Abstract

We theoretically and experimentally study phase contrast using a photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystal sheet and realize the high-performance phase contrast operation using C-cut LiNbO3:Fe crystal sheets in which the photovoltaic effect plays an important role. We estimate the maximum photovoltaic field in LiNbO3:Fe using the phase contrast method.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Bennet, H. Osterberg, H. Jupnik, O. Richards, Phase Microscopy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Chap. 3, pp. 89–94.
  2. S. H. Lee, Optical Information Processing (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 2, pp. 44–45.
  3. N. V. Kukhtarev, “Kinetics of hologram recording and erasure in electro-optic crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1976).
  4. P. Gunter, “Holography, coherent light amplification and optical phase conjugation with photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 214–217 (1982); C. Valley, F. Lam, “Theory of photorefractive effects in electro-optic crystals,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application I, Vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics, P. Gunter, J. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Chap. 3, p. 80.
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Marotz, K. H. Ringhofer, R. A. Rupp, S. Treichel, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1376–1383 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Liu, G. Zhang, Y. Wu, “Observation of laser-induced self-diffraction from LiNbO3:Fe crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 37, 268–273 (1988).
  7. Y. Wu, J. Xu, S. Liu, G. Zhang, D. Guan, “Automatic low-frequency spatial filter that uses light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3210–3212 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Zhang, Q. Li, P. Ho, S. Liu, Z. K. Wu, R. Alfano, “Dependence of speckle size on the laser beam size via photoinduced light scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2955–2959 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

S. Liu, G. Zhang, Y. Wu, “Observation of laser-induced self-diffraction from LiNbO3:Fe crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 37, 268–273 (1988).

1986 (2)

G. Zhang, Q. Li, P. Ho, S. Liu, Z. K. Wu, R. Alfano, “Dependence of speckle size on the laser beam size via photoinduced light scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2955–2959 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Marotz, K. H. Ringhofer, R. A. Rupp, S. Treichel, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1376–1383 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

P. Gunter, “Holography, coherent light amplification and optical phase conjugation with photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 214–217 (1982); C. Valley, F. Lam, “Theory of photorefractive effects in electro-optic crystals,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application I, Vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics, P. Gunter, J. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Chap. 3, p. 80.
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, “Kinetics of hologram recording and erasure in electro-optic crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1976).

Alfano, R.

Bennet, A.

A. Bennet, H. Osterberg, H. Jupnik, O. Richards, Phase Microscopy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Chap. 3, pp. 89–94.

Guan, D.

Gunter, P.

P. Gunter, “Holography, coherent light amplification and optical phase conjugation with photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 214–217 (1982); C. Valley, F. Lam, “Theory of photorefractive effects in electro-optic crystals,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application I, Vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics, P. Gunter, J. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Chap. 3, p. 80.
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.

Jupnik, H.

A. Bennet, H. Osterberg, H. Jupnik, O. Richards, Phase Microscopy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Chap. 3, pp. 89–94.

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, “Kinetics of hologram recording and erasure in electro-optic crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1976).

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, Optical Information Processing (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 2, pp. 44–45.

Li, Q.

Liu, S.

Marotz, T.

T. Marotz, K. H. Ringhofer, R. A. Rupp, S. Treichel, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1376–1383 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Osterberg, H.

A. Bennet, H. Osterberg, H. Jupnik, O. Richards, Phase Microscopy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Chap. 3, pp. 89–94.

Richards, O.

A. Bennet, H. Osterberg, H. Jupnik, O. Richards, Phase Microscopy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Chap. 3, pp. 89–94.

Ringhofer, K. H.

T. Marotz, K. H. Ringhofer, R. A. Rupp, S. Treichel, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1376–1383 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R. A.

T. Marotz, K. H. Ringhofer, R. A. Rupp, S. Treichel, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1376–1383 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Treichel, S.

T. Marotz, K. H. Ringhofer, R. A. Rupp, S. Treichel, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1376–1383 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, J. Xu, S. Liu, G. Zhang, D. Guan, “Automatic low-frequency spatial filter that uses light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3210–3212 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, G. Zhang, Y. Wu, “Observation of laser-induced self-diffraction from LiNbO3:Fe crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 37, 268–273 (1988).

Wu, Z. K.

Xu, J.

Zhang, G.

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

S. Liu, G. Zhang, Y. Wu, “Observation of laser-induced self-diffraction from LiNbO3:Fe crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 37, 268–273 (1988).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Marotz, K. H. Ringhofer, R. A. Rupp, S. Treichel, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1376–1383 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

P. Gunter, “Holography, coherent light amplification and optical phase conjugation with photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 214–217 (1982); C. Valley, F. Lam, “Theory of photorefractive effects in electro-optic crystals,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application I, Vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics, P. Gunter, J. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Chap. 3, p. 80.
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, “Kinetics of hologram recording and erasure in electro-optic crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1976).

Other (2)

A. Bennet, H. Osterberg, H. Jupnik, O. Richards, Phase Microscopy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Chap. 3, pp. 89–94.

S. H. Lee, Optical Information Processing (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Chap. 2, pp. 44–45.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for photorefractive phase contrast operation. Lens 1 and the pinhole together form a spatial filter to improve the spatial quality of the He–Ne laser beam. Lens 2 transforms the space-filtered beam into a parallel beam and expands its diameter to 3 cm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output image of the bleached film with English characters using the X-cut LiNbO3:Fe crystal sheet as the phase plate that has been illuminated for 10 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output image of the bleached film with English characters using the C-cut LiNbO3:Fe crystal sheet as the phase plate that has been illuminated for 10 min.

Equations (7)

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θ = 2 π × Δ n × d / λ .
I ( x , y ) = α 2 + 2 α × sin ( θ ) × φ ,
Δ n i ( t ) = - n i 3 × γ i k × E k s c ( t ) / 2 ,
θ ( t ) = 2 π × d × Δ n i ( t ) / λ ,
I ( x , y ) = α 2 + 2 α × sin [ θ ( t ) ] × φ .
E 3 s c = - E p h ,
θ = - π × d × n o 3 × γ 13 × E 3 s c / λ = 0.76 × 10 - 6 × E p h ,

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