Residual surface roughness over the entire range of relevant spatial frequencies must be specified and controlled in many high-performance optical systems. This is particularly true for enhanced reflectance multilayers if both high reflectance and high spatial resolution are desired. If we assume that the interfaces making up a multilayer coating are uncorrelated at high spatial frequencies (microroughness) and perfectly correlated at low spatial and midspatial frequencies, then the multilayer can be thought of as a surface power spectral density (PSD) filter function. Multilayer coatings thus behave as a low-pass spatial frequency filter acting on the substrate PSD, with the exact location and shape of this cutoff being material and process dependent. This concept allows us to apply conventional linear systems techniques to the evaluation of image quality and to the derivation of optical fabrication tolerances for applications utilizing enhanced reflectance x-ray multilayers.
© 1995 Optical Society of AmericaFull Article | PDF Article
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