Abstract

The corneal-ablation rate, the beam-intensity distribution, and the initial and the desired corneal topographies are used to calculate a spatial distribution map of laser pulses. The optimal values of the parameters are determined with a computer model, for a system that produces 213-nm radiation with a Gaussian beam-intensity distribution and a peak radiant exposure of 400 mJ/cm2. The model shows that with a beam diameter of 0.5 mm, an overlap of 80%, and a 5-mm treatment zone, the roughness is less than 6% of the central ablation depth, the refractive error after correction is less than 0.1 D for corrections of myopia of 1, 3, and 6 D and less than 0.4 D for a correction of myopia of 10 D, and the number of pulses per diopter of correction is 2500 when the beam-intensity distribution is Gaussian and 580 when it is flat.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Marshall, S. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Photo-ablative reprofiling of the cornea using an excimer laser: photorefractive keratectomy,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 21–48 (1986).
  2. C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
  3. N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Forster, S. Grewe, U. Atzler, C. Lunecke, H. Busse, “Phototherapeutic keratectomy in corneal diseases,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 85–90 (1992).
  5. L. Missoten, R. Boving, G. François, C. Coutteel, “Experimental excimer laser keratomileusis,” Bull. Soc. Belg. Ophthalmol. 220, 103–120 (1987).
  6. K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer laser keratectomy for myopia with a rotating-slit delivery system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer laser instrumentation and technique for human corneal surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, L. Asfar, J. Samson, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, “Scanning slit delivery system,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 15, 390–396 (1989).
  9. G. O. Waring, “Development of a system for excimer laser corneal surgery,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 87, 854–983 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  10. P. J. McDonnell, H. Moreira, J. Garbus, T. N. Clapham, J. D’Arcy, C. R. Munnerlyn, “Photorefractive keratectomy to create toric ablations for the correction of astigmatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 710–713 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Forster, R. Beck, H. Busse, “Design and development of a new 193-nanometer excimer laser surgical system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 293–299 (1993).
  12. D. Stern, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, W. T. Reidy, “Infrared laser surgery of the cornea: studies with a Raman-shifted neodymium:YAG laser at 2.80 and 2.92 μm,” Ophthalmology 95, 1434–1441 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  13. G. A. Peyman, R. M. Badaro, B. Khoobehi, “Corneal ablation in rabbits using an infrared (2.9-μm) erbium:YAG laser,” Ophthalmology 96, 1160–1170 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  14. T. Bende, M. Kriegerowski, T. Seiler, “Photoablation in different ocular tissues performed with an erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 263–269 (1989).
  15. Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2288 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, M. Perrey, J. T. Lin, G. O. Waring, “Corneal refractive surgery using an ultra-violet (213 nm) solid-state laser,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1423, 129–140 (1991).
  17. Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vitro study,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  18. T. Seiler, J. Wollensak, “Fundamental mode photoablation of the cornea for myopic correction. 1. Theoretical background,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 199–203 (1993).
  19. A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jutte, “Ablation of the cornea using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).
  20. Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  21. T. A. Caughey, F-C. Cheng, S. L. Trokel, H. Schubert, C. Martin, S. D. Jacobs, “An investigation of laser–tissue interaction with a 213 nm laser beam with animal corneas,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 6, 77–85 (1994).
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  24. R. R. Krueger, S. L. Trokel, “Quantitation of corneal ablation by ultraviolet laser light,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1741–1742 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  26. H. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrish, J-M. Parel, “Preliminary report on corneal incisions created by a hydrogen fluoride laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 217–221 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. Seiler, J. Marshall, S. Rothery, J. Wollensak, “The potential of an hydrogen fluoride (HF) laser (3.0 μm) for corneal surgery,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 49–60 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. P. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrisch, J-M. Parel, “Effects of selected beam parameters on corneal incisions produced with a hydrogen fluoride laser,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 275–281.
  29. J-M. Legeais, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Computer-assisted corneal topography: accuracy and reproducibility of the topographic measurement system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 347–357 (1993).
  30. R. C. Arffa, J. W. Warnicki, P. G. Rehkopf, “Corneal topography using rastereography,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 5, 414–417 (1989).
  31. E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  32. O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, “Struktur und Dynamik photoakustischer Schockwellen bei der 193 nm Excimerlaser-photoablation der Hornhaut,” Fortschr. Ophthalmol. 88, 748–753 (1991).
    [PubMed]

1994 (4)

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
[PubMed]

T. A. Caughey, F-C. Cheng, S. L. Trokel, H. Schubert, C. Martin, S. D. Jacobs, “An investigation of laser–tissue interaction with a 213 nm laser beam with animal corneas,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 6, 77–85 (1994).

J. Shen, F. Frankhauser, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Ablation rate of the human cornea and PMMA with a solid-state ultraviolet laser (213 nm),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2027 (1994).

E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (6)

M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
[PubMed]

J-M. Legeais, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Computer-assisted corneal topography: accuracy and reproducibility of the topographic measurement system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 347–357 (1993).

W. Forster, R. Beck, H. Busse, “Design and development of a new 193-nanometer excimer laser surgical system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 293–299 (1993).

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vitro study,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

T. Seiler, J. Wollensak, “Fundamental mode photoablation of the cornea for myopic correction. 1. Theoretical background,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 199–203 (1993).

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jutte, “Ablation of the cornea using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).

1992 (1)

W. Forster, S. Grewe, U. Atzler, C. Lunecke, H. Busse, “Phototherapeutic keratectomy in corneal diseases,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 85–90 (1992).

1991 (3)

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. McDonnell, H. Moreira, J. Garbus, T. N. Clapham, J. D’Arcy, C. R. Munnerlyn, “Photorefractive keratectomy to create toric ablations for the correction of astigmatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 710–713 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, “Struktur und Dynamik photoakustischer Schockwellen bei der 193 nm Excimerlaser-photoablation der Hornhaut,” Fortschr. Ophthalmol. 88, 748–753 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (6)

G. A. Peyman, R. M. Badaro, B. Khoobehi, “Corneal ablation in rabbits using an infrared (2.9-μm) erbium:YAG laser,” Ophthalmology 96, 1160–1170 (1989).
[PubMed]

T. Bende, M. Kriegerowski, T. Seiler, “Photoablation in different ocular tissues performed with an erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 263–269 (1989).

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer laser instrumentation and technique for human corneal surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, L. Asfar, J. Samson, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, “Scanning slit delivery system,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 15, 390–396 (1989).

G. O. Waring, “Development of a system for excimer laser corneal surgery,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 87, 854–983 (1989).
[PubMed]

R. C. Arffa, J. W. Warnicki, P. G. Rehkopf, “Corneal topography using rastereography,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 5, 414–417 (1989).

1988 (3)

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer laser keratectomy for myopia with a rotating-slit delivery system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

D. Stern, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, W. T. Reidy, “Infrared laser surgery of the cornea: studies with a Raman-shifted neodymium:YAG laser at 2.80 and 2.92 μm,” Ophthalmology 95, 1434–1441 (1988).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

L. Missoten, R. Boving, G. François, C. Coutteel, “Experimental excimer laser keratomileusis,” Bull. Soc. Belg. Ophthalmol. 220, 103–120 (1987).

1986 (3)

J. Marshall, S. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Photo-ablative reprofiling of the cornea using an excimer laser: photorefractive keratectomy,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 21–48 (1986).

H. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrish, J-M. Parel, “Preliminary report on corneal incisions created by a hydrogen fluoride laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 217–221 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seiler, J. Marshall, S. Rothery, J. Wollensak, “The potential of an hydrogen fluoride (HF) laser (3.0 μm) for corneal surgery,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 49–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. R. Krueger, S. L. Trokel, “Quantitation of corneal ablation by ultraviolet laser light,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1741–1742 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arffa, R. C.

R. C. Arffa, J. W. Warnicki, P. G. Rehkopf, “Corneal topography using rastereography,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 5, 414–417 (1989).

Asfar, L.

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, L. Asfar, J. Samson, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, “Scanning slit delivery system,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 15, 390–396 (1989).

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer laser keratectomy for myopia with a rotating-slit delivery system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atzler, U.

W. Forster, S. Grewe, U. Atzler, C. Lunecke, H. Busse, “Phototherapeutic keratectomy in corneal diseases,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 85–90 (1992).

Badaro, R. M.

G. A. Peyman, R. M. Badaro, B. Khoobehi, “Corneal ablation in rabbits using an infrared (2.9-μm) erbium:YAG laser,” Ophthalmology 96, 1160–1170 (1989).
[PubMed]

Beck, R.

W. Forster, R. Beck, H. Busse, “Design and development of a new 193-nanometer excimer laser surgical system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 293–299 (1993).

Bende, T.

T. Bende, M. Kriegerowski, T. Seiler, “Photoablation in different ocular tissues performed with an erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 263–269 (1989).

Berlin, M. S.

E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
[PubMed]

Boving, R.

L. Missoten, R. Boving, G. François, C. Coutteel, “Experimental excimer laser keratomileusis,” Bull. Soc. Belg. Ophthalmol. 220, 103–120 (1987).

Bowers, R. A.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. C.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busse, H.

W. Forster, R. Beck, H. Busse, “Design and development of a new 193-nanometer excimer laser surgical system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 293–299 (1993).

W. Forster, S. Grewe, U. Atzler, C. Lunecke, H. Busse, “Phototherapeutic keratectomy in corneal diseases,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 85–90 (1992).

Campos, M.

M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
[PubMed]

Caughey, T. A.

T. A. Caughey, F-C. Cheng, S. L. Trokel, H. Schubert, C. Martin, S. D. Jacobs, “An investigation of laser–tissue interaction with a 213 nm laser beam with animal corneas,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 6, 77–85 (1994).

Chastang, J-C.

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, L. Asfar, J. Samson, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, “Scanning slit delivery system,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 15, 390–396 (1989).

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer laser keratectomy for myopia with a rotating-slit delivery system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, V.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, F-C.

T. A. Caughey, F-C. Cheng, S. L. Trokel, H. Schubert, C. Martin, S. D. Jacobs, “An investigation of laser–tissue interaction with a 213 nm laser beam with animal corneas,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 6, 77–85 (1994).

Clapham, T.

M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
[PubMed]

Clapham, T. N.

P. J. McDonnell, H. Moreira, J. Garbus, T. N. Clapham, J. D’Arcy, C. R. Munnerlyn, “Photorefractive keratectomy to create toric ablations for the correction of astigmatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 710–713 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coutteel, C.

L. Missoten, R. Boving, G. François, C. Coutteel, “Experimental excimer laser keratomileusis,” Bull. Soc. Belg. Ophthalmol. 220, 103–120 (1987).

Culbertson, W.

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
[PubMed]

D’Arcy, J.

P. J. McDonnell, H. Moreira, J. Garbus, T. N. Clapham, J. D’Arcy, C. R. Munnerlyn, “Photorefractive keratectomy to create toric ablations for the correction of astigmatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 710–713 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobi, E. T.

D. Stern, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, W. T. Reidy, “Infrared laser surgery of the cornea: studies with a Raman-shifted neodymium:YAG laser at 2.80 and 2.92 μm,” Ophthalmology 95, 1434–1441 (1988).
[PubMed]

Eiferman, R. A.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, W.

W. Forster, R. Beck, H. Busse, “Design and development of a new 193-nanometer excimer laser surgical system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 293–299 (1993).

W. Forster, S. Grewe, U. Atzler, C. Lunecke, H. Busse, “Phototherapeutic keratectomy in corneal diseases,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 85–90 (1992).

François, G.

L. Missoten, R. Boving, G. François, C. Coutteel, “Experimental excimer laser keratomileusis,” Bull. Soc. Belg. Ophthalmol. 220, 103–120 (1987).

Frankhauser, F.

J. Shen, F. Frankhauser, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Ablation rate of the human cornea and PMMA with a solid-state ultraviolet laser (213 nm),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2027 (1994).

Frantz, J. M.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gailitis, R. P.

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, M. Perrey, J. T. Lin, G. O. Waring, “Corneal refractive surgery using an ultra-violet (213 nm) solid-state laser,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1423, 129–140 (1991).

Garbus, J.

P. J. McDonnell, H. Moreira, J. Garbus, T. N. Clapham, J. D’Arcy, C. R. Munnerlyn, “Photorefractive keratectomy to create toric ablations for the correction of astigmatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 710–713 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grewe, S.

W. Forster, S. Grewe, U. Atzler, C. Lunecke, H. Busse, “Phototherapeutic keratectomy in corneal diseases,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 85–90 (1992).

Hanna, K. D.

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, L. Asfar, J. Samson, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, “Scanning slit delivery system,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 15, 390–396 (1989).

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer laser keratectomy for myopia with a rotating-slit delivery system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzog, L.

M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hofbauer, J.

E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hofmann, B.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jutte, “Ablation of the cornea using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).

Jacobs, S. D.

T. A. Caughey, F-C. Cheng, S. L. Trokel, H. Schubert, C. Martin, S. D. Jacobs, “An investigation of laser–tissue interaction with a 213 nm laser beam with animal corneas,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 6, 77–85 (1994).

Jutte, M.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jutte, “Ablation of the cornea using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).

Kermani, O.

O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, “Struktur und Dynamik photoakustischer Schockwellen bei der 193 nm Excimerlaser-photoablation der Hornhaut,” Fortschr. Ophthalmol. 88, 748–753 (1991).
[PubMed]

Khoobehi, B.

G. A. Peyman, R. M. Badaro, B. Khoobehi, “Corneal ablation in rabbits using an infrared (2.9-μm) erbium:YAG laser,” Ophthalmology 96, 1160–1170 (1989).
[PubMed]

Kleinschmidt, J.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jutte, “Ablation of the cornea using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).

Koons, S. J.

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

Kriegerowski, M.

T. Bende, M. Kriegerowski, T. Seiler, “Photoablation in different ocular tissues performed with an erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 263–269 (1989).

Krueger, R. R.

J. Marshall, S. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Photo-ablative reprofiling of the cornea using an excimer laser: photorefractive keratectomy,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 21–48 (1986).

R. R. Krueger, S. L. Trokel, “Quantitation of corneal ablation by ultraviolet laser light,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1741–1742 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Esperance, F. A.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer laser instrumentation and technique for human corneal surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
[PubMed]

Legeais, J-M.

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
[PubMed]

J-M. Legeais, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Computer-assisted corneal topography: accuracy and reproducibility of the topographic measurement system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 347–357 (1993).

Lin, J. T.

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, M. Perrey, J. T. Lin, G. O. Waring, “Corneal refractive surgery using an ultra-violet (213 nm) solid-state laser,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1423, 129–140 (1991).

Lindstrom, R. L.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loertscher, H.

H. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrish, J-M. Parel, “Preliminary report on corneal incisions created by a hydrogen fluoride laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 217–221 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loertscher, H. P.

H. P. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrisch, J-M. Parel, “Effects of selected beam parameters on corneal incisions produced with a hydrogen fluoride laser,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 275–281.

Lubatschowski, H.

O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, “Struktur und Dynamik photoakustischer Schockwellen bei der 193 nm Excimerlaser-photoablation der Hornhaut,” Fortschr. Ophthalmol. 88, 748–753 (1991).
[PubMed]

Lunecke, C.

W. Forster, S. Grewe, U. Atzler, C. Lunecke, H. Busse, “Phototherapeutic keratectomy in corneal diseases,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 85–90 (1992).

Macy, J. I.

E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
[PubMed]

Maguen, E.

E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
[PubMed]

Mandelbaum, S.

H. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrish, J-M. Parel, “Preliminary report on corneal incisions created by a hydrogen fluoride laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 217–221 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrisch, J-M. Parel, “Effects of selected beam parameters on corneal incisions produced with a hydrogen fluoride laser,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 275–281.

Marshall, J.

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

J. Marshall, S. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Photo-ablative reprofiling of the cornea using an excimer laser: photorefractive keratectomy,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 21–48 (1986).

T. Seiler, J. Marshall, S. Rothery, J. Wollensak, “The potential of an hydrogen fluoride (HF) laser (3.0 μm) for corneal surgery,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 49–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Martin, C.

T. A. Caughey, F-C. Cheng, S. L. Trokel, H. Schubert, C. Martin, S. D. Jacobs, “An investigation of laser–tissue interaction with a 213 nm laser beam with animal corneas,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 6, 77–85 (1994).

Martin, C. A.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer laser instrumentation and technique for human corneal surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McDonnell, P. J.

M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
[PubMed]

P. J. McDonnell, H. Moreira, J. Garbus, T. N. Clapham, J. D’Arcy, C. R. Munnerlyn, “Photorefractive keratectomy to create toric ablations for the correction of astigmatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 710–713 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Missoten, L.

L. Missoten, R. Boving, G. François, C. Coutteel, “Experimental excimer laser keratomileusis,” Bull. Soc. Belg. Ophthalmol. 220, 103–120 (1987).

Moreira, H.

P. J. McDonnell, H. Moreira, J. Garbus, T. N. Clapham, J. D’Arcy, C. R. Munnerlyn, “Photorefractive keratectomy to create toric ablations for the correction of astigmatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 710–713 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munnerlyn, C. R.

P. J. McDonnell, H. Moreira, J. Garbus, T. N. Clapham, J. D’Arcy, C. R. Munnerlyn, “Photorefractive keratectomy to create toric ablations for the correction of astigmatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 710–713 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

Nesburn, A. B.

E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
[PubMed]

Pachomis, K.

A. Unkroth, K. Pachomis, J. U. Walther, D. Zimare, “Corneal surgery by two-dimensionally scanning of a low-energy excimer laser beam,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J-M. Parel, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2126, 217–229 (1994).

Papaioannu, T.

E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
[PubMed]

Parel, J-M.

J. Shen, F. Frankhauser, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Ablation rate of the human cornea and PMMA with a solid-state ultraviolet laser (213 nm),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2027 (1994).

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
[PubMed]

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vitro study,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

J-M. Legeais, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Computer-assisted corneal topography: accuracy and reproducibility of the topographic measurement system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 347–357 (1993).

H. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrish, J-M. Parel, “Preliminary report on corneal incisions created by a hydrogen fluoride laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 217–221 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrisch, J-M. Parel, “Effects of selected beam parameters on corneal incisions produced with a hydrogen fluoride laser,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 275–281.

Parker, P.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrisch, R. K.

H. P. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrisch, J-M. Parel, “Effects of selected beam parameters on corneal incisions produced with a hydrogen fluoride laser,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 275–281.

Parrish, R. K.

H. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrish, J-M. Parel, “Preliminary report on corneal incisions created by a hydrogen fluoride laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 217–221 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrey, M.

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, M. Perrey, J. T. Lin, G. O. Waring, “Corneal refractive surgery using an ultra-violet (213 nm) solid-state laser,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1423, 129–140 (1991).

Peyman, G. A.

G. A. Peyman, R. M. Badaro, B. Khoobehi, “Corneal ablation in rabbits using an infrared (2.9-μm) erbium:YAG laser,” Ophthalmology 96, 1160–1170 (1989).
[PubMed]

Pouliquen, Y.

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, L. Asfar, J. Samson, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, “Scanning slit delivery system,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 15, 390–396 (1989).

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer laser keratectomy for myopia with a rotating-slit delivery system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Stern, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, W. T. Reidy, “Infrared laser surgery of the cornea: studies with a Raman-shifted neodymium:YAG laser at 2.80 and 2.92 μm,” Ophthalmology 95, 1434–1441 (1988).
[PubMed]

Rehkopf, P. G.

R. C. Arffa, J. W. Warnicki, P. G. Rehkopf, “Corneal topography using rastereography,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 5, 414–417 (1989).

Reidy, W. T.

D. Stern, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, W. T. Reidy, “Infrared laser surgery of the cornea: studies with a Raman-shifted neodymium:YAG laser at 2.80 and 2.92 μm,” Ophthalmology 95, 1434–1441 (1988).
[PubMed]

Ren, Q.

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Shen, F. Frankhauser, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Ablation rate of the human cornea and PMMA with a solid-state ultraviolet laser (213 nm),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2027 (1994).

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vitro study,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

J-M. Legeais, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Computer-assisted corneal topography: accuracy and reproducibility of the topographic measurement system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 347–357 (1993).

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, M. Perrey, J. T. Lin, G. O. Waring, “Corneal refractive surgery using an ultra-violet (213 nm) solid-state laser,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1423, 129–140 (1991).

Renard, G.

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer laser keratectomy for myopia with a rotating-slit delivery system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothery, S.

J. Marshall, S. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Photo-ablative reprofiling of the cornea using an excimer laser: photorefractive keratectomy,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 21–48 (1986).

T. Seiler, J. Marshall, S. Rothery, J. Wollensak, “The potential of an hydrogen fluoride (HF) laser (3.0 μm) for corneal surgery,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 49–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rowsey, J. J.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salz, J. J.

E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
[PubMed]

Samson, J.

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, L. Asfar, J. Samson, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, “Scanning slit delivery system,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 15, 390–396 (1989).

Savoldelli, M.

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
[PubMed]

Schubert, H.

T. A. Caughey, F-C. Cheng, S. L. Trokel, H. Schubert, C. Martin, S. D. Jacobs, “An investigation of laser–tissue interaction with a 213 nm laser beam with animal corneas,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 6, 77–85 (1994).

Seiler, T.

T. Seiler, J. Wollensak, “Fundamental mode photoablation of the cornea for myopic correction. 1. Theoretical background,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 199–203 (1993).

T. Bende, M. Kriegerowski, T. Seiler, “Photoablation in different ocular tissues performed with an erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 263–269 (1989).

T. Seiler, J. Marshall, S. Rothery, J. Wollensak, “The potential of an hydrogen fluoride (HF) laser (3.0 μm) for corneal surgery,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 49–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

J. Shen, F. Frankhauser, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Ablation rate of the human cornea and PMMA with a solid-state ultraviolet laser (213 nm),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2027 (1994).

Shen, J. H.

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sher, N. A.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, G.

J. Shen, F. Frankhauser, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Ablation rate of the human cornea and PMMA with a solid-state ultraviolet laser (213 nm),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2027 (1994).

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
[PubMed]

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vitro study,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

J-M. Legeais, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Computer-assisted corneal topography: accuracy and reproducibility of the topographic measurement system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 347–357 (1993).

Stern, D.

D. Stern, C. A. Puliafito, E. T. Dobi, W. T. Reidy, “Infrared laser surgery of the cornea: studies with a Raman-shifted neodymium:YAG laser at 2.80 and 2.92 μm,” Ophthalmology 95, 1434–1441 (1988).
[PubMed]

Takesue, Y.

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
[PubMed]

Telfair, W. B.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer laser instrumentation and technique for human corneal surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, K. P.

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, M. Perrey, J. T. Lin, G. O. Waring, “Corneal refractive surgery using an ultra-violet (213 nm) solid-state laser,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1423, 129–140 (1991).

Trokel, S.

J. Marshall, S. Trokel, S. Rothery, R. R. Krueger, “Photo-ablative reprofiling of the cornea using an excimer laser: photorefractive keratectomy,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 21–48 (1986).

Trokel, S. L.

T. A. Caughey, F-C. Cheng, S. L. Trokel, H. Schubert, C. Martin, S. D. Jacobs, “An investigation of laser–tissue interaction with a 213 nm laser beam with animal corneas,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 6, 77–85 (1994).

M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
[PubMed]

R. R. Krueger, S. L. Trokel, “Quantitation of corneal ablation by ultraviolet laser light,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1741–1742 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unkroth, A.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jutte, “Ablation of the cornea using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).

A. Unkroth, K. Pachomis, J. U. Walther, D. Zimare, “Corneal surgery by two-dimensionally scanning of a low-energy excimer laser beam,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J-M. Parel, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2126, 217–229 (1994).

Walther, J. U.

A. Unkroth, K. Pachomis, J. U. Walther, D. Zimare, “Corneal surgery by two-dimensionally scanning of a low-energy excimer laser beam,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J-M. Parel, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2126, 217–229 (1994).

Wang, X. W.

M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
[PubMed]

Waring, G. O.

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, L. Asfar, J. Samson, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, “Scanning slit delivery system,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 15, 390–396 (1989).

G. O. Waring, “Development of a system for excimer laser corneal surgery,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 87, 854–983 (1989).
[PubMed]

K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer laser keratectomy for myopia with a rotating-slit delivery system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, M. Perrey, J. T. Lin, G. O. Waring, “Corneal refractive surgery using an ultra-violet (213 nm) solid-state laser,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1423, 129–140 (1991).

Warner, J. W.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer laser instrumentation and technique for human corneal surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Warnicki, J. W.

R. C. Arffa, J. W. Warnicki, P. G. Rehkopf, “Corneal topography using rastereography,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 5, 414–417 (1989).

Warren, C.

E. Maguen, J. J. Salz, A. B. Nesburn, C. Warren, J. I. Macy, T. Papaioannu, J. Hofbauer, M. S. Berlin, “Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia,” Ophthalmology 101, 1548–1557 (1994).
[PubMed]

Wollensak, J.

T. Seiler, J. Wollensak, “Fundamental mode photoablation of the cornea for myopic correction. 1. Theoretical background,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 199–203 (1993).

T. Seiler, J. Marshall, S. Rothery, J. Wollensak, “The potential of an hydrogen fluoride (HF) laser (3.0 μm) for corneal surgery,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 49–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. R.

F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer laser instrumentation and technique for human corneal surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zabel, R. W.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193 nm excimer laser for the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, W.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jutte, “Ablation of the cornea using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).

Zimare, D.

A. Unkroth, K. Pachomis, J. U. Walther, D. Zimare, “Corneal surgery by two-dimensionally scanning of a low-energy excimer laser beam,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J-M. Parel, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2126, 217–229 (1994).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrish, J-M. Parel, “Preliminary report on corneal incisions created by a hydrogen fluoride laser,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 217–221 (1986).
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R. R. Krueger, S. L. Trokel, “Quantitation of corneal ablation by ultraviolet laser light,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1741–1742 (1985).
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K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, Y. Pouliquen, G. Renard, L. Asfar, G. O. Waring, “Excimer laser keratectomy for myopia with a rotating-slit delivery system,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 245–250 (1988).
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F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, W. B. Telfair, P. R. Yoder, C. A. Martin, “Excimer laser instrumentation and technique for human corneal surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 131–139 (1989).
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P. J. McDonnell, H. Moreira, J. Garbus, T. N. Clapham, J. D’Arcy, C. R. Munnerlyn, “Photorefractive keratectomy to create toric ablations for the correction of astigmatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 710–713 (1991).
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O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, “Struktur und Dynamik photoakustischer Schockwellen bei der 193 nm Excimerlaser-photoablation der Hornhaut,” Fortschr. Ophthalmol. 88, 748–753 (1991).
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A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jutte, “Ablation of the cornea using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

M. Campos, X. W. Wang, L. Hertzog, M. Lee, T. Clapham, S. L. Trokel, P. J. McDonnell, “Ablation rates and surface ultrastructure of 193 nm excimer laser keratectomies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 2493–2500 (1993).
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J. Shen, F. Frankhauser, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Ablation rate of the human cornea and PMMA with a solid-state ultraviolet laser (213 nm),” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2027 (1994).

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K. D. Hanna, J-C. Chastang, L. Asfar, J. Samson, Y. Pouliquen, G. O. Waring, “Scanning slit delivery system,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 15, 390–396 (1989).

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

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T. Bende, M. Kriegerowski, T. Seiler, “Photoablation in different ocular tissues performed with an erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 2, 263–269 (1989).

T. A. Caughey, F-C. Cheng, S. L. Trokel, H. Schubert, C. Martin, S. D. Jacobs, “An investigation of laser–tissue interaction with a 213 nm laser beam with animal corneas,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 6, 77–85 (1994).

T. Seiler, J. Wollensak, “Fundamental mode photoablation of the cornea for myopic correction. 1. Theoretical background,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 199–203 (1993).

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[CrossRef]

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Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vitro study,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Legeais, J-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, J. H. Shen, Y. Takesue, M. Savoldelli, “UV solid state laser (213 nm) photo-refractive keratectomy: in vivo study,” Ophthalmology 101, 883–889 (1994).
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Refractive Corneal Surg. (4)

J-M. Legeais, Q. Ren, G. Simon, J-M. Parel, “Computer-assisted corneal topography: accuracy and reproducibility of the topographic measurement system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 347–357 (1993).

R. C. Arffa, J. W. Warnicki, P. G. Rehkopf, “Corneal topography using rastereography,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 5, 414–417 (1989).

W. Forster, R. Beck, H. Busse, “Design and development of a new 193-nanometer excimer laser surgical system,” Refractive Corneal Surg. 9, 293–299 (1993).

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Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

G. O. Waring, “Development of a system for excimer laser corneal surgery,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 87, 854–983 (1989).
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Other (3)

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, M. Perrey, J. T. Lin, G. O. Waring, “Corneal refractive surgery using an ultra-violet (213 nm) solid-state laser,” in Ophthalmic Technologies, C. Puliafito, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1423, 129–140 (1991).

H. P. Loertscher, S. Mandelbaum, R. K. Parrisch, J-M. Parel, “Effects of selected beam parameters on corneal incisions produced with a hydrogen fluoride laser,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 275–281.

A. Unkroth, K. Pachomis, J. U. Walther, D. Zimare, “Corneal surgery by two-dimensionally scanning of a low-energy excimer laser beam,” in Ophthalmic Technologies IV, J-M. Parel, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2126, 217–229 (1994).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Algorithm for the calculation of the pulse-distribution map.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polynomial and linear approximations of the corneal-ablation rate at 213 nm based on in vitro measurements performed on eye-bank eyes.23

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amount of tissue removed by one pulse (cross section) with 213-nm radiation and a Gaussian beam-intensity distribution. The peak radiant exposure is 400 mJ/cm2. The dashed lines show the cross section of the cone used in the mathematical model to calculate the volume of tissue removed by one pulse. A, peak ablation; b, beam diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative number of pulses versus peak radiant exposure for 213-nm radiation with a Gaussian beam-intensity distribution. The linear approximation of the ablation rate was used. The dent at 700 mJ/cm2 is caused by the plateau in the ablation rate curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Number of pulses per diopter of correction versus beam diameter for four values of the diameter of the treatment zone. The results are given for 213-nm radiation with a Gaussian beam-intensity distribution and a peak radiant exposure of 400 mJ/cm2. The solid curves are obtained with Eq. (11), when D = 1. The vertical bars show the range of the actual values.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative roughness of the postoperative corneal surface versus central ablation depth for four values of the spot overlap and three values of the beam diameter. The relative roughness is defined as the ratio between the rms error and the central ablation depth. The results are given for 213-nm radiation with a Gaussian beam-intensity distribution and a peak radiant exposure of 400 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative roughness of the postoperative corneal surface versus central ablation depth and spot overlap when the beam diameter is 0.5 mm. The relative roughness is defined as the ratio between the rms error and the central ablation depth. The results are given for 213-nm radiation with a Gaussian beam-intensity distribution and a peak radiant exposure of 400 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulated absolute postoperative refractive error versus beam diameter for 60% and 80% overlap. The results are given for 213-nm radiation with a Gaussian beam-intensity distribution and a peak radiant exposure of 400 mJ/cm2. The diameter of the treatment zone is 5 mm. All errors are overcorrections.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pulse-distribution map for a correction of 6 D of myopia with a beam diameter of 0.5 mm and a 5-mm treatment-zone diameter. Top, 50% overlap; bottom, 80% overlap.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulated amount of tissue removed for a correction of 6 D of myopia with a beam diameter of 0.5 mm and a 5-mm treatment-zone diameter. Top, 50% overlap; bottom, 80% overlap.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V = π h 2 ( R - h 3 ) ,
h = R - ( R 2 - d 2 4 ) 1 / 2 .
h = d 2 8 R .
V = π 64 d 4 R .
V 1 = π 64 d 4 ( 1 R i - 1 R f ) .
D = Δ n R f - Δ n R i ,
V 1 = - π 64 d 4 Δ n D .
V 2 = π 24 b 2 A ln I 0 I th ,
V = π h ( a 2 + a c + c 2 ) ,
V 2 = π 24 b 2 A ln I 0 I th { 1 + ln ( I 0 / I p ) ln ( I 0 / I th ) + [ ln ( I 0 / I p ) ln ( I 0 / I th ) ] 1 / 2 } ,
N = - 3 d 4 D 8 Δ n b 2 A ( 1 + α ) ln ( I 0 / I th ) ,
α = ln ( I 0 / I p ) ln ( I 0 / I th ) + [ ln ( I 0 / I p ) ln ( I 0 / I th ) ] 1 / 2             if I 0 > I p .
N ( I 0 ) N ( I ref ) = A ref ( 1 + α ref ) ln ( I ref / I th ) A 0 ( 1 + α 0 ) ln ( I 0 / I th ) ,
V = π 4 A b 2 ,
V uniform V Gaussian = 6 ln ( I 0 / I th ) ,
V uniform = 4.3 V Gaussian .

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