Abstract

The particle size distribution of aqueous metal-oxide slurries can evolve during the polishing of optical glass in response to changes in mechanical and chemical process factors. The size-evolution phenomenon and its consequences were systematically studied in a planar continuous-polishing process. The concurrent application of electrokinetic techniques to characterize common optical shop materials has contributed new insight into the nature of silicate glass polishing by demonstrating the pivotal role of fluid chemistry, particularly pH, in maintaining electrokinetically favorable conditions for a well-dispersed polishing agent. According to the proposed slurry-charge-control effect, a well-dispersed polishing agent is the key to obtaining the smoothest possible glass surfaces, especially when a recirculated slurry is used.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. Sir Isaac Newton, Opticks (Dover, New York, 1979), p. 106.
  2. R. Doremus, Glass Science (Wiley, New York, 1973), Chap. 13, pp. 229–252.
  3. M. J. Cumbo, “Chemo-mechanical interactions in optical polishing,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1993).
  4. T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), Chap. 4, pp. 91–146.
  5. L. M. Cook, “Chemical processes in glass polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 152–171 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. W. Preston, “The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, 214–256 (1927).
  7. G. M. Sanger, S. D. Fantone, “Optical materials fabrication,” in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1987), Vol. 5, Part 3, pp. 461–484.
  8. N. J. Brown, “Optical fabrication,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report MISC 4476 (LLNL, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1990), p. 6.
  9. A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 137–140.
  10. A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Removal rates of fused silica with cerium oxide/pitch polishing,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 80–90 (1991).
  11. N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing of metals,” in Contemporary Methods in Optical Fabrication, C. L. Stonecypher, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.306, 42–57 (1981).
  12. D. Golini, S. D. Jacobs, “Physics of loose abrasive micro-grinding,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2761–2777 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, P. P. Hed, “Examination of the polished character of fused silica,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7164–7172 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. J. Cumbo, S. D. Jacobs, “Determination of near-surface forces in optical polishing using atomic force microscopy,” Nanotechnology 5, 70–79 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981), pp. 17–18.
  16. Ref. 15, pp. 59–178.
  17. D. Fairhurst, V. Ribisch, “Zeta potential measurements of irregular shape solid materials,” in Particle Size Distribution II, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 472 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 337–353.
    [CrossRef]
  18. Corning 7940 fused silica courtesy of L. Sutton, Corning Inc., Canton, N.Y. 13617.
  19. Schott BK7 (borosilicate crown) and Schott SF6 (dense flint) courtesy of A. Marker, Schott Glass Technologies Inc., Duryea, Pa. 18642.
  20. Corning Premium-Quality Fused Silica Low Expansion Material Code 7940 (Corning Inc., Corning, N.Y. 14830, 1986).
  21. T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), p. 21.
  22. Optical Glass Catalog (Schott Glass Technologies, Duryea, Pa., 1986).
  23. CE-RITE HP, High Purity Cerium Oxide, Code 480-G, Lot 910876, courtesy of D. Coller, Transelco Division, Ferro Corporation, Penn Yan, N.Y. 14527.
  24. Zirconia Q, Batch 15030492, courtesy of D. Rostoker, Saint Gobain/Norton Industrial Ceramics Corporation, Worcester, Mass. 01615.
  25. NANO-SIZE ALPHA, batch 0001-92, courtesy of D. Rostoker, Saint Gobain/Norton Industrial Ceramics Corporation, Worcester, Mass. 01615. This is a blocky α-Al2O3 abrasive with individual crystallite sizes of the order of 50 nm (patent pending).
  26. T. Izumitani, “Polishing, lapping, and diamond grinding of optical glasses,” in Treatise on Material Science and Technology, M. Tomozawa, R. Doremus, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 17, pp. 138–140.
  27. S. D. Jacobs, “Optical glasses and optical fabrication,” in Optics 443 Course Notes (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1994), Chap. 6, p. 11.
  28. Microgrit WCA Specifications (Micro Abrasives Corporation, Westfield, Mass. 01086, 1992).
  29. Pocket Surf III, Federal Products Corporation, Providence, R.I. 02905.
  30. A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, A. Feltz, “Surface preparation technique for rapid measurement of sub-surface damage depth,” in Science of Optical Finishing, Vol. 9 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 57–60.SSD measurements courtesy of T. M. Rich, Center for Optics Manufacturing, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.
  31. Brookhaven EKA, Brookhaven Instruments Corporation, Holtsville, N.Y. 11742.
  32. Military Specification, MIL-0-13830A, Revision L (1980).
  33. Brookhaven ZetaPlus, Brookhaven Instruments Corporation, Holtsville, N.Y. 11742.
  34. F. M. Ernsberger, “Attack of glass by chelating agents,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42, 373–375 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  36. R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981), p. 249.
  37. R. H. Ottewill, “Electrokinetic properties,” in Fifth Annual Short Course on Colloid Science Principles & Practice. R. L. Rowell, ed. (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., 1992), p. 7.10.
  38. L. M. Cook, Rodel Products Corporation, Newark, Del. 19713 (personal communication, 1992).
  39. Horiba LA900, Horiba Instruments Inc., Irvine, Calif. 92714.
  40. J. S. Reed, Introduction to the Principles of Ceramic Processing (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 90–92.
  41. F. Cooke, N. Brown, E. Prochnow, “Annular lapping of precision optical flatware,” Opt. Eng. 15, 407–415 (1976).
  42. EL Load Cell, Model ELF-1000-100, Entran Devices, Inc., Fairfield, N.J. 07004.
  43. HSP, Rodel Products Corporation, Scottsdale, Ariz. 85258.
  44. J. J. Bohache, “A study of the optical polishing process,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1978), p. 143.
  45. As suggested by H. Koch, Planar Optics Inc., Webster, N.Y. 14580 (personal communication, 1992).
  46. T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), p. 96. This slurry concentration corresponds to a broad glass-removal-rate optimum, at least for BK7 polishing with CeO2.
  47. Lazar Model PHR-146 Combination Micro pH Electrode, Lazar Research Laboratories, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. 90046.
  48. Sartorius MC1-RC210P, Sartorius AG, Goettingen, Germany.
  49. Zygo Maxim-3D Model 5700, Zygo Corporation, Middlefield, Conn. 06455. When a 20× Mirau objective is used, this noncontact optical profiler has a 0.1-nm vertical resolution, a field of view of 0.453 × 0.411 mm, and a lateral resolution of 1.75 μm.
  50. Davidson D305LV, Davidson Optronics Inc., West Covina, Calif. 91790.
  51. F. K. Aleinikov, “The effect of certain physical and mechanical properties on the grinding of brittle materials,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 27, 2529–2538 (1957).
  52. J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974). The authors confined most of their study to chemically durable silica-rich glass types.
    [CrossRef]
  53. R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981). p. 233. Any ion whose adsorption at a surface is influenced by factors other than the electrical potential there (e.g., covalent bonding with surface atoms) is regarded as being specifically adsorbed.
  54. J. Escard, D. Brion, “Study of composition of leached glass surfaces by photoelectron spectroscopy.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 296–299 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  55. R. Doremus, Glass Science (Wiley, N. Y., 1973), p. 243.
  56. R. L. Landingham, A. W. Casey, R. O. Lindahl, “Effects of various polishing media and techniques on the surface finish and behavior of laser glasses,” in The Science of Ceramic Machining and Surface Finishing II, B. J. Hockey, R. W. Rice, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 562 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979), pp. 231–245.

1994 (1)

M. J. Cumbo, S. D. Jacobs, “Determination of near-surface forces in optical polishing using atomic force microscopy,” Nanotechnology 5, 70–79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

L. M. Cook, “Chemical processes in glass polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 152–171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

F. Cooke, N. Brown, E. Prochnow, “Annular lapping of precision optical flatware,” Opt. Eng. 15, 407–415 (1976).

1975 (1)

J. Escard, D. Brion, “Study of composition of leached glass surfaces by photoelectron spectroscopy.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 296–299 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974). The authors confined most of their study to chemically durable silica-rich glass types.
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

F. M. Ernsberger, “Attack of glass by chelating agents,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42, 373–375 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

F. K. Aleinikov, “The effect of certain physical and mechanical properties on the grinding of brittle materials,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 27, 2529–2538 (1957).

1927 (1)

F. W. Preston, “The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, 214–256 (1927).

Aleinikov, F. K.

F. K. Aleinikov, “The effect of certain physical and mechanical properties on the grinding of brittle materials,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 27, 2529–2538 (1957).

Bohache, J. J.

J. J. Bohache, “A study of the optical polishing process,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1978), p. 143.

Brion, D.

J. Escard, D. Brion, “Study of composition of leached glass surfaces by photoelectron spectroscopy.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 296–299 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Brown, N.

F. Cooke, N. Brown, E. Prochnow, “Annular lapping of precision optical flatware,” Opt. Eng. 15, 407–415 (1976).

Brown, N. J.

N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing of metals,” in Contemporary Methods in Optical Fabrication, C. L. Stonecypher, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.306, 42–57 (1981).

N. J. Brown, “Optical fabrication,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report MISC 4476 (LLNL, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1990), p. 6.

Casey, A. W.

R. L. Landingham, A. W. Casey, R. O. Lindahl, “Effects of various polishing media and techniques on the surface finish and behavior of laser glasses,” in The Science of Ceramic Machining and Surface Finishing II, B. J. Hockey, R. W. Rice, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 562 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979), pp. 231–245.

Cook, L. M.

L. M. Cook, “Chemical processes in glass polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 152–171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Cook, Rodel Products Corporation, Newark, Del. 19713 (personal communication, 1992).

Cooke, F.

F. Cooke, N. Brown, E. Prochnow, “Annular lapping of precision optical flatware,” Opt. Eng. 15, 407–415 (1976).

Cumbo, M. J.

M. J. Cumbo, S. D. Jacobs, “Determination of near-surface forces in optical polishing using atomic force microscopy,” Nanotechnology 5, 70–79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cumbo, “Chemo-mechanical interactions in optical polishing,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1993).

Doremus, R.

R. Doremus, Glass Science (Wiley, New York, 1973), Chap. 13, pp. 229–252.

R. Doremus, Glass Science (Wiley, N. Y., 1973), p. 243.

Ernsberger, F. M.

F. M. Ernsberger, “Attack of glass by chelating agents,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42, 373–375 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Escard, J.

J. Escard, D. Brion, “Study of composition of leached glass surfaces by photoelectron spectroscopy.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 296–299 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fairhurst, D.

D. Fairhurst, V. Ribisch, “Zeta potential measurements of irregular shape solid materials,” in Particle Size Distribution II, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 472 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 337–353.
[CrossRef]

Fantone, S. D.

G. M. Sanger, S. D. Fantone, “Optical materials fabrication,” in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1987), Vol. 5, Part 3, pp. 461–484.

Feltz, A.

A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, A. Feltz, “Surface preparation technique for rapid measurement of sub-surface damage depth,” in Science of Optical Finishing, Vol. 9 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 57–60.SSD measurements courtesy of T. M. Rich, Center for Optics Manufacturing, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.

Fuchs, B. A.

A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, P. P. Hed, “Examination of the polished character of fused silica,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7164–7172 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 137–140.

A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Removal rates of fused silica with cerium oxide/pitch polishing,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 80–90 (1991).

Golini, D.

Haller, W.

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974). The authors confined most of their study to chemically durable silica-rich glass types.
[CrossRef]

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hed, P. P.

Hunter, R. J.

R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981). p. 233. Any ion whose adsorption at a surface is influenced by factors other than the electrical potential there (e.g., covalent bonding with surface atoms) is regarded as being specifically adsorbed.

R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981), p. 249.

R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981), pp. 17–18.

Izumitani, T.

T. Izumitani, “Polishing, lapping, and diamond grinding of optical glasses,” in Treatise on Material Science and Technology, M. Tomozawa, R. Doremus, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 17, pp. 138–140.

Izumitani, T. S.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), Chap. 4, pp. 91–146.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), p. 96. This slurry concentration corresponds to a broad glass-removal-rate optimum, at least for BK7 polishing with CeO2.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), p. 21.

Jacobs, S. D.

M. J. Cumbo, S. D. Jacobs, “Determination of near-surface forces in optical polishing using atomic force microscopy,” Nanotechnology 5, 70–79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Golini, S. D. Jacobs, “Physics of loose abrasive micro-grinding,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2761–2777 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Jacobs, “Optical glasses and optical fabrication,” in Optics 443 Course Notes (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1994), Chap. 6, p. 11.

A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, A. Feltz, “Surface preparation technique for rapid measurement of sub-surface damage depth,” in Science of Optical Finishing, Vol. 9 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 57–60.SSD measurements courtesy of T. M. Rich, Center for Optics Manufacturing, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.

Jednacak, J.

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974). The authors confined most of their study to chemically durable silica-rich glass types.
[CrossRef]

Koch, H.

As suggested by H. Koch, Planar Optics Inc., Webster, N.Y. 14580 (personal communication, 1992).

Landingham, R. L.

R. L. Landingham, A. W. Casey, R. O. Lindahl, “Effects of various polishing media and techniques on the surface finish and behavior of laser glasses,” in The Science of Ceramic Machining and Surface Finishing II, B. J. Hockey, R. W. Rice, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 562 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979), pp. 231–245.

Lindahl, R. O.

R. L. Landingham, A. W. Casey, R. O. Lindahl, “Effects of various polishing media and techniques on the surface finish and behavior of laser glasses,” in The Science of Ceramic Machining and Surface Finishing II, B. J. Hockey, R. W. Rice, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 562 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979), pp. 231–245.

Lindquist, A.

A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, A. Feltz, “Surface preparation technique for rapid measurement of sub-surface damage depth,” in Science of Optical Finishing, Vol. 9 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 57–60.SSD measurements courtesy of T. M. Rich, Center for Optics Manufacturing, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.

Ottewill, R. H.

R. H. Ottewill, “Electrokinetic properties,” in Fifth Annual Short Course on Colloid Science Principles & Practice. R. L. Rowell, ed. (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., 1992), p. 7.10.

Pravdic, V.

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974). The authors confined most of their study to chemically durable silica-rich glass types.
[CrossRef]

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Preston, F. W.

F. W. Preston, “The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, 214–256 (1927).

Prochnow, E.

F. Cooke, N. Brown, E. Prochnow, “Annular lapping of precision optical flatware,” Opt. Eng. 15, 407–415 (1976).

Reed, J. S.

J. S. Reed, Introduction to the Principles of Ceramic Processing (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 90–92.

Ribisch, V.

D. Fairhurst, V. Ribisch, “Zeta potential measurements of irregular shape solid materials,” in Particle Size Distribution II, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 472 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 337–353.
[CrossRef]

Sanger, G. M.

G. M. Sanger, S. D. Fantone, “Optical materials fabrication,” in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1987), Vol. 5, Part 3, pp. 461–484.

Tesar, A. A.

A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, P. P. Hed, “Examination of the polished character of fused silica,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7164–7172 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 137–140.

A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Removal rates of fused silica with cerium oxide/pitch polishing,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 80–90 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

F. M. Ernsberger, “Attack of glass by chelating agents,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42, 373–375 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Escard, D. Brion, “Study of composition of leached glass surfaces by photoelectron spectroscopy.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 296–299 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (2)

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Jednacak, V. Pravdic, W. Haller, “The electrokinetic potential of glasses in aqueous electrolyte solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 16–23 (1974). The authors confined most of their study to chemically durable silica-rich glass types.
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. M. Cook, “Chemical processes in glass polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 120, 152–171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Glass Technol. (1)

F. W. Preston, “The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, 214–256 (1927).

Nanotechnology (1)

M. J. Cumbo, S. D. Jacobs, “Determination of near-surface forces in optical polishing using atomic force microscopy,” Nanotechnology 5, 70–79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Cooke, N. Brown, E. Prochnow, “Annular lapping of precision optical flatware,” Opt. Eng. 15, 407–415 (1976).

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

F. K. Aleinikov, “The effect of certain physical and mechanical properties on the grinding of brittle materials,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 27, 2529–2538 (1957).

Other (45)

G. M. Sanger, S. D. Fantone, “Optical materials fabrication,” in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1987), Vol. 5, Part 3, pp. 461–484.

N. J. Brown, “Optical fabrication,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report MISC 4476 (LLNL, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1990), p. 6.

A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 137–140.

A. A. Tesar, B. A. Fuchs, “Removal rates of fused silica with cerium oxide/pitch polishing,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 80–90 (1991).

N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing of metals,” in Contemporary Methods in Optical Fabrication, C. L. Stonecypher, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.306, 42–57 (1981).

R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981). p. 233. Any ion whose adsorption at a surface is influenced by factors other than the electrical potential there (e.g., covalent bonding with surface atoms) is regarded as being specifically adsorbed.

EL Load Cell, Model ELF-1000-100, Entran Devices, Inc., Fairfield, N.J. 07004.

HSP, Rodel Products Corporation, Scottsdale, Ariz. 85258.

J. J. Bohache, “A study of the optical polishing process,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1978), p. 143.

As suggested by H. Koch, Planar Optics Inc., Webster, N.Y. 14580 (personal communication, 1992).

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), p. 96. This slurry concentration corresponds to a broad glass-removal-rate optimum, at least for BK7 polishing with CeO2.

Lazar Model PHR-146 Combination Micro pH Electrode, Lazar Research Laboratories, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. 90046.

Sartorius MC1-RC210P, Sartorius AG, Goettingen, Germany.

Zygo Maxim-3D Model 5700, Zygo Corporation, Middlefield, Conn. 06455. When a 20× Mirau objective is used, this noncontact optical profiler has a 0.1-nm vertical resolution, a field of view of 0.453 × 0.411 mm, and a lateral resolution of 1.75 μm.

Davidson D305LV, Davidson Optronics Inc., West Covina, Calif. 91790.

R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981), p. 249.

R. H. Ottewill, “Electrokinetic properties,” in Fifth Annual Short Course on Colloid Science Principles & Practice. R. L. Rowell, ed. (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., 1992), p. 7.10.

L. M. Cook, Rodel Products Corporation, Newark, Del. 19713 (personal communication, 1992).

Horiba LA900, Horiba Instruments Inc., Irvine, Calif. 92714.

J. S. Reed, Introduction to the Principles of Ceramic Processing (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 90–92.

R. Doremus, Glass Science (Wiley, N. Y., 1973), p. 243.

R. L. Landingham, A. W. Casey, R. O. Lindahl, “Effects of various polishing media and techniques on the surface finish and behavior of laser glasses,” in The Science of Ceramic Machining and Surface Finishing II, B. J. Hockey, R. W. Rice, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 562 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979), pp. 231–245.

Sir Isaac Newton, Opticks (Dover, New York, 1979), p. 106.

R. Doremus, Glass Science (Wiley, New York, 1973), Chap. 13, pp. 229–252.

M. J. Cumbo, “Chemo-mechanical interactions in optical polishing,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1993).

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), Chap. 4, pp. 91–146.

R. J. Hunter, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science (Academic, London, 1981), pp. 17–18.

Ref. 15, pp. 59–178.

D. Fairhurst, V. Ribisch, “Zeta potential measurements of irregular shape solid materials,” in Particle Size Distribution II, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 472 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 337–353.
[CrossRef]

Corning 7940 fused silica courtesy of L. Sutton, Corning Inc., Canton, N.Y. 13617.

Schott BK7 (borosilicate crown) and Schott SF6 (dense flint) courtesy of A. Marker, Schott Glass Technologies Inc., Duryea, Pa. 18642.

Corning Premium-Quality Fused Silica Low Expansion Material Code 7940 (Corning Inc., Corning, N.Y. 14830, 1986).

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (AIP Translation Series, New York, 1986), p. 21.

Optical Glass Catalog (Schott Glass Technologies, Duryea, Pa., 1986).

CE-RITE HP, High Purity Cerium Oxide, Code 480-G, Lot 910876, courtesy of D. Coller, Transelco Division, Ferro Corporation, Penn Yan, N.Y. 14527.

Zirconia Q, Batch 15030492, courtesy of D. Rostoker, Saint Gobain/Norton Industrial Ceramics Corporation, Worcester, Mass. 01615.

NANO-SIZE ALPHA, batch 0001-92, courtesy of D. Rostoker, Saint Gobain/Norton Industrial Ceramics Corporation, Worcester, Mass. 01615. This is a blocky α-Al2O3 abrasive with individual crystallite sizes of the order of 50 nm (patent pending).

T. Izumitani, “Polishing, lapping, and diamond grinding of optical glasses,” in Treatise on Material Science and Technology, M. Tomozawa, R. Doremus, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 17, pp. 138–140.

S. D. Jacobs, “Optical glasses and optical fabrication,” in Optics 443 Course Notes (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1994), Chap. 6, p. 11.

Microgrit WCA Specifications (Micro Abrasives Corporation, Westfield, Mass. 01086, 1992).

Pocket Surf III, Federal Products Corporation, Providence, R.I. 02905.

A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, A. Feltz, “Surface preparation technique for rapid measurement of sub-surface damage depth,” in Science of Optical Finishing, Vol. 9 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 57–60.SSD measurements courtesy of T. M. Rich, Center for Optics Manufacturing, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.

Brookhaven EKA, Brookhaven Instruments Corporation, Holtsville, N.Y. 11742.

Military Specification, MIL-0-13830A, Revision L (1980).

Brookhaven ZetaPlus, Brookhaven Instruments Corporation, Holtsville, N.Y. 11742.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Zeta potential of 7940, BK7, and SF6 versus fluid pH. pH was adjusted by the addition of HCl or NaOH to the transport fluid (0.001-M aqueous KCl). Error bars are ≤±2 mV (±3 standard deviations), not shown for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Zeta potential of the nanocrystalline Al2O3 polishing agent diluted in aqueous catechol (500 ppm) versus fluid pH. The pH was adjusted by the addition of HCl or NaOH to the fluid.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of ultrasonic energy on the particle size distribution of the CeO2 slurry. Particle size measurements were performed between successive 3-min exposures to ultrasound (40 W, 20 kHz). For clarity the t = 6-min distribution has been omitted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of ultrasonic exposure time on the median particle size of the polishing agents.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Removal rate of BK7 and the corresponding median size of the CeO2 polishing agent versus polishing time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Glass removal rate as a function of slurry pH and slurry additive for polishing BK7 with CeO2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Preston's coefficient versus the coefficient of friction between the glass work and the polyurethane pad.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Glass removal rate versus the rate constant5 for BK7 polishing at pH 4. (R—O) is the single oxygen bond strength (in units of kcal/mole) of the polishing agent.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Glass removal rate versus the rate constant5 for BK7 polishing at pH 7. (R—O) is the single oxygen bond strength (in units of kcal/mole) of the polishing agent.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Glass removal rate versus the rate constant5 for BK7 polishing at pH 10. (R—O) is the single oxygen bond strength (in units of kcal/mole) of the polishing agent.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Glass removal rate versus the rate constant5 for SF6 polishing at pH 7. (R—O) is the single oxygen bond strength (in units of kcal/mole) of the polishing agent.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dependence of the glass surface roughness on the difference between the fluid pH and the IEP of the polishing agent (measured in 0.01-M aqueous NaCl). Each data point corresponds to a unique combination of polishing agent (CeO2, monoclinic ZrO2, or nanocrystallineAl2O3), glass type (7940, BK7, or SF6), and slurry pH (4, 7, or 10).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Glass removal rate and coefficient of friction between the work and the polyurethane pad as a function of slurry pH for polishing 7940 with nanocrystalline Al2O3.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Surface roughness and the final median particle size of the slurry divided by the original median particle size as a function of slurry pH for polishing of 7940 with nanocrystalline Al2O3.

Tables (8)

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Table 1 Composition of the Three Glass Types (wt. %)

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Table 2 Some Thermal and Mechanical Properties of the Three Glass Types

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Table 3 Roughness and Subsurface Damage of the Three Glass Types after Being Finely Ground with No. 9 Al2O3 Abrasive

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Table 4 IEP Values of the Three Polishing Agents in Deionized Water, Aqueous Catechol, and Aqueous Sodium Chloride

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Table 5 Original Particle Size Statistics of the Three Polishing Agents

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Table 6 Median Particle Size and Ultrasonic Friability Index of the Three Polishing Agents

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Table 7 Results of the Core Polishing Experiments

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Table 8 Qualitative Summary of the Slurry-Charge-Control Effecta

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d z d t = C p L A d s d t ,
C p = 1 ρ L Δ m Δ s ,
MOH 2 + H + M OH OH MO + H 2 O .
R c = 1 log 10 { [ ( R O ) × | pH IEP | ] } .
Δ z Δ t = 1 ρ A Δ m Δ t ,
F u s = 1 U ln ( D D o ) ,

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