G. M. Sanger, S. D. Fantone, “Optical materials fabrication,” in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1987), Vol. 5, Part 3, pp. 461–484.
N. J. Brown, “Optical fabrication,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report MISC 4476 (LLNL, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1990), p. 6.
A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 137–140.
A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Removal rates of fused silica with cerium oxide/pitch polishing,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 80–90 (1991).
N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing of metals,” in Contemporary Methods in Optical Fabrication, C. L. Stonecypher, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.306, 42–57 (1981).
R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981). p. 233. Any ion whose adsorption at a surface is influenced by factors other than the electrical potential there (e.g., covalent bonding with surface atoms) is regarded as being specifically adsorbed.
EL Load Cell, Model ELF-1000-100, Entran Devices, Inc., Fairfield, N.J. 07004.
HSP, Rodel Products Corporation, Scottsdale, Ariz. 85258.
J. J. Bohache, “A study of the optical polishing process,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1978), p. 143.
As suggested by H. Koch, Planar Optics Inc., Webster, N.Y. 14580 (personal communication, 1992).
T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), p. 96. This slurry concentration corresponds to a broad glass-removal-rate optimum, at least for BK7 polishing with CeO2.
Lazar Model PHR-146 Combination Micro pH Electrode, Lazar Research Laboratories, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. 90046.
Sartorius MC1-RC210P, Sartorius AG, Goettingen, Germany.
Zygo Maxim-3D Model 5700, Zygo Corporation, Middlefield, Conn. 06455. When a 20× Mirau objective is used, this noncontact optical profiler has a 0.1-nm vertical resolution, a field of view of 0.453 × 0.411 mm, and a lateral resolution of 1.75 μm.
Davidson D305LV, Davidson Optronics Inc., West Covina, Calif. 91790.
R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981), p. 249.
R. H. Ottewill, “Electrokinetic properties,” in Fifth Annual Short Course on Colloid Science Principles & Practice. R. L. Rowell, ed. (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., 1992), p. 7.10.
L. M. Cook, Rodel Products Corporation, Newark, Del. 19713 (personal communication, 1992).
Horiba LA900, Horiba Instruments Inc., Irvine, Calif. 92714.
J. S. Reed, Introduction to the Principles of Ceramic Processing (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 90–92.
R. Doremus, Glass Science (Wiley, N. Y., 1973), p. 243.
R. L. Landingham, A. W. Casey, R. O. Lindahl, “Effects of various polishing media and techniques on the surface finish and behavior of laser glasses,” in The Science of Ceramic Machining and Surface Finishing II, B. J. Hockey, R. W. Rice, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 562 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979), pp. 231–245.
Sir Isaac Newton, Opticks (Dover, New York, 1979), p. 106.
R. Doremus, Glass Science (Wiley, New York, 1973), Chap. 13, pp. 229–252.
M. J. Cumbo, “Chemo-mechanical interactions in optical polishing,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1993).
T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), Chap. 4, pp. 91–146.
R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981), pp. 17–18.
Ref. 15, pp. 59–178.
D. Fairhurst, V. Ribisch, “Zeta potential measurements of irregular shape solid materials,” in Particle Size Distribution II, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 472 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 337–353.
Corning 7940 fused silica courtesy of L. Sutton, Corning Inc., Canton, N.Y. 13617.
Schott BK7 (borosilicate crown) and Schott SF6 (dense flint) courtesy of A. Marker, Schott Glass Technologies Inc., Duryea, Pa. 18642.
Corning Premium-Quality Fused Silica Low Expansion Material Code 7940 (Corning Inc., Corning, N.Y. 14830, 1986).
T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), p. 21.
Optical Glass Catalog (Schott Glass Technologies, Duryea, Pa., 1986).
CE-RITE HP, High Purity Cerium Oxide, Code 480-G, Lot 910876, courtesy of D. Coller, Transelco Division, Ferro Corporation, Penn Yan, N.Y. 14527.
Zirconia Q, Batch 15030492, courtesy of D. Rostoker, Saint Gobain/Norton Industrial Ceramics Corporation, Worcester, Mass. 01615.
NANO-SIZE ALPHA, batch 0001-92, courtesy of D. Rostoker, Saint Gobain/Norton Industrial Ceramics Corporation, Worcester, Mass. 01615. This is a blocky α-Al2O3 abrasive with individual crystallite sizes of the order of 50 nm (patent pending).
T. Izumitani, “Polishing, lapping, and diamond grinding of optical glasses,” in Treatise on Material Science and Technology, M. Tomozawa, R. Doremus, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 17, pp. 138–140.
S. D. Jacobs, “Optical glasses and optical fabrication,” in Optics 443 Course Notes (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1994), Chap. 6, p. 11.
Microgrit WCA Specifications (Micro Abrasives Corporation, Westfield, Mass. 01086, 1992).
Pocket Surf III, Federal Products Corporation, Providence, R.I. 02905.
A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, A. Feltz, “Surface preparation technique for rapid measurement of sub-surface damage depth,” in Science of Optical Finishing, Vol. 9 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 57–60.SSD measurements courtesy of T. M. Rich, Center for Optics Manufacturing, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.
Brookhaven EKA, Brookhaven Instruments Corporation, Holtsville, N.Y. 11742.
Military Specification, MIL-0-13830A, Revision L (1980).
Brookhaven ZetaPlus, Brookhaven Instruments Corporation, Holtsville, N.Y. 11742.