Abstract

The x-ray properties of multinested thin-foil mirror x-ray telescopes (XRT’s) on board ASCA, the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics, were fully evaluated with an x-ray pencil beam.Scanning over the telescope aperture of 35 cm in diameter with an x-ray pencil beam, we found the effective area of a set of XRT’s to be 325, 200, and 113 cm2 at energies of 1.5, 4.5, and 8.0 keV, respectively. We derive the point-spread functions (PSF’s) of the XRT’s by measuring the image profile at the focal plane with an x-ray CCD. The PSF is found to exhibit a sharp core concentrated within 30 arcsec and a broad wing extended to 3 arcmin in half-power diameter. We also evaluate the contribution of stray light, which is caused by the single reflection of x rays by primary or secondary mirrors and by the backside reflection of the mirrors. To obtain the characteristics of the XRT in the energy region of 0.5–10.0 keV, incorporated with the measurements at discrete energies, we develop a ray-tracing method with the telescope design parameter, the PSF, and optical constants. In particular, we obtain the optical constants around the gold-atom M shell (Au–M) absorption-edge energies by measuring the reflectivity of our mirror sample, with monochromatized x-rays in the energy range of 2.0–3.5 keV from synchrotron radiation. Taking into account the PSF’s and optical constants, we find that our ray-tracing program can reproduce all these XRT performances.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).
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  3. B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, M. J. Cooper, V. S. Dolat, “CCD soft x-ray imaging spectrometer for the ASCA satellite,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 375–385 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

1994 (2)

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, M. J. Cooper, V. S. Dolat, “CCD soft x-ray imaging spectrometer for the ASCA satellite,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 375–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

1993 (1)

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1982 (1)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. Van Speybroeck, T. F. Zehnpfenning, “Grazing-incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3–57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aschenbach, B.

B. Aschenbach, “X-ray telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579–629 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Awaki, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boldt, E. A.

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Brown, W. A.

J. R. Lemen, E. S. Claflin, W. A. Brown, M. E. Bruner, R. C. Catura, M. D. Morrison, “Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the solar-a soft x-ray telescope mirror,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 316–322 (1989).

Bruner, M. E.

J. R. Lemen, E. S. Claflin, W. A. Brown, M. E. Bruner, R. C. Catura, M. D. Morrison, “Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the solar-a soft x-ray telescope mirror,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 316–322 (1989).

Burke, B. E.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, M. J. Cooper, V. S. Dolat, “CCD soft x-ray imaging spectrometer for the ASCA satellite,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 375–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Catura, R. C.

J. R. Lemen, E. S. Claflin, W. A. Brown, M. E. Bruner, R. C. Catura, M. D. Morrison, “Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the solar-a soft x-ray telescope mirror,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 316–322 (1989).

Claflin, E. S.

J. R. Lemen, E. S. Claflin, W. A. Brown, M. E. Bruner, R. C. Catura, M. D. Morrison, “Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the solar-a soft x-ray telescope mirror,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 316–322 (1989).

Cooper, M. J.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, M. J. Cooper, V. S. Dolat, “CCD soft x-ray imaging spectrometer for the ASCA satellite,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 375–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, P. J.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, M. J. Cooper, V. S. Dolat, “CCD soft x-ray imaging spectrometer for the ASCA satellite,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 375–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dolat, V. S.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, M. J. Cooper, V. S. Dolat, “CCD soft x-ray imaging spectrometer for the ASCA satellite,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 375–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ebisawa, K.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Fujikawa, B. K.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, Y.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Furuzawa, A.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. Van Speybroeck, T. F. Zehnpfenning, “Grazing-incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3–57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, P.

P. Glenn, “Misleadingly small full-width-half-maximum, and other grazing incidence image features,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 349–361 (1989).

Hatsukade, I.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, S.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida, K.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, T.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hiyoshi, K.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Holt, S. S.

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Honda, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Horii, M.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Ikebe, Y.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Inoue, H.

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Ishida, M.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Ishisaki, Y.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Itoh, M.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jahoda, K.

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Jalota, L.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Kamijo, S.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Kaneda, H.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Kelley, R.

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Kii, T.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kohmura, Y.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Kunieda, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lemen, J. R.

J. R. Lemen, E. S. Claflin, W. A. Brown, M. E. Bruner, R. C. Catura, M. D. Morrison, “Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the solar-a soft x-ray telescope mirror,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 316–322 (1989).

Loewenstein, M.

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Makino, F.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Makishima, K.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Marshall, F. E.

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Matsushita, K.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Mihara, T.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Miyata, E.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, M. D.

J. R. Lemen, E. S. Claflin, W. A. Brown, M. E. Bruner, R. C. Catura, M. D. Morrison, “Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the solar-a soft x-ray telescope mirror,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 316–322 (1989).

Mountain, R. W.

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, M. J. Cooper, V. S. Dolat, “CCD soft x-ray imaging spectrometer for the ASCA satellite,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 375–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, T.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Mushotzky, R.

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Nagase, F.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Nomoto, S.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ogasaka, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ogawara, Y.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Ohashi, T.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Petre, R.

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical imaging mirrors for high-speed x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1833–1837 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Reidy, W. P.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. Van Speybroeck, T. F. Zehnpfenning, “Grazing-incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3–57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sakima, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Sato, N.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

R. Petre, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical imaging mirrors for high-speed x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1833–1837 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Shimabukuro, R. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shoumura, R.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Soong, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Suzuki, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swank, J.

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Szymkowiak, A.

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

Taguchi, K.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Takeshima, T.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Tanaka, T. J.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Tashiro, M.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Tawara, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tsunemi, H.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsuru, T.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Tsusaka, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uchibori, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Ueda, Y.

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

Vaiana, G. S.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. Van Speybroeck, T. F. Zehnpfenning, “Grazing-incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3–57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. Van Speybroeck, T. F. Zehnpfenning, “Grazing-incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3–57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, K. A.

K. A. Weaver, “The complex broad-band x-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies,” Ph.D. dissertation (The University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 1993).

Yamashita, K.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Zehnpfenning, T. F.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. Van Speybroeck, T. F. Zehnpfenning, “Grazing-incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3–57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

B. E. Burke, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, M. J. Cooper, V. S. Dolat, “CCD soft x-ray imaging spectrometer for the ASCA satellite,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 375–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. (2)

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “X-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

B. Aschenbach, “X-ray telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579–629 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, L. P. Van Speybroeck, T. F. Zehnpfenning, “Grazing-incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy,” Space Sci. Rev. 9, 3–57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

K. A. Weaver, “The complex broad-band x-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies,” Ph.D. dissertation (The University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 1993).

P. J. Serlemitsos, F. E. Marshall, R. Petre, K. Jahoda, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, R. Mushotzky, J. Swank, A. Szymkowiak, R. Kelley, M. Loewenstein, “First results from BBXRT,” in Frontiers of X-Ray Astronomy, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, eds., (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 221–231.

J. R. Lemen, E. S. Claflin, W. A. Brown, M. E. Bruner, R. C. Catura, M. D. Morrison, “Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the solar-a soft x-ray telescope mirror,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 316–322 (1989).

P. Glenn, “Misleadingly small full-width-half-maximum, and other grazing incidence image features,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 349–361 (1989).

Y. Kohmura, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Ikebe, Y. Ishisaki, S. Kamijo, H. Kaneda, K. Makishima, K. Matsushita, K. Nakagawa, M. Tashiro, T. Ohashi, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, F. Makino, T. Murakami, Y. Ogawara, Y. Tanaka, Y. Ueda, K. Ebisawa, T. Mihara, T. Takeshima, T. Tsuru, K. Hiyoshi, M. Horii, R. Shoumura, K. Taguchi, “Calibrations of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters on ASTRO-D,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2006, 78–89 (1993).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One ASCA XRT. The diameter and the height are approximately 370 and 220 mm, respectively. The XRT is built up in four quadrants; 120 foils are adjusted by alignment bars that radiate in all directions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective area of an ASCA XRT versus photon energy. The circles (ϕ) represent the measured results, and the dashed and solid curves are derived from the calculation based on an ideal case and a modified case, respectively (see Section 3 in text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and calculated (solid curves) effective areas versus off-axis angles at 1.5, 4.5, and 8.0 keV. The corresponding fields of view are 24, 22, and 18 arcmin FWHM, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XRT images of a point source at 4.5 keV: (a) measured on-axis image, (b) image derived from the modified ray-tracing calculation, (c) and (d), images calculated for 6- and 12-arcmin off-axis incidence, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Configuration of radial and azimuthal components of a normal vector. The side view shows fluctuation in the radial direction, and the top view shows it in the azimuthal direction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured PSF (open circles) and EEF (filled circles) at 4.5 keV. The solid curves are calculated by the ray tracing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Four kinds of stray paths: (1) reflection only by primary mirrors, (2) reflection only by secondary mirrors, (3) direct path without reflection, (4) multiple reflections by front and back surfaces of mirrors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Distribution of stray photons from a source at an off-axis angle of 1° from the top right direction: (a) observed GIS image, in which the aperture is 50 mm in diameter and the distribution is compressed near the detector edge; (b) from the ray tracing. The lower left region is contaminated by photons reflected many times and the upper right region is contaminated by the photons reflected only on secondary mirrors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Results of the reflectivity measurements of the ASCA reflector at (a) 1.5, (b) 4.5, and (c) 8.0 keV. The open and filled circles represent the reflectivity of the front (Au) and back (acrylic lacquer) surfaces, respectively. The solid curves are from calculations with a surface microroughness of 5 Å.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical constants δ. The values for the open and the filled circles were derived from data obtained when the reflectivities from Fig. 9 were fitted to the measured results from the UVSOR facility. The solid curve represents the δ installed in the modified ray-tracing program, and the dotted curve was calculated through the use of an empirical formula.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Reflected beam profiles. The open circles, filled circles, and crosses show the measured results at 1.5, 4.5, and 8.0 keV, respectively. The thick, dotted, and thin curves represent the model calculations installed in the present ray-tracing program. The incident beam of width 0.2 mm is negligible in this plot.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

X-ray beam profiles reflected by small parts of a reflector that is 1 mm × 9 mm. To avoid overlap, we offset each piece of data from the previous one in the plot. Each profile comes from a spot every 9 mm from the top to the end of the foil along the x-ray beam axis.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Histogram of x-ray peak positions of the reflected beam by each reflector on the focal plane. The expected distribution of 120 foils is shown by a solid curve.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 ASCA XRT Design Parameters

Equations (5)

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d F x = 2 d θ × FL ,             d F y = 2 d θ × R ,
d F x d F y = 3500 60 - 170 = 20 - 60.
A 1 r exp ( - r 2 2 σ 2 ) + A 2 exp ( - r s ) ,
n * = 1 - δ - i β ,
d I d θ = 2 k 3 I r sin 2 θ s W ( p ) ,

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