Abstract

We report on a series of normal-incidence reflectance measurements at wavelengths just longer than the beryllium K-edge (11.1 nm) from molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors. The highest peak reflectance was 68.7 ± 0.2% at λ = 11.3 nm obtained from a mirror with 70 bilayers ending in beryllium. To our knowledge, this is the highest normal-incidence reflectance that has been demonstrated in the 1–80-nm spectral range.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 1325–1328 (1990).
  2. D. P. Gaines, G. E. Sommargren, S. P. Vernon, R. E. English, “X-ray characterization of a three-element condenser system for SXPL,” in Soft X-ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 66–69.
  3. Unpublished survey results from T. W. Barbee, “Multilayer survey results and discussion,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series, Vol. 6 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. ix, provided by Dan Stearns, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
  4. O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).
  5. Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, H. Maezawa, “Tungsten–beryllium multilayer mirrors for soft x rays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3933–3936 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. O. Rentier, M. Kopecky, E. Krousky, F. Schafers, B. R. Muller, N. I. Chkhalo, “Properties of laser-sputtered Ti/Be multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1478–1481 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, “Spatial period division with synchrotron radiation bandwidth control by W/Be multilayer mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 436–438 (1990).
  8. J. A. Ruffner, J. M. Slaughter, J. Eickmann, C. M. Falco, “Epitaxial growth and surface structure of (0001) Be on (111) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 31–33 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. E. Rosenbluth, “Computer search for layer materials that maximize the reflectivity of x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1599–1621 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. Underwood, T. W. Barbee, “Layered synthetic microstructures as Bragg diffractors for x rays and extreme ultraviolet: theory and predicted performance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3027–3034 (1981)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Tarnishing of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6985–6990 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, P. E. Denham, “Masked deposition techniques for achieving multilayer period variations required for short-wavelength (68-Å) soft x-ray imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6961–6968 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

J. A. Ruffner, J. M. Slaughter, J. Eickmann, C. M. Falco, “Epitaxial growth and surface structure of (0001) Be on (111) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 31–33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1992 (2)

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. Rentier, M. Kopecky, E. Krousky, F. Schafers, B. R. Muller, N. I. Chkhalo, “Properties of laser-sputtered Ti/Be multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1478–1481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, “Spatial period division with synchrotron radiation bandwidth control by W/Be multilayer mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 436–438 (1990).

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 1325–1328 (1990).

1988 (2)

Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, H. Maezawa, “Tungsten–beryllium multilayer mirrors for soft x rays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3933–3936 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Rosenbluth, “Computer search for layer materials that maximize the reflectivity of x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1599–1621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Barbee, T. W.

J. H. Underwood, T. W. Barbee, “Layered synthetic microstructures as Bragg diffractors for x rays and extreme ultraviolet: theory and predicted performance,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3027–3034 (1981)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unpublished survey results from T. W. Barbee, “Multilayer survey results and discussion,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series, Vol. 6 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. ix, provided by Dan Stearns, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Batson, P. C.

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Ceglio, N. M.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 1325–1328 (1990).

Chkhalo, N. I.

O. Rentier, M. Kopecky, E. Krousky, F. Schafers, B. R. Muller, N. I. Chkhalo, “Properties of laser-sputtered Ti/Be multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1478–1481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P. E.

Eickmann, J.

J. A. Ruffner, J. M. Slaughter, J. Eickmann, C. M. Falco, “Epitaxial growth and surface structure of (0001) Be on (111) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 31–33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

English, R. E.

D. P. Gaines, G. E. Sommargren, S. P. Vernon, R. E. English, “X-ray characterization of a three-element condenser system for SXPL,” in Soft X-ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 66–69.

Falco, C. M.

J. A. Ruffner, J. M. Slaughter, J. Eickmann, C. M. Falco, “Epitaxial growth and surface structure of (0001) Be on (111) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 31–33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fetter, L.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Gaines, D. P.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 1325–1328 (1990).

D. P. Gaines, G. E. Sommargren, S. P. Vernon, R. E. English, “X-ray characterization of a three-element condenser system for SXPL,” in Soft X-ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 66–69.

Griffith, J. E.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Gullikson, E. M.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Tarnishing of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6985–6990 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, P. E. Denham, “Masked deposition techniques for achieving multilayer period variations required for short-wavelength (68-Å) soft x-ray imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6961–6968 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A. M.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 1325–1328 (1990).

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Himel, M. D.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Kopecky, M.

O. Rentier, M. Kopecky, E. Krousky, F. Schafers, B. R. Muller, N. I. Chkhalo, “Properties of laser-sputtered Ti/Be multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1478–1481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kortright, J. B.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, P. E. Denham, “Masked deposition techniques for achieving multilayer period variations required for short-wavelength (68-Å) soft x-ray imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6961–6968 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krousky, E.

O. Rentier, M. Kopecky, E. Krousky, F. Schafers, B. R. Muller, N. I. Chkhalo, “Properties of laser-sputtered Ti/Be multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1478–1481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kyuragi, H.

Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, “Spatial period division with synchrotron radiation bandwidth control by W/Be multilayer mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 436–438 (1990).

Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, H. Maezawa, “Tungsten–beryllium multilayer mirrors for soft x rays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3933–3936 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaFontaine, B.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

MacDowell, A. A.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Maezawa, H.

Muller, B. R.

O. Rentier, M. Kopecky, E. Krousky, F. Schafers, B. R. Muller, N. I. Chkhalo, “Properties of laser-sputtered Ti/Be multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1478–1481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Tarnishing of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6985–6990 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikitin, V.

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rentier, O.

O. Rentier, M. Kopecky, E. Krousky, F. Schafers, B. R. Muller, N. I. Chkhalo, “Properties of laser-sputtered Ti/Be multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1478–1481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 1325–1328 (1990).

Rosenbluth, A. E.

A. E. Rosenbluth, “Computer search for layer materials that maximize the reflectivity of x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1599–1621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ruffner, J. A.

J. A. Ruffner, J. M. Slaughter, J. Eickmann, C. M. Falco, “Epitaxial growth and surface structure of (0001) Be on (111) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 31–33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schafers, F.

O. Rentier, M. Kopecky, E. Krousky, F. Schafers, B. R. Muller, N. I. Chkhalo, “Properties of laser-sputtered Ti/Be multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1478–1481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Slaughter, J. M.

J. A. Ruffner, J. M. Slaughter, J. Eickmann, C. M. Falco, “Epitaxial growth and surface structure of (0001) Be on (111) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 31–33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

D. P. Gaines, G. E. Sommargren, S. P. Vernon, R. E. English, “X-ray characterization of a three-element condenser system for SXPL,” in Soft X-ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 66–69.

Stearns, D. G.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 1325–1328 (1990).

Taylor, G. N.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Tennant, D. M.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Underwood, J. H.

Urisu, T.

Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, “Spatial period division with synchrotron radiation bandwidth control by W/Be multilayer mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 436–438 (1990).

Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, H. Maezawa, “Tungsten–beryllium multilayer mirrors for soft x rays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3933–3936 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utsumi, Y.

Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, “Spatial period division with synchrotron radiation bandwidth control by W/Be multilayer mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 436–438 (1990).

Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, H. Maezawa, “Tungsten–beryllium multilayer mirrors for soft x rays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3933–3936 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vernon, S. P.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 1325–1328 (1990).

D. P. Gaines, G. E. Sommargren, S. P. Vernon, R. E. English, “X-ray characterization of a three-element condenser system for SXPL,” in Soft X-ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 66–69.

Waskiewicz, W. K.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Windt, D. L.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Wood, O. R.

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Ruffner, J. M. Slaughter, J. Eickmann, C. M. Falco, “Epitaxial growth and surface structure of (0001) Be on (111) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 31–33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (3)

O. R. Wood, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Fetter, M. D. Himel, D. M. Tennant, A. A. MacDowell, B. LaFontaine, J. E. Griffith, G. N. Taylor, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Wavelength dependence of the resist sidewall angle in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3841–3845 (1994).

Y. Utsumi, H. Kyuragi, T. Urisu, “Spatial period division with synchrotron radiation bandwidth control by W/Be multilayer mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 436–438 (1990).

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8, 1325–1328 (1990).

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. (1)

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

A. E. Rosenbluth, “Computer search for layer materials that maximize the reflectivity of x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1599–1621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

O. Rentier, M. Kopecky, E. Krousky, F. Schafers, B. R. Muller, N. I. Chkhalo, “Properties of laser-sputtered Ti/Be multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1478–1481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. P. Gaines, G. E. Sommargren, S. P. Vernon, R. E. English, “X-ray characterization of a three-element condenser system for SXPL,” in Soft X-ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 66–69.

Unpublished survey results from T. W. Barbee, “Multilayer survey results and discussion,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series, Vol. 6 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. ix, provided by Dan Stearns, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Peak normal-incidence reflectance for the Mo/Be system as a function of the number of bilayers N. The dashed curve is calculated for multilayers with ideal interfaces, and the continuous curve results from a modeled interface roughness of σ = 0.68 nm, d = 5.75 nm, Γ = 0.45, and 3.0 mm of BeO on the surface. The points represent measured data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of a Mo/Be multilayer, Γ = 0.36, N = 70, ending in Be. The measured peak reflectance is 68.7 ± 0.2% at 11.3 nm (continuous curve). The dashed curve represents the modeled curve; the following parameters are used: d = 5.72 nm, Γ = 0.36, σ = 0.63 nm, N = 70, 3.0 nm BeO on the surface.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Integrated Reflectance for the Mo/Si System and the Mo/Be System for an Eight-Bounce Systema

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