Abstract

We constructed polarization-selective computer-generated holograms that apply an independent phase profile during readout by horizontal and vertical light polarizations. These elements are composed of two surface-relief-etched birefringent substrates joined face to face. We describe the design methodology for arbitrary birefringent substrate and gap materials. We show how these holograms are fabricated with standard microelectronics technology and discuss the effects of etching and alignment errors on performance. We demonstrated a diffraction efficiency of 60% with a polarization contrast ratio of >100:1 using a multilevel phase hologram made from two birefringent lithium niobate substrates. We also showed that a single-layer SiO2 thin-film antireflection coating on all surfaces can reduce reflections from the high-index substrates without significant effect on hologram performance. We also consider some possible applications of this technology and demonstrate experimentally a dual focal-length lens and a self-interconnecting binary 2 × 2 polarization switch.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, N. Tomova, “Polarization holography. III. Some applications of polarization holographic recording,” Appl. Opt. 24, 785–788 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Q. W. Song, M. C. Lee, P. J. Talbot, “Polarization sensitivity of birefringent photorefractive holograms and its applications to binary switching,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6240–6246 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. Kostuk, M. Kato, Y. T. Huang, “Polarization properties of substrate-mode holographic interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3848–3854 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. Yokomori, “Dielectric surface-relief gratings with high diffraction efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2303–2310 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, “Holographic optical element with analyzer function for magneto-optical disk head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359–361 (1989).
  7. J. Hoßfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. S. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” MIT Lincoln Laboratory Tech. Rep. 854, (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1989).
  9. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 705–708.
  10. P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  11. Lithium niobate optical crystal data sheet (Crystal Technology, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif., 1992).
  12. C. Pitt, M. Fraser, N. Polozkov, L. Ivleva, “Growth and materials processing of LiNbO3,” in Properties of Lithium Niobate, EMIS Datareview Series No. 5 (INSPEC, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1989), pp. 205–236.
  13. R. E. Chapman, “Argon and reactive ion beam etching for SAW devices,” Vacuum 34, 417–424 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Dammann, “Blazed synthetic phase-only holograms,” Optik 31, 95–104 (1970).
  15. U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).
  16. T. Gaylord, M. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” IEEE Proc. 73, 894–937 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Cox, T. Werner, J. Lee, S. Nelson, B. Fritz, J. Bergstrom, “Diffraction efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 116–124 (1990).
  18. M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Effect of VLSI fabrication errors on kinoform efficiency,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 125–136 (1990).
  19. A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, R. Katayama, Y. Ono, “Reflection polarizing holographic optical element for compact magneto-optical disk heads,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5131–5135 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. C. J. Kirkby, M. J. Goodwin, A. D. Parsons, “PLZT/silicon hybridized spatial light modulator array: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 5, 169–178 (1990).
  21. L. K. Cotter, T. J. Drabik, R. J. Dillon, M. A. Handschy, “Ferroelectric-liquid-crystal/silicon-integrated-circuit spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 15, 291–293 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. J. Kirkby, “Electro-optic switching response in cubic phase PLZT ceramic materials,” Appl. Opt. 15, 828–830 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. Newman, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of ultrafast large-angle polarization rotation in GaAs/AlxGa1-x As multiple quantum wells under uniaxial stress,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 98–99.
  24. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
[Crossref]

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

1993 (3)

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hoßfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1990 (4)

1989 (1)

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, “Holographic optical element with analyzer function for magneto-optical disk head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359–361 (1989).

1985 (2)

1984 (2)

R. E. Chapman, “Argon and reactive ion beam etching for SAW devices,” Vacuum 34, 417–424 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Yokomori, “Dielectric surface-relief gratings with high diffraction efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2303–2310 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

1970 (1)

H. Dammann, “Blazed synthetic phase-only holograms,” Optik 31, 95–104 (1970).

Bergstrom, J.

J. Cox, T. Werner, J. Lee, S. Nelson, B. Fritz, J. Bergstrom, “Diffraction efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 116–124 (1990).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 705–708.

Brubaker, J. L.

Chapman, R. E.

R. E. Chapman, “Argon and reactive ion beam etching for SAW devices,” Vacuum 34, 417–424 (1984).
[Crossref]

Cloonan, T. J.

Collischon, M.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

Columbus, D.

J. Hoßfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cotter, L. K.

Cox, J.

J. Cox, T. Werner, J. Lee, S. Nelson, B. Fritz, J. Bergstrom, “Diffraction efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 116–124 (1990).

Crisci, R. J.

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, “Blazed synthetic phase-only holograms,” Optik 31, 95–104 (1970).

Dillon, R. J.

Drabik, T. J.

Dultz, W.

J. Hoßfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dutta, M.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. Newman, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of ultrafast large-angle polarization rotation in GaAs/AlxGa1-x As multiple quantum wells under uniaxial stress,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 98–99.

Farn, M. W.

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Effect of VLSI fabrication errors on kinoform efficiency,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 125–136 (1990).

Fraser, M.

C. Pitt, M. Fraser, N. Polozkov, L. Ivleva, “Growth and materials processing of LiNbO3,” in Properties of Lithium Niobate, EMIS Datareview Series No. 5 (INSPEC, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1989), pp. 205–236.

Fritz, B.

J. Cox, T. Werner, J. Lee, S. Nelson, B. Fritz, J. Bergstrom, “Diffraction efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 116–124 (1990).

Gaylord, T.

T. Gaylord, M. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” IEEE Proc. 73, 894–937 (1985).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Effect of VLSI fabrication errors on kinoform efficiency,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 125–136 (1990).

Goodwin, M. J.

C. J. Kirkby, M. J. Goodwin, A. D. Parsons, “PLZT/silicon hybridized spatial light modulator array: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 5, 169–178 (1990).

Haidner, H.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

Handschy, M. A.

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

Hoßfeld, J.

J. Hoßfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. T.

Hutfless, J.

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ivleva, L.

C. Pitt, M. Fraser, N. Polozkov, L. Ivleva, “Growth and materials processing of LiNbO3,” in Properties of Lithium Niobate, EMIS Datareview Series No. 5 (INSPEC, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1989), pp. 205–236.

Katayama, R.

Kato, M.

Kerbis, E.

Kimura, Y.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, R. Katayama, Y. Ono, “Reflection polarizing holographic optical element for compact magneto-optical disk heads,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5131–5135 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, “Holographic optical element with analyzer function for magneto-optical disk head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359–361 (1989).

Kipfer, P.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kirkby, C. J.

C. J. Kirkby, M. J. Goodwin, A. D. Parsons, “PLZT/silicon hybridized spatial light modulator array: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 5, 169–178 (1990).

C. J. Kirkby, “Electro-optic switching response in cubic phase PLZT ceramic materials,” Appl. Opt. 15, 828–830 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kostuk, R.

Krackhardt, U.

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

Lang, A.

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. Cox, T. Werner, J. Lee, S. Nelson, B. Fritz, J. Bergstrom, “Diffraction efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 116–124 (1990).

Lee, M. C.

Lentine, A. L.

Lindolf, J.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. Newman, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of ultrafast large-angle polarization rotation in GaAs/AlxGa1-x As multiple quantum wells under uniaxial stress,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 98–99.

McCormick, F. B.

Moharam, M.

T. Gaylord, M. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” IEEE Proc. 73, 894–937 (1985).
[Crossref]

Morrison, R. L.

Nelson, S.

J. Cox, T. Werner, J. Lee, S. Nelson, B. Fritz, J. Bergstrom, “Diffraction efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 116–124 (1990).

Newman, P.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. Newman, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of ultrafast large-angle polarization rotation in GaAs/AlxGa1-x As multiple quantum wells under uniaxial stress,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 98–99.

Nikolova, L.

Novotny, R. A.

Ohba, A.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, R. Katayama, Y. Ono, “Reflection polarizing holographic optical element for compact magneto-optical disk heads,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5131–5135 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, “Holographic optical element with analyzer function for magneto-optical disk head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359–361 (1989).

Ono, Y.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, R. Katayama, Y. Ono, “Reflection polarizing holographic optical element for compact magneto-optical disk heads,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5131–5135 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, “Holographic optical element with analyzer function for magneto-optical disk head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359–361 (1989).

Pamulapati, J.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. Newman, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of ultrafast large-angle polarization rotation in GaAs/AlxGa1-x As multiple quantum wells under uniaxial stress,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 98–99.

Parsons, A. D.

C. J. Kirkby, M. J. Goodwin, A. D. Parsons, “PLZT/silicon hybridized spatial light modulator array: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 5, 169–178 (1990).

Pitt, C.

C. Pitt, M. Fraser, N. Polozkov, L. Ivleva, “Growth and materials processing of LiNbO3,” in Properties of Lithium Niobate, EMIS Datareview Series No. 5 (INSPEC, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1989), pp. 205–236.

Polozkov, N.

C. Pitt, M. Fraser, N. Polozkov, L. Ivleva, “Growth and materials processing of LiNbO3,” in Properties of Lithium Niobate, EMIS Datareview Series No. 5 (INSPEC, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1989), pp. 205–236.

Sasian, J. M.

Schwider, J.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
[Crossref]

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. Newman, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of ultrafast large-angle polarization rotation in GaAs/AlxGa1-x As multiple quantum wells under uniaxial stress,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 98–99.

Sheridan, J.

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sheridan, J. T.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
[Crossref]

Song, Q. W.

Sprave, H.

J. Hoßfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stoyanova, K.

Streibl, N.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
[Crossref]

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sugama, S.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, R. Katayama, Y. Ono, “Reflection polarizing holographic optical element for compact magneto-optical disk heads,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5131–5135 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, “Holographic optical element with analyzer function for magneto-optical disk head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359–361 (1989).

Swanson, G. S.

G. S. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” MIT Lincoln Laboratory Tech. Rep. 854, (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1989).

Talbot, P. J.

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

Tooley, F. A.

Tschudi, T.

J. Hoßfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[Crossref]

Urino, Y.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, “Holographic optical element with analyzer function for magneto-optical disk head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359–361 (1989).

Walker, S. L.

Werner, T.

J. Cox, T. Werner, J. Lee, S. Nelson, B. Fritz, J. Bergstrom, “Diffraction efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 116–124 (1990).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 705–708.

Wraback, M.

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. Newman, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of ultrafast large-angle polarization rotation in GaAs/AlxGa1-x As multiple quantum wells under uniaxial stress,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 98–99.

Yokomori, K.

Appl. Opt. (7)

IEEE Proc. (1)

T. Gaylord, M. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” IEEE Proc. 73, 894–937 (1985).
[Crossref]

Intl. J. Optoelectron. (1)

C. J. Kirkby, M. J. Goodwin, A. D. Parsons, “PLZT/silicon hybridized spatial light modulator array: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 5, 169–178 (1990).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. (1)

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, “Holographic optical element with analyzer function for magneto-optical disk head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359–361 (1989).

Opt. Eng. (3)

J. Hoßfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, M. Collischon, A. Lang, J. Hutfless, “Polarizing reflection grating beams splitter for the 10.6-μ wavelength,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1860–1865 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, “Infrared optical components based on a microrelief structure,” Opt. Eng. 33, 79–84 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (2)

H. Dammann, “Blazed synthetic phase-only holograms,” Optik 31, 95–104 (1970).

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

Vacuum (1)

R. E. Chapman, “Argon and reactive ion beam etching for SAW devices,” Vacuum 34, 417–424 (1984).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

M. Wraback, H. Shen, J. Pamulapati, M. Dutta, P. Newman, Y. Lu, “Femtosecond studies of ultrafast large-angle polarization rotation in GaAs/AlxGa1-x As multiple quantum wells under uniaxial stress,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 98–99.

Lithium niobate optical crystal data sheet (Crystal Technology, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif., 1992).

C. Pitt, M. Fraser, N. Polozkov, L. Ivleva, “Growth and materials processing of LiNbO3,” in Properties of Lithium Niobate, EMIS Datareview Series No. 5 (INSPEC, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1989), pp. 205–236.

J. Cox, T. Werner, J. Lee, S. Nelson, B. Fritz, J. Bergstrom, “Diffraction efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 116–124 (1990).

M. W. Farn, J. W. Goodman, “Effect of VLSI fabrication errors on kinoform efficiency,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, J. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1211, 125–136 (1990).

G. S. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” MIT Lincoln Laboratory Tech. Rep. 854, (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1989).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 705–708.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effective function of a polarization-selective CGH: L’s, lenses; PBS’s, polarizing beam splitters; M’s, mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of a single pixel in the BCGH.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phasor diagrams, of a BCGH constructed of (a) a birefringent (upper) and an isotropic (lower) substrate and (b) two birefringent substrates (the first and second substrates, respectively). Both cases (a) and (b) assume an isotropic gap medium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface-reflief profile of an ion-milled LiNbO3 substrate measured by a Dektak profilometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram describing the BCGH assembly procedure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance of AR-coated LiNbO3 substrate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Imaging and Fourier transforming at the same plane without any moving parts: (a) schematic diagram of the experimental setup, (b) photograph of the image of the object obtained with vertical polarization, and (c) photograph of the spatial Fourier transform of the object obtained with horizontal polarization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Principle of a 2 × 2 optically routing polarization switch using a BCGH.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

2 × 2 switch demonstration: (a) schematic diagram of the experimental setup, (b) photograph of the oscilloscope trace demonstrating switching.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Etch Depths Required for Binary and Four-Level Phase BCGH Made of Lithium Niobate

Equations (22)

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( n 1 e - n ge ) d 1 + ( n 2 e - n ge ) d 2 = L e ,
( n 1 o - n go ) d 1 + ( n 2 o - n go ) d 2 = L o ,
( n 1 e - n ge ) ϕ 1 + ( n 2 e - n ge ) ϕ 2 = Φ e ,
( n 1 o - n go ) ϕ 1 + ( n 2 o - n go ) ϕ 2 = Φ o ,
ϕ 1 = k 0 d 1 = ( 2 π / λ 0 ) d 1 ,             ϕ 2 = k 0 d 2 = ( 2 π / λ 0 ) d 2 , Φ e = k 0 L e = ( 2 π / λ 0 ) L e ,             Φ 0 = k 0 L o = ( 2 π / λ 0 ) L o .
| n 1 e - n ge n 2 e - n ge n 1 o - n go n 2 o - n ge | 0.
( n 1 e - n 1o ) ( n 2 - n g ) 0.
( n 1 e - n g ) ( n 2 o - n g ) - ( n 2 e - n g ) ( n 1 o - n g ) 0
( n 1 e n 2 o - n 1 o n 2 e ) + n g [ ( n 1 o - n 1 e ) - ( n 2 o - n 2 e ) ] 0.
n 2 e = n 1 o = n o ,
n 2 o = n 1 e = n e ,
( n e = n g ) ϕ 1 + ( n o - n g ) ϕ 2 = Φ e , ( n o - n g ) ϕ 1 + ( n e - n g ) ϕ 2 = Φ o .
d 1 = 1 k 0 | Φ e n 2 e - n ge Φ o n 2 o - n go | | n 1 e - n ge n 2 e - n ge n 1 o - n go n 2 o - n go | = 1 k 0 ( n 2 o - n go ) Φ e - ( n 2 e - n ge ) Φ o ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) , d 2 = 1 k 0 | n 1 e - n ge Φ e n 1 o - n go Φ o | | n 1 e - n ge n 2 e - n ge n 1 o - n go n 2 o - n go | = 1 k 0 ( n 1 e - n ge ) Φ 0 - ( n 1 o - n go ) Φ e ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) .
Φ oq { 0 , 2 π N , 2 × 2 π N , 3 × 2 π N , , N oq × 2 π N , , ( N - 1 ) × 2 π N } , Φ ef { 0 , 2 π N , 2 × 2 π N , 3 × 2 π N , , N eq × 2 π N , , ( N - 1 ) × 2 π N } ,
d 1 q = 1 k 0 ( n 2 o - n go ) Φ ef - ( n 2 e - n ge ) Φ oq ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) = λ N ( n 2 o - n go ) N eq - ( n 2 e - n ge ) N oq ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) , d 2 q = 1 k 0 ( n 1 e - n ge ) Φ oq - ( n 1 o - n go ) Φ eq ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) = λ N ( n 1 e - n ge ) N oq - ( n 1 o - n go ) N eq ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) .
s = 1 N λ 0 ( n 1 e - n ge ) [ ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) ] , t = 1 N λ 0 ( n 1 o - n go ) [ ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) ] , p = 1 N λ 0 ( n 2 e - n ge ) [ ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) ] , q = 1 N λ 0 ( n 2 o - n go ) [ ( n 1 e - n ge ) ( n 2 o - n go ) - ( n 1 o - n go ) ( n 2 e - n ge ) ] ,
d 1 q = N eq t - N oq s ,
d 2 q = N oq p - N eq q .
d 1 q = N eq t + ( N - 1 - N oq ) s , d 2 q = N oq p + ( N - 1 - N eq ) q ,
s = q = 1 N λ 0 ( n e - n g ) [ ( n e - n g ) 2 - ( n o - n g ) 2 ] , t = p = 1 N λ 0 ( n o - n g ) [ ( n e - n g ) 2 - ( n o - n g ) 2 ] ,
d 1 q = N eq t + ( N - 1 - N oq ) s , d 2 q = N oq t + ( N - 1 - N eq ) s .
U = max ( d i - d ¯ ) d ¯ ,

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