Abstract

Tm3+-doped heavy metal oxide glasses in the PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 system were prepared, and their emission characteristics were examined. Three emission bands at the infrared wavelength region were observed, at 1.46, 1.79, and 2.36 μm, which are associated with the 3 H 43 F 4, 3 F 43 H 6, and 3 H 43 H 5, transitions, respectively. Measured fluorescence lifetimes for the first two transitions were 0.160 and 1.035 ms, respectively. Oscillator strengths and intensity parameters suggest that the ionicity of Tm–O bonds in the glass is higher when compared with those in other oxide glass hosts. Higher radiative transition probabilities of the three infrared emissions than those calculated for other glasses appear to provide potentials for future laser applications.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. H. Dumbaugh, “Heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 119–123 (1986).
  2. D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. N. Brown, “Material dispersion in heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 92, 89–94 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO–Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Miyaji, S. Sakka, “Structure of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 77–85 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Savage, “Materials for infrared fiber optics,” Mater. Sci. Rep. 2, 99–138 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstate and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Subramanyam, L. R. Moorthy, S. V. J. Lakshman, “Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters and laser analysis of Tm3+ in certain sulphase glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 67–73 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, H. Tobben, “Optical properties of rare earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35–40 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Zou, T. Izumitani, “Fluorescence mechanisms and dynamics of Tm3+ singly doped and Yb3+, Tm3+ doubly doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 58–67(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crytal spectra of rare earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. F. Krupke, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 145, 325–337 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–276 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, B. G. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3797–3806(1968).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Dependence of spontaneous emission and nonradiative relaxation of Tm3+ and Er3+ on glass host and temperature,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4001–4012 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Eyal, R. Reisfeld, A. Schiller, C. Jacobone, C. K. Jørgensen, “Energy transfer between manganese (II) and thulium (III) in transition-metal fluoride glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 40, 595–602 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. J. Weber, W. E. Varitimos, “Optical spectra and intensities of Nd3+ in YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4996–5005 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron (to be published).
  21. M. J. Weber, R. A. Savoyan, R. C. Ropp, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in metaphosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 137–148 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. O. K. Deutchbein, C. C. Pautrat, “CW laser at room temperature using vitreous substances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 48–51 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Optical spectra of erbium and thulium in germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 12, 357–376 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. K. Jørgensen, R. Reisfeld, “Judd–Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less-Common Metals 93, 107–112 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Reisfeld, E. Greenberg, R. N. Brown, M. G. Drexhage, “Fluorescence of europium (III) in a fluoride glass containing zirconium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 91–94 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, “Thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 10–15 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. G. Kim, J. Heo, Y. S. Kim, “Preparation and characteristics of infrared transmitting glasses in the PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 system,” J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 709–716 (1993).
  28. R. Reisfeld, J. Hormadaly, A. Muranevich, “Absorption and emission of Ho3+ in germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 29, 323–332 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Reisfeld, “Luminescence of six J-levels of holmium (III) in barium zirconium fluoride glass at room temperature,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 118, 25–28 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earth, K. A. Gschneider, L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, chap. 58.
    [CrossRef]

1993 (2)

X. Zou, T. Izumitani, “Fluorescence mechanisms and dynamics of Tm3+ singly doped and Yb3+, Tm3+ doubly doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 58–67(1993).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Kim, J. Heo, Y. S. Kim, “Preparation and characteristics of infrared transmitting glasses in the PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 system,” J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 709–716 (1993).

1992 (4)

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, “Thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 10–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO–Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Subramanyam, L. R. Moorthy, S. V. J. Lakshman, “Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters and laser analysis of Tm3+ in certain sulphase glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 67–73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, H. Tobben, “Optical properties of rare earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. Miyaji, S. Sakka, “Structure of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 77–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

R. N. Brown, “Material dispersion in heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 92, 89–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Savage, “Materials for infrared fiber optics,” Mater. Sci. Rep. 2, 99–138 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Eyal, R. Reisfeld, A. Schiller, C. Jacobone, C. K. Jørgensen, “Energy transfer between manganese (II) and thulium (III) in transition-metal fluoride glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 40, 595–602 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

W. H. Dumbaugh, “Heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 119–123 (1986).

1985 (1)

R. Reisfeld, “Luminescence of six J-levels of holmium (III) in barium zirconium fluoride glass at room temperature,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 118, 25–28 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

C. K. Jørgensen, R. Reisfeld, “Judd–Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less-Common Metals 93, 107–112 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, E. Greenberg, R. N. Brown, M. G. Drexhage, “Fluorescence of europium (III) in a fluoride glass containing zirconium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 91–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. J. Weber, R. A. Savoyan, R. C. Ropp, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in metaphosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 137–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. Reisfeld, J. Hormadaly, A. Muranevich, “Absorption and emission of Ho3+ in germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 29, 323–332 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstate and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Dependence of spontaneous emission and nonradiative relaxation of Tm3+ and Er3+ on glass host and temperature,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4001–4012 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Optical spectra of erbium and thulium in germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 12, 357–376 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. J. Weber, W. E. Varitimos, “Optical spectra and intensities of Nd3+ in YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4996–5005 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (3)

O. K. Deutchbein, C. C. Pautrat, “CW laser at room temperature using vitreous substances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 48–51 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, B. G. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3797–3806(1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–276 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

W. F. Krupke, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 145, 325–337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crytal spectra of rare earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Boehm, L.

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstate and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. N.

R. N. Brown, “Material dispersion in heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 92, 89–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, E. Greenberg, R. N. Brown, M. G. Drexhage, “Fluorescence of europium (III) in a fluoride glass containing zirconium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 91–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, B. G. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3797–3806(1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. N.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, “Thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 10–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Deutchbein, O. K.

O. K. Deutchbein, C. C. Pautrat, “CW laser at room temperature using vitreous substances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 48–51 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Drexhage, M. G.

R. Reisfeld, E. Greenberg, R. N. Brown, M. G. Drexhage, “Fluorescence of europium (III) in a fluoride glass containing zirconium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 91–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dumbaugh, W. H.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Dumbaugh, “Heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 119–123 (1986).

Eckstein, Y.

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Dependence of spontaneous emission and nonradiative relaxation of Tm3+ and Er3+ on glass host and temperature,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4001–4012 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Optical spectra of erbium and thulium in germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 12, 357–376 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Eyal, M.

M. Eyal, R. Reisfeld, A. Schiller, C. Jacobone, C. K. Jørgensen, “Energy transfer between manganese (II) and thulium (III) in transition-metal fluoride glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 40, 595–602 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, B. G. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3797–3806(1968).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, E.

R. Reisfeld, E. Greenberg, R. N. Brown, M. G. Drexhage, “Fluorescence of europium (III) in a fluoride glass containing zirconium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 91–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. W.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, “Thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 10–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

C. G. Kim, J. Heo, Y. S. Kim, “Preparation and characteristics of infrared transmitting glasses in the PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 system,” J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 709–716 (1993).

Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron (to be published).

Hormadaly, J.

R. Reisfeld, J. Hormadaly, A. Muranevich, “Absorption and emission of Ho3+ in germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 29, 323–332 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Izumitani, T.

X. Zou, T. Izumitani, “Fluorescence mechanisms and dynamics of Tm3+ singly doped and Yb3+, Tm3+ doubly doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 58–67(1993).
[CrossRef]

Jacobone, C.

M. Eyal, R. Reisfeld, A. Schiller, C. Jacobone, C. K. Jørgensen, “Energy transfer between manganese (II) and thulium (III) in transition-metal fluoride glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 40, 595–602 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. N.

Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron (to be published).

Jørgensen, C. K.

M. Eyal, R. Reisfeld, A. Schiller, C. Jacobone, C. K. Jørgensen, “Energy transfer between manganese (II) and thulium (III) in transition-metal fluoride glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 40, 595–602 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Jørgensen, R. Reisfeld, “Judd–Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less-Common Metals 93, 107–112 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earth, K. A. Gschneider, L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, chap. 58.
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. G.

C. G. Kim, J. Heo, Y. S. Kim, “Preparation and characteristics of infrared transmitting glasses in the PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 system,” J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 709–716 (1993).

Kim, Y. S.

C. G. Kim, J. Heo, Y. S. Kim, “Preparation and characteristics of infrared transmitting glasses in the PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 system,” J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 709–716 (1993).

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 145, 325–337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Lakshman, S. V. J.

Y. Subramanyam, L. R. Moorthy, S. V. J. Lakshman, “Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters and laser analysis of Tm3+ in certain sulphase glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 67–73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, F.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO–Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyaji, S. Sakka, “Structure of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 77–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moorthy, L. R.

Y. Subramanyam, L. R. Moorthy, S. V. J. Lakshman, “Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters and laser analysis of Tm3+ in certain sulphase glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 67–73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Muranevich, A.

R. Reisfeld, J. Hormadaly, A. Muranevich, “Absorption and emission of Ho3+ in germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 29, 323–332 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Newhouse, M. A.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crytal spectra of rare earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pautrat, C. C.

O. K. Deutchbein, C. C. Pautrat, “CW laser at room temperature using vitreous substances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 48–51 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

M. Eyal, R. Reisfeld, A. Schiller, C. Jacobone, C. K. Jørgensen, “Energy transfer between manganese (II) and thulium (III) in transition-metal fluoride glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 40, 595–602 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, “Luminescence of six J-levels of holmium (III) in barium zirconium fluoride glass at room temperature,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 118, 25–28 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Jørgensen, R. Reisfeld, “Judd–Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less-Common Metals 93, 107–112 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, E. Greenberg, R. N. Brown, M. G. Drexhage, “Fluorescence of europium (III) in a fluoride glass containing zirconium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 91–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, J. Hormadaly, A. Muranevich, “Absorption and emission of Ho3+ in germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 29, 323–332 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstate and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Dependence of spontaneous emission and nonradiative relaxation of Tm3+ and Er3+ on glass host and temperature,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4001–4012 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Optical spectra of erbium and thulium in germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 12, 357–376 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earth, K. A. Gschneider, L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, chap. 58.
[CrossRef]

Ropp, R. C.

M. J. Weber, R. A. Savoyan, R. C. Ropp, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in metaphosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 137–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sakka, S.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO–Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyaji, S. Sakka, “Structure of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 77–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Savage, J. A.

J. A. Savage, “Materials for infrared fiber optics,” Mater. Sci. Rep. 2, 99–138 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Savoyan, R. A.

M. J. Weber, R. A. Savoyan, R. C. Ropp, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in metaphosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 137–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, A.

M. Eyal, R. Reisfeld, A. Schiller, C. Jacobone, C. K. Jørgensen, “Energy transfer between manganese (II) and thulium (III) in transition-metal fluoride glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 40, 595–602 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. B.

Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron (to be published).

Smart, R. G.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, “Thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 10–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spector, N.

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstate and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Subramanyam, Y.

Y. Subramanyam, L. R. Moorthy, S. V. J. Lakshman, “Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters and laser analysis of Tm3+ in certain sulphase glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 67–73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, K.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO–Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tobben, H.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, H. Tobben, “Optical properties of rare earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, “Thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 10–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Varitimos, W. E.

M. J. Weber, W. E. Varitimos, “Optical spectra and intensities of Nd3+ in YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4996–5005 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, R. A. Savoyan, R. C. Ropp, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in metaphosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 137–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, W. E. Varitimos, “Optical spectra and intensities of Nd3+ in YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4996–5005 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–276 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Weidman, D. L.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

West, G. F.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, H. Tobben, “Optical properties of rare earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wetenkamp, L.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, H. Tobben, “Optical properties of rare earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wybourne, B. G.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, B. G. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3797–3806(1968).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO–Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

X. Zou, T. Izumitani, “Fluorescence mechanisms and dynamics of Tm3+ singly doped and Yb3+, Tm3+ doubly doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 58–67(1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (4)

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[CrossRef]

M. Eyal, R. Reisfeld, A. Schiller, C. Jacobone, C. K. Jørgensen, “Energy transfer between manganese (II) and thulium (III) in transition-metal fluoride glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 40, 595–602 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, E. Greenberg, R. N. Brown, M. G. Drexhage, “Fluorescence of europium (III) in a fluoride glass containing zirconium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 91–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, “Luminescence of six J-levels of holmium (III) in barium zirconium fluoride glass at room temperature,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 118, 25–28 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. K. Deutchbein, C. C. Pautrat, “CW laser at room temperature using vitreous substances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 48–51 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. J. Weber, W. E. Varitimos, “Optical spectra and intensities of Nd3+ in YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4996–5005 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crytal spectra of rare earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, B. G. Wybourne, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Er3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3797–3806(1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Dependence of spontaneous emission and nonradiative relaxation of Tm3+ and Er3+ on glass host and temperature,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4001–4012 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Ceram. Soc. (1)

C. G. Kim, J. Heo, Y. S. Kim, “Preparation and characteristics of infrared transmitting glasses in the PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 system,” J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 709–716 (1993).

J. Less-Common Metals (1)

C. K. Jørgensen, R. Reisfeld, “Judd–Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less-Common Metals 93, 107–112 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (10)

R. Reisfeld, J. Hormadaly, A. Muranevich, “Absorption and emission of Ho3+ in germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 29, 323–332 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, “Optical spectra of erbium and thulium in germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 12, 357–376 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, “Thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 10–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, R. A. Savoyan, R. C. Ropp, “Optical properties of Nd3+ in metaphosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 44, 137–148 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Subramanyam, L. R. Moorthy, S. V. J. Lakshman, “Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters and laser analysis of Tm3+ in certain sulphase glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 67–73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, H. Tobben, “Optical properties of rare earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou, T. Izumitani, “Fluorescence mechanisms and dynamics of Tm3+ singly doped and Yb3+, Tm3+ doubly doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 58–67(1993).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Brown, “Material dispersion in heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 92, 89–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO–Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyaji, S. Sakka, “Structure of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 77–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Rep. (1)

J. A. Savage, “Materials for infrared fiber optics,” Mater. Sci. Rep. 2, 99–138 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

W. H. Dumbaugh, “Heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 119–123 (1986).

Phys. Rev. (3)

W. F. Krupke, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 145, 325–337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–276 (1967).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron (to be published).

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earth, K. A. Gschneider, L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, chap. 58.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glass doped with 1.5 wt. % Tm2O3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy-level diagram of Tm3+ in PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glass. The measured lifetimes are given in parentheses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectrum of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glass doped with 1.5-wt. % Tm2O3. Emissions at 1.46 and 1.79 μm are due to the transitions of 3 H 43 F 4 and 3 F 43 H 6, respectively, with pumping at the wavelength of 788 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectrum of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glass doped with (a) 0.05-wt. % and (b) 0.01-wt. % Tm2O3. Emission at 2.36 μm is associated with the 3 H 43 H 5 transition, with pumping at the wavelength of 788 nm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Oscillator Strengths (× 10−6) of Tm3+ in Various Glass Hosts

Tables Icon

Table 2 Intensity Parameters of Tm3+ in EO and Various Other Host Glasses

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Table 3 Radiative Transition Probabilities, Lifetimes, and Branching Ratios of Transitions for Tm3+ in EO Glass

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ed ( a J ; b J ) = e 2 Ω λ ( f N [ α S L ] J U ( λ ) × f N [ α S L ] J ) 2 ,
S md ( a J ; b J ) = ( e 2 h 2 / 16 π 2 m c 2 ) ( f N [ α S L ] J L + 2 S f N [ α S L ] J ) 2
f ( a J ; b J ) = [ 8 π 2 m c / 3 h e 2 n 2 λ ( 2 J + 1 ) ] × { [ n ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 / 9 ] S ed + n 3 S md }
f meas = 4 π ɛ 0 m c 2 / ( π e 2 N t λ 2 ) A ( λ ) d λ ,
A ( a J ; b J ) = ( 1 / 4 π ɛ 0 ) { 64 π 4 / [ 3 h ( 2 J + 1 ) λ 3 ] } × { [ n ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 / 9 ] S ed + n 3 S md } .
τ R = 1 / A j i ,
β j i = A j i / A j i .
η = τ m A j i .
W nr = A j i / η - Σ A j i .
W mp = B exp ( - α Δ E ) ,

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