Abstract

The characteristics of the solar aureole were evaluated for several cases of a turbid atmosphere in the 3° ≤ Θ ≤ 30° interval of scattering angles; for each case, the features of the aerosol were retrieved from the simulated aureole data. Computations were carried out with a recently set up radiative transfer code that uses the approximated delta-M method, corrected further for the 1st and 2nd scattering orders. Results showed that the software tested can work out both the direct and the inverse aureole problems with great accuracy and efficiency in several different situations, so it can reliably be used for handling experimental data measured in the field with an aureolemeter. Furthermore, the input parameters of ground albedo, complex refractive index, aerosol radius interval, and measurement angles were varied within a set of values to examine the sensitivity of the retrieval to improperly assumed values of these parameters and to evaluate the most suitable way of determining their correct values. Only data concerning diffuse radiation were elaborated. Results showed that (1) the scanned scattering angles have to be extended up to 40°; (2) the most suitable radius interval for aerosols appears to be from 0.05 to 15 μm; (3) ground albedo A should be independently determined within 15%; and (4) as to the complex refractive index m˜, the real part should be given within 3.5%, and the imaginary part within from 10% to 50%, according to its value. Finally, a procedure through which it is possible to derive A and m˜ by extending the information content of the aureole data is discussed. Improved calibration procedures are also proposed.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Box, A. Deepak, “Single and multiple scattering contributions to circumsolar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3794–3797 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Arao, M. Tanaka, “Dependence of the solar aureole upon the optical properties of aerosols and albedo of the ground surface,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 743–753 (1986).
  3. K. Arao, M. Tanaka, “Photometric and colorimetric properties of the solar aureole,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 167–177 (1988).
  4. A. Deepak, “Inversion of solar aureole measurements for determining aerosol characteristics,” in Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1977), p. 265.
  5. M. A. Box, A. Deepak, “An approximation to multiple scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere: almucantar radiance formulation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037–1048 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Deirmendjian, “Use of scattering techniques in cloud micro-physics research. 1. The aureole method,” Rand Corp. Rep. R-590-PR (Rand Corp., Santa Monica, Calif., 1970).
  7. J. A. Weinman, J. T. Twitty, S. R. Browning, B. M. Herman, “Derivation of phase functions from multiply scattered sunlight transmitted through a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 577–583 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of oceanic turbidity and index of refraction of hydrosols on the flux of solar radiation in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 92–111 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 51–69 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. J. Wiscombe, “The delta-M method: rapid yet accurate radiative flux calculations for strongly asymmetric phase functions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1408–1422 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Deepak, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from scattering and extinction measurements in the presence of multiple scattering,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheres and Oceans, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1980), p. 95.
  14. G. E. Shaw, “Remote sensing of aerosol in the free atmosphere by passive optical techniques,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. G. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), p. 335.
  15. A. W. Peterson, E. L. Vande Noord, “Observations and analysis of the solar aureole in the near infrared,” in Atmospheric Aerosols: Their Formation, Optical Properties, and Effects, A. Deepak, ed. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), p. 287.
  16. T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, T. Yamauchi, R. Goto, K. Murai, “Consistency of aerosol size distributions inferred from measurements of solar radiation and aerosols,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 765–776 (1986).
  17. D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).
  19. J. T. Twitty, R. J. Parent, J. A. Weinman, E. W. Eloranta, “Aerosol size distributions: remote determination from airborne measurements of the solar aureole,” Appl. Opt. 15, 980–989 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Tanaka, T. Hayasada, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–344 (1990).
  22. T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14039–14047 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Rep. AFGL TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).
  24. M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water-suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).
  25. F. Cabot, G. Dedieu, P. M. Maisongrande, “Surface albedo from space over Hapex Sahel sites,” in Proceedings of the 6th Advanced High Resolution Radiometer Data Users’ Meeting (EUMETSAT, Germany, 1993), p. 51.
  26. G. Hänel, “Single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, apparent refractive index, and apparent soot content of dry atmospheric particles,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2287–2295 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. Horvath, “Atmospheric light absorption—a review,” Atmos. Environ. 27, 293–317 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. D. King, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. Part 1: Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 163–173 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of a Sunphotometer by simultaneous measurements of direct-solar and circumsolar radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170–1176 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. J. List, Smithsonian Meteorological Tables (Smithsonian, Washington, D.C., 1958).

1993

H. Horvath, “Atmospheric light absorption—a review,” Atmos. Environ. 27, 293–317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

1990

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasada, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–344 (1990).

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14039–14047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Arao, M. Tanaka, “Photometric and colorimetric properties of the solar aureole,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 167–177 (1988).

G. Hänel, “Single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, apparent refractive index, and apparent soot content of dry atmospheric particles,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2287–2295 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of a Sunphotometer by simultaneous measurements of direct-solar and circumsolar radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170–1176 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Arao, M. Tanaka, “Dependence of the solar aureole upon the optical properties of aerosols and albedo of the ground surface,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 743–753 (1986).

T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, T. Yamauchi, R. Goto, K. Murai, “Consistency of aerosol size distributions inferred from measurements of solar radiation and aerosols,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 765–776 (1986).

1983

1982

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water-suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).

1981

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, “An approximation to multiple scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere: almucantar radiance formulation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037–1048 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

M. D. King, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. Part 1: Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 163–173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

1977

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of oceanic turbidity and index of refraction of hydrosols on the flux of solar radiation in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 92–111 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wiscombe, “The delta-M method: rapid yet accurate radiative flux calculations for strongly asymmetric phase functions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1408–1422 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1975

J. A. Weinman, J. T. Twitty, S. R. Browning, B. M. Herman, “Derivation of phase functions from multiply scattered sunlight transmitted through a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 577–583 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Andronova, A.

I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

K. Arao, M. Tanaka, “Photometric and colorimetric properties of the solar aureole,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 167–177 (1988).

K. Arao, M. Tanaka, “Dependence of the solar aureole upon the optical properties of aerosols and albedo of the ground surface,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 743–753 (1986).

Box, G. P.

A. Deepak, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from scattering and extinction measurements in the presence of multiple scattering,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheres and Oceans, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1980), p. 95.

Box, M. A.

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, “An approximation to multiple scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere: almucantar radiance formulation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037–1048 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, “Single and multiple scattering contributions to circumsolar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3794–3797 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from scattering and extinction measurements in the presence of multiple scattering,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheres and Oceans, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1980), p. 95.

Browning, S. R.

J. A. Weinman, J. T. Twitty, S. R. Browning, B. M. Herman, “Derivation of phase functions from multiply scattered sunlight transmitted through a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 577–583 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, F.

F. Cabot, G. Dedieu, P. M. Maisongrande, “Surface albedo from space over Hapex Sahel sites,” in Proceedings of the 6th Advanced High Resolution Radiometer Data Users’ Meeting (EUMETSAT, Germany, 1993), p. 51.

Dedieu, G.

F. Cabot, G. Dedieu, P. M. Maisongrande, “Surface albedo from space over Hapex Sahel sites,” in Proceedings of the 6th Advanced High Resolution Radiometer Data Users’ Meeting (EUMETSAT, Germany, 1993), p. 51.

Deepak, A.

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, “An approximation to multiple scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere: almucantar radiance formulation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037–1048 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, “Single and multiple scattering contributions to circumsolar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3794–3797 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from scattering and extinction measurements in the presence of multiple scattering,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheres and Oceans, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1980), p. 95.

A. Deepak, “Inversion of solar aureole measurements for determining aerosol characteristics,” in Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1977), p. 265.

Deirmendjian, D.

D. Deirmendjian, “Use of scattering techniques in cloud micro-physics research. 1. The aureole method,” Rand Corp. Rep. R-590-PR (Rand Corp., Santa Monica, Calif., 1970).

Devaux, C.

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Rep. AFGL TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Goto, R.

T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, T. Yamauchi, R. Goto, K. Murai, “Consistency of aerosol size distributions inferred from measurements of solar radiation and aerosols,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 765–776 (1986).

Hänel, G.

Hayasada, T.

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasada, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–344 (1990).

Hayasaka, T.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14039–14047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, B. M.

M. D. King, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. Part 1: Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 163–173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, J. T. Twitty, S. R. Browning, B. M. Herman, “Derivation of phase functions from multiply scattered sunlight transmitted through a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 577–583 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, H.

H. Horvath, “Atmospheric light absorption—a review,” Atmos. Environ. 27, 293–317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. C.

I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

M. D. King, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. Part 1: Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 163–173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

List, R. J.

R. J. List, Smithsonian Meteorological Tables (Smithsonian, Washington, D.C., 1958).

Maisongrande, P. M.

F. Cabot, G. Dedieu, P. M. Maisongrande, “Surface albedo from space over Hapex Sahel sites,” in Proceedings of the 6th Advanced High Resolution Radiometer Data Users’ Meeting (EUMETSAT, Germany, 1993), p. 51.

Miyake, Y.

Murai, K.

T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, T. Yamauchi, R. Goto, K. Murai, “Consistency of aerosol size distributions inferred from measurements of solar radiation and aerosols,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 765–776 (1986).

Nakajima, T.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14039–14047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasada, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–344 (1990).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, T. Yamauchi, R. Goto, K. Murai, “Consistency of aerosol size distributions inferred from measurements of solar radiation and aerosols,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 765–776 (1986).

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of a Sunphotometer by simultaneous measurements of direct-solar and circumsolar radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170–1176 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water-suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of oceanic turbidity and index of refraction of hydrosols on the flux of solar radiation in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 92–111 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, Y.

Parent, R. J.

Peterson, A. W.

A. W. Peterson, E. L. Vande Noord, “Observations and analysis of the solar aureole in the near infrared,” in Atmospheric Aerosols: Their Formation, Optical Properties, and Effects, A. Deepak, ed. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), p. 287.

Santer, R.

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sasamoto, K.

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, “Remote sensing of aerosol in the free atmosphere by passive optical techniques,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. G. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), p. 335.

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Rep. AFGL TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Shiobara, M.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, T. Yamauchi, R. Goto, K. Murai, “Consistency of aerosol size distributions inferred from measurements of solar radiation and aerosols,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 765–776 (1986).

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of a Sunphotometer by simultaneous measurements of direct-solar and circumsolar radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170–1176 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolik, I.

I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takamura, T.

T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, T. Yamauchi, R. Goto, K. Murai, “Consistency of aerosol size distributions inferred from measurements of solar radiation and aerosols,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 765–776 (1986).

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water-suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).

Tanaka, M.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “The coarse particle aerosols in the free troposphere around Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14039–14047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasada, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–344 (1990).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Arao, M. Tanaka, “Photometric and colorimetric properties of the solar aureole,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 167–177 (1988).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of a Sunphotometer by simultaneous measurements of direct-solar and circumsolar radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170–1176 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Arao, M. Tanaka, “Dependence of the solar aureole upon the optical properties of aerosols and albedo of the ground surface,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 743–753 (1986).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water-suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of oceanic turbidity and index of refraction of hydrosols on the flux of solar radiation in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 92–111 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Twitty, J. T.

J. T. Twitty, R. J. Parent, J. A. Weinman, E. W. Eloranta, “Aerosol size distributions: remote determination from airborne measurements of the solar aureole,” Appl. Opt. 15, 980–989 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, J. T. Twitty, S. R. Browning, B. M. Herman, “Derivation of phase functions from multiply scattered sunlight transmitted through a hazy atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 577–583 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Vande Noord, E. L.

A. W. Peterson, E. L. Vande Noord, “Observations and analysis of the solar aureole in the near infrared,” in Atmospheric Aerosols: Their Formation, Optical Properties, and Effects, A. Deepak, ed. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), p. 287.

Weinman, J. A.

J. T. Twitty, R. J. Parent, J. A. Weinman, E. W. Eloranta, “Aerosol size distributions: remote determination from airborne measurements of the solar aureole,” Appl. Opt. 15, 980–989 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Yamauchi, T.

T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, T. Yamauchi, R. Goto, K. Murai, “Consistency of aerosol size distributions inferred from measurements of solar radiation and aerosols,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 765–776 (1986).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Behavior of the ratio R with the azimuth angle ϕ, in the almucantar geometry, for case 1 and the conditions given in the labels. Wavelengths (in micrometers) are specified on the right-hand side of each curve.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Case 1: Top curve, given and retrieved size distributions; middle curve, relative difference between the given and retrieved size distributions, as a function of r, in percent; bottom curve, maximum contribution of each size interval to the phase function, in percent.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Behavior of the normalized kernel functions for extinction and for scattering at five angles as a function of the size parameter x = 2πr/λ. The complex refractive index was assumed to be m ˜ = 1.5 − 0.01i (aerosol Model 2). The kernel functions are normalized to 1 and shifted upward.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometry concerning the measurement of the intensity in the solar almucantar and in the principal plane. The zenith axis is denoted by a, and the observer is at the origin O.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Almucantar geometry: behavior of the scattering angle Θ with the azimuth angle ϕ, for θ0 = 30°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Principal-plane geometry: behavior of the scattering angle Θ with the zenith angle θ, for θ0 = 15°.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Case 1 (Aerosol Urban Model by Shettle and Fenn23) and Case 5 (Aerosol Tropospheric Model by Shiobara et al.18): Mean Relative Deviations (in Percent) between Simulated and Retrieved Data, Concerning Aureole Data, Aerosol Optical Thickness, and Volume Size Distributiona

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Table 2 Mean Relative Deviations (in Percent) between Simulated and Retrieved Data for Cases 1–4 and Different Selections of the Upper Value of Θ (in Degrees)a

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Table 3 Mean Relative Deviations (in Percent) between Simulated and Retrieved Data for Cases 1 (0.05–20 μm) and 5 (0.1–10 μm) and Different Selections of the Lower and Upper Radius Limits r m , r M a

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Table 4 Sensitivity of the Retrieved Data to the Ground Albedo A for Cases 1 and 5 (A = 0.25)a

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Table 5 Sensitivity to the Real Part m of the Complex Refractive Index for Cases 1 (m = 1.48) and 5 (m = 1.50)a

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Table 6 Sensitivity of the Retrieved Data to the Imaginary Park k of the Complex Refractive Index for Cases 1 (k = 0.055) and 5 (k = 0.01)a

Equations (10)

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F = F 0 exp ( - m τ ) ,
E ( θ 0 , ϕ ) E ( Θ ) = m ω τ P ( Θ ) F Δ Ω + q ( Θ ) ,
R ( Θ ) E ( Θ ) F m Δ Ω = ω τ P ( Θ ) + r ( Θ ) ,
v ( r ) d V d l n r = C 1 exp { - 1 2 [ ln ( r / r 1 ) ln s 1 ] 2 } + C 2 exp { - 1 2 [ ln ( r / r 2 ) ln s 2 ] 2 } .
K ( x ) = ( 3 / 8 π ) [ i 1 ( Θ , x , m ˜ ) + i 2 ( Θ , x , m ˜ ) ] x 3 , K e ( x ) = ( 3 4 x ) Q e ( x , m ˜ ) ,
cos Θ = cos θ 0 cos θ + sin θ 0 sin θ cos ϕ .
cos Θ = cos 2 θ 0 + sin 2 θ 0 cos ϕ ;
ϕ = 0 ° ,             θ 0 θ 90 ° Θ = θ - θ 0 ,             0 ° Θ 90 ° - θ 0 ,
ϕ = 0 ° ,             0 ° θ θ 0 Θ = θ 0 - θ ,             0 ° Θ θ 0 ,
ϕ = 180 ° ,             0 ° θ 90 ° Θ = θ 0 + θ θ 0 Θ 90 ° + θ 0 ;

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