 1994.

D’Asaro, L. A.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

Desmulliez, M. P. Y.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, G. J. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, “Arrays of processing nodes of massively parallel sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” presented at the First International Conference on Application-Specific Integrated Circuits, Beijing, China, 18–21 October 1994.

Dines, J. A. B.

J. A. B. Dines, “Timing comparisons between optically and electrically connected parallel single-instruction multiple-stream computers performing fast-Fourier-transform and bitonic-sorting algorithms,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Dunn, M. H.

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, X. Li, L. M. Ni, “On the communication complexity of generalized 2-D convolution on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 38, 184–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fend, T. Y.

C. L. Wu, T. Y. Fend, “The universality of the shuffle-exchange network,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 324–340 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Focht, M. W.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Foulk, P. W.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, G. J. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, “Arrays of processing nodes of massively parallel sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” presented at the First International Conference on Application-Specific Integrated Circuits, Beijing, China, 18–21 October 1994.

Freund, J. M.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

Gibbs, H. M.

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Giglmayr, J.

J. Giglmayr, “Properties of optically implemented shuffle interconnections,” Opt. Commun. 93, 112–115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gluch, E.

E. Gluch, H. Koboll, K. Zürl, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Demonstration for an optoelectronic switching network,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1857–1869 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Godwin, D. P.

D. P. Godwin, C. D. Carey, S. H. Song, D. R. Selviah, J. E. Midwinter, “Perfect shuffle interconnections using Fresnel computer generated holograms in a planar-optic configuration,” IEE Hologr. Syst. Components Appl. 379, 15–21 (1993).

Goodfellow, R. C.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Optoelectronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1194 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

Goodwin, M. J.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Optoelectronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grant, N. L.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, G. J. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, “Arrays of processing nodes of massively parallel sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” presented at the First International Conference on Application-Specific Integrated Circuits, Beijing, China, 18–21 October 1994.

Guth, G. D.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guth, G. G.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haney, M. W.

M. W. Haney, J. J. Levy, “Optically efficient free-space folded perfect shuffle network,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2833–2840 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Atale, M. W. Haney, “Folded perfect shuffle optical processor,” Appl. Opt. 27, 202–203 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Haney, “Optoelectronic shuffle-exchange network for multiprocessor architectures,” in Photonic Switching, 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 115–118.

Hasman, E.

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

Holland, M. C.

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1194 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hollman, H. D. L.

H. D. L. Hollman, J. H. VinLint, “Nonblocking self-routing switching networks,” Discrete Appl. Math. 37, 319–340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

S. P. Bian, K. B. Xu, J. Hong, “Optical perfect shuffle using Wollaston prisms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 173–174 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

Hongpu, L.

M. Tsao, L. Hongpu, L. Xiaan, C. Shaogian, Y. Lide, Y. Yang, “Optical hardware for the perfect shuffle interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 23–27 (1991).

Huang, A.

Hwang, J. N.

S. Y. Kung, S. C. Lu, S. N. Jem, J. N. Hwang, “Wavefront array processors, concepts to implementation,” Computer (July1987), 18–33.
[CrossRef]

Jem, S. N.

S. Y. Kung, S. C. Lu, S. N. Jem, J. N. Hwang, “Wavefront array processors, concepts to implementation,” Computer (July1987), 18–33.
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C. R. Jesshope, “The implementation of fast radix 2 transforms on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput., C-29, 20–27 (1980).
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Jin, R.

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jutumalia, S.

Kashko, A.

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 333–346 (1993).

Kearley, M. Q.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Optoelectronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kirkby, C. J. G.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Optoelectronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knuth, D. E.

D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1973).

Koboll, H.

E. Gluch, H. Koboll, K. Zürl, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Demonstration for an optoelectronic switching network,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1857–1869 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M. A.

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, G. L. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kung, S. Y.

S. Y. Kung, S. C. Lu, S. N. Jem, J. N. Hwang, “Wavefront array processors, concepts to implementation,” Computer (July1987), 18–33.
[CrossRef]

Lang, T.

T. Lang, H. S. Stone, “A shuffle-exchange network with simplified control,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-25, 55–65 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode clamped smart pixel optical receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J. J.

Li, X.

Z. Fang, X. Li, L. M. Ni, “On the communication complexity of generalized 2-D convolution on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 38, 184–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lide, Y.

M. Tsao, L. Hongpu, L. Xiaan, C. Shaogian, Y. Lide, Y. Yang, “Optical hardware for the perfect shuffle interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 23–27 (1991).

Lu, S. C.

S. Y. Kung, S. C. Lu, S. N. Jem, J. N. Hwang, “Wavefront array processors, concepts to implementation,” Computer (July1987), 18–33.
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mayor, J. S.

J. S. Mayor, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, “High-power InGaAsP/GaAs laser diodes,” in CLEO ’94, Vol. 8 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 25.

McCormick, F. B.

McElhinney, M.

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1194 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

McKnight, D. J.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 373–377 (1993).

Meredith, P.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 373–377 (1993).

Midwinter, J. E.

D. P. Godwin, C. D. Carey, S. H. Song, D. R. Selviah, J. E. Midwinter, “Perfect shuffle interconnections using Fresnel computer generated holograms in a planar-optic configuration,” IEE Hologr. Syst. Components Appl. 379, 15–21 (1993).

Miller, A. S.

A. S. Miller, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Space multiplexing in multistage optical interconnection networks,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alfreov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 129–139 (1993).

Morris, R. C.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Optoelectronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

Mosely, A. J.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Optoelectronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nassimi, D.

D. Nassimi, S. Sahni, “A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 332–340 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ni, L. M.

Z. Fang, X. Li, L. M. Ni, “On the communication complexity of generalized 2-D convolution on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 38, 184–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Parker, D. S.

D. S. Parker, “Notes on shuffle/exchange-type switching networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 213–222 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. S.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Plano, W. E.

J. S. Mayor, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, “High-power InGaAsP/GaAs laser diodes,” in CLEO ’94, Vol. 8 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 25.

Pottier, F.

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

Prince, S.

Prince, S. M.

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlenses: a case study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P. R.

P. R. Prucnal, “Optically processed self-routing, synchronization, and contention resolution for 1-D and 2-D photonic switching architecture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 600–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Przybylek, G. J.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Redmond, I. R.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 373–377 (1993).

Richards, G. W.

Sahni, S.

D. Nassimi, S. Sahni, “A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 332–340 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

Sawchuk, A. A.

Schwider, J.

E. Gluch, H. Koboll, K. Zürl, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Demonstration for an optoelectronic switching network,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1857–1869 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Selviah, D. R.

D. P. Godwin, C. D. Carey, S. H. Song, D. R. Selviah, J. E. Midwinter, “Perfect shuffle interconnections using Fresnel computer generated holograms in a planar-optic configuration,” IEE Hologr. Syst. Components Appl. 379, 15–21 (1993).

Shaogian, C.

M. Tsao, L. Hongpu, L. Xiaan, C. Shaogian, Y. Lide, Y. Yang, “Optical hardware for the perfect shuffle interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 23–27 (1991).

Sheng, Y. L.

Shirk, C. W.

Sinclair, B. D.

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

Smith, L. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

Snook, M. W. G.

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

Snowdon, J. F.

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 333–346 (1993).

Song, Q. W.

Song, S. H.

D. P. Godwin, C. D. Carey, S. H. Song, D. R. Selviah, J. E. Midwinter, “Perfect shuffle interconnections using Fresnel computer generated holograms in a planar-optic configuration,” IEE Hologr. Syst. Components Appl. 379, 15–21 (1993).

Sprague, R. W.

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C.

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

Stanley, C. R.

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1194 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stirk, C. W.

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Atale, M. W. Haney, “Folded perfect shuffle optical processor,” Appl. Opt. 27, 202–203 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stone, H. S.

T. Lang, H. S. Stone, “A shuffle-exchange network with simplified control,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-25, 55–65 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Storti, G.

Streibl, N.

E. Gluch, H. Koboll, K. Zürl, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Demonstration for an optoelectronic switching network,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1857–1869 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

S. Prince, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Implementation of optical perfect-shuffle module,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1775–1782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Synthetic diffractive elements for optical interconnection,” Opt. Comput. and Process. 2, 221–242 (1992).

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 373–377 (1993).

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

Thompson, J.

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Optoelectronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

S. Prince, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Implementation of optical perfect-shuffle module,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1775–1782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlenses: a case study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetrical self-electro-optic-effect device cellular image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, S. D. Smith, “Optical cellular logic image processor: implementation and programming of a single channel digital optical circuit,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2297–2308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Smith, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, B. S. Wherrett, “The demonstration of restoring digital optical logic,” Nature (London) 325, 27–31 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, G. J. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, “Arrays of processing nodes of massively parallel sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” presented at the First International Conference on Application-Specific Integrated Circuits, Beijing, China, 18–21 October 1994.

Tsao, M.

M. Tsao, L. Hongpu, L. Xiaan, C. Shaogian, Y. Lide, Y. Yang, “Optical hardware for the perfect shuffle interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 23–27 (1991).

Turunen, J.

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Synthetic diffractive elements for optical interconnection,” Opt. Comput. and Process. 2, 221–242 (1992).

Underwood, I.

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

Unger, G. L.

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, G. L. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vass, D. G.

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

VinLint, J. H.

H. D. L. Hollman, J. H. VinLint, “Nonblocking self-routing switching networks,” Discrete Appl. Math. 37, 319–340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wakelin, S.

Walker, A. C.

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1194 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, S. D. Smith, “Optical cellular logic image processor: implementation and programming of a single channel digital optical circuit,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2297–2308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Smith, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, B. S. Wherrett, “The demonstration of restoring digital optical logic,” Nature (London) 325, 27–31 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 373–377 (1993).

Wang, J. M.

Welch, D. F.

J. S. Mayor, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, “High-power InGaAsP/GaAs laser diodes,” in CLEO ’94, Vol. 8 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 25.

Wherrett, B. S.

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, S. D. Smith, “Optical cellular logic image processor: implementation and programming of a single channel digital optical circuit,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2297–2308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Smith, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, B. S. Wherrett, “The demonstration of restoring digital optical logic,” Nature (London) 325, 27–31 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Wherrett, “All-optical computation: a design for tackling a specific physical problem,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2876–2883 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Wherrett, “Architectural aspects of optical computing,” in Workshop on Photonic Logic and Information Processing, C. M. Bowden, J. G. Duthie, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.769, 7–20 (1986).

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 333–346 (1993).

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, G. J. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, “Arrays of processing nodes of massively parallel sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” presented at the First International Conference on Application-Specific Integrated Circuits, Beijing, China, 18–21 October 1994.

Woodward, T. K.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode clamped smart pixel optical receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. L.

C. L. Wu, T. Y. Fend, “The universality of the shuffle-exchange network,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 324–340 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Xiaan, L.

M. Tsao, L. Hongpu, L. Xiaan, C. Shaogian, Y. Lide, Y. Yang, “Optical hardware for the perfect shuffle interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 23–27 (1991).

Xu, K. B.

Yang, Y.

M. Tsao, L. Hongpu, L. Xiaan, C. Shaogian, Y. Lide, Y. Yang, “Optical hardware for the perfect shuffle interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 23–27 (1991).

Yu, A. W.

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, G. L. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zürl, K.

E. Gluch, H. Koboll, K. Zürl, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Demonstration for an optoelectronic switching network,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1857–1869 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (18)

K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, “Optical implementations of the perfect shuffle interconnection,” Appl. Opt. 27, 135–137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. W. Song, F. T. S. Yu, “Generalized perfect shuffle using optical spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1222–1228 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Shirk, R. A. Athale, “Sorting with optical compare-and-exchange modules,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1721–1726 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Jutumalia, G. Storti, “Incoherent optical interconnects (perfect shuffle) based on shadow casting,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4262–4263 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Bian, K. B. Xu, J. Hong, “Optical perfect shuffle using Wollaston prisms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 173–174 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, S. D. Smith, “Optical cellular logic image processor: implementation and programming of a single channel digital optical circuit,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2297–2308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Haney, J. J. Levy, “Optically efficient free-space folded perfect shuffle network,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2833–2840 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, E. Hasman, “Realization of perfect-shuffle and inverse perfect-shuffle transforms with holographic elements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1810–1812 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, E. Hasman, “On the limits of optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5426–5430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Wang, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Optical two-dimensional perfect shuffles based on a one-copy algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5464–5467 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Three-dimensional Omega networks for optical implementation,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5468–5479 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetrical self-electro-optic-effect device cellular image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cheng, J. M. Wang, A. A. Sawchuk, “Design of space-multiplexed three-dimensional Omega networks and their optical implementation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6482–6492 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Prince, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Implementation of optical perfect-shuffle module,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1775–1782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Wherrett, “All-optical computation: a design for tackling a specific physical problem,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2876–2883 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Atale, M. W. Haney, “Folded perfect shuffle optical processor,” Appl. Opt. 27, 202–203 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Sheng, “Light effective 2-D optical perfect shuffle using Fresnel mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3290–3292 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1194 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, “Diode-clamped symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices with subpicojoule switching energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1809–1811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Computer (1)

S. Y. Kung, S. C. Lu, S. N. Jem, J. N. Hwang, “Wavefront array processors, concepts to implementation,” Computer (July1987), 18–33.
[CrossRef]

Discrete Appl. Math. (1)

H. D. L. Hollman, J. H. VinLint, “Nonblocking self-routing switching networks,” Discrete Appl. Math. 37, 319–340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, G. L. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEE Hologr. Syst. Components Appl. (1)

D. P. Godwin, C. D. Carey, S. H. Song, D. R. Selviah, J. E. Midwinter, “Perfect shuffle interconnections using Fresnel computer generated holograms in a planar-optic configuration,” IEE Hologr. Syst. Components Appl. 379, 15–21 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode clamped smart pixel optical receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Prucnal, “Optically processed self-routing, synchronization, and contention resolution for 1-D and 2-D photonic switching architecture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 600–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. (1)

L. Zhang, R. Jin, C. W. Stirk, G. Khitrova, R. A. Athale, H. M. Gibbs, H. M. Chou, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, “All-optical compare and exchange switches,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic. 6, 1273–1279 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (7)

D. S. Parker, “Notes on shuffle/exchange-type switching networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 213–222 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Nassimi, S. Sahni, “A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 332–340 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Jesshope, “The implementation of fast radix 2 transforms on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput., C-29, 20–27 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. Lang, H. S. Stone, “A shuffle-exchange network with simplified control,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-25, 55–65 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fang, X. Li, L. M. Ni, “On the communication complexity of generalized 2-D convolution on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 38, 184–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Wu, T. Y. Fend, “The universality of the shuffle-exchange network,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 324–340 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. J. Goodwin, A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearley, R. C. Morris, C. J. G. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. C. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Optoelectronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. Gluch, H. Koboll, K. Zürl, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Demonstration for an optoelectronic switching network,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1857–1869 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

S. D. Smith, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, B. S. Wherrett, “The demonstration of restoring digital optical logic,” Nature (London) 325, 27–31 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Giglmayr, “Properties of optically implemented shuffle interconnections,” Opt. Commun. 93, 112–115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comput. and Process. (1)

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Synthetic diffractive elements for optical interconnection,” Opt. Comput. and Process. 2, 221–242 (1992).

Opt. Comput. Process. (1)

M. Tsao, L. Hongpu, L. Xiaan, C. Shaogian, Y. Lide, Y. Yang, “Optical hardware for the perfect shuffle interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 23–27 (1991).

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. M. Prince, C. P. Beauchamp, F. A. P. Tooley, “Tolerancing of arrays of microlenses: a case study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 151–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, G. J. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, “Arrays of processing nodes of massively parallel sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” presented at the First International Conference on Application-Specific Integrated Circuits, Beijing, China, 18–21 October 1994.

J. S. Mayor, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, “High-power InGaAsP/GaAs laser diodes,” in CLEO ’94, Vol. 8 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 25.

J. A. B. Dines, “Timing comparisons between optically and electrically connected parallel single-instruction multiple-stream computers performing fast-Fourier-transform and bitonic-sorting algorithms,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

D. J. Goodwill, F. A. P. Tooley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, M. McElhinney, F. Pottier, C. Stanley, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. W. G. Snook, M. H. Dunn, J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, “InGaAs S-SEED’s and silicon CMOS smart pixels for 1047–1064-nm operation,” presented at the IEEE/LEOS Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Lake Tahoe, Nev.6–13 July 1994.

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 333–346 (1993).

B. S. Wherrett, “Architectural aspects of optical computing,” in Workshop on Photonic Logic and Information Processing, C. M. Bowden, J. G. Duthie, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.769, 7–20 (1986).

A. C. Walker, I. R. Redmond, D. J. McKnight, R. G. A. Craig, G. S. Buller, P. Meredith, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Construction of an optical cellular logic image processor,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 373–377 (1993).

D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1973).

M. W. Haney, “Optoelectronic shuffle-exchange network for multiprocessor architectures,” in Photonic Switching, 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 115–118.

A. S. Miller, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Space multiplexing in multistage optical interconnection networks,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alfreov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 129–139 (1993).

S. G. Akl, “Parallel sorting algorithms,” Notes and Reports in Computer Science and Applied Mathematics (Academic, London, 1985), pp. 61–79.

K. E. Batcher, “Sorting networks and their applications,” in Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference (American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Reston, Virginia, 1968), Vol. 32, pp. 307–314.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representation of the bitonic sorting of eight elements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bitonic sorting of eight elements with the perfect-shuffle interconnection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Control-mask generation for the sorting module.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of the InGaAs/GaAs SEED modulator/receiver array. The bond pads are the square metal contacts A, B, etc. Beside each bond pad (except the pads at the perimeter) are the SEED’s. The two extra rectangles at some of the pads are the clamping diodes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the logic design of a sorting node (see Subsection 4.B.1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of the electronic test chip. The chip contains two sorting nodes. Two 8-bit long shift registers are included in each sorting node. The core area of each node is 370 μm × 230 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental data of the input (A and B) and output (C and D) levels versus time for the test chip of Fig. 7. The Control bit-1 is set up to 0.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the 2-D folded perfect shuffle. Modified 4-segmented approach.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic of the 2-D folded perfect shuffle (two-step approach).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Implementation of the 2-D perfect shuffle.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Variation of the bit output data rate with respect to the array size. The operating frequency is 100 MHz.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Variation of the bit output data rate with respect to the problem size. The array size is 32 × 32 optical channels. The operating frequency is 100 MHz.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Electronic implementation of the control mask. Modification of the mask after successive application of the perfect-shuffle interconnect for the case of 8 × 8 channels.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Electronic implementation of the control mask. Logic design of the electronically addressed matrix for the control mask. The filled rectangular boxes symbolize or gates. The circle represents one of the 32 and gates.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Mask - Image - 0 = 000 111 Mask - 1 = 010101 ,
Δ T = 3 4 w + 2 C out C in Δ V Δ E g m S ¯ ,
1 / F = max ( T 1 + T opt + Δ T ; T 2 ) .
P = 2 2 λ f ( M + 1 ) S ,
P = 2 2 λ f ( M - 1 ) S ,
Δ P = C in Δ V S ¯ Δ T .
P laser = 4 N 2 1 η bpg 1 R on η ps f o η bulk C C - 1 Δ P .
G = 2 m L ( L + A ) ( m 2 - m + 1 ) F .
G under = 2 - k G m 2 - m + 1 m 2 - ( k + 1 ) m + 1 .
G over = G k + 1 2 ( m 2 - m + 1 ) k + 2 ( m 2 - m + 1 ) .
lim m G over G k + 1 ,

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