Abstract

It is shown that airborne active–passive (laser–solar) ocean color data can be used to develop and validate oceanic radiance models. The two principal inputs to the oceanic radiance model, chlorophyll pigment and incident solar irradiance, are obtained from a nadir-viewing laser-induced fluorescence spectrometer and a zenith-viewing radiometer, respectively. The computed water-leaving radiances are validated by comparison with the calibrated output of a separate nadir-viewing radiometer subsystem. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the calculated and the observed airborne radiances are found to compare very favorably for the 443-, 520-, and 550-nm wavelengths over an ~170-km flight track east of St. John’s, Newfoundland. The results further suggest that the semianalytical radiance model of ocean color, the airborne active (laser) fluorescence spectrometer, and the passive (solar) radiometric instrumentation are all remarkably precise.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. R. Gordon, “Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1. Monte Carlo simulations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4172–4182 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms: an evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color bands,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3677–3682 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Ocean color spectral variability studies using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 26, 18–21 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).
  12. J. J. Walsh, D. W. Creighton, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a redtide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr, 30, 286–298 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, J. H. Paul, G. A. Vargo, “Relationships between chlorophyll and ocean color constituents as they affect remote-sensing reflectance models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 403–413 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. W. Preisendorfer, “Direct and inverse irradiance models in hydrologic optics,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 903–929 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. W. J. Dirks, D. Spitzer, “On the radiative transfer in the sea, including fluorescence and stratification effects,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 943–953 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. C. Jain, J. R. Miller, “Subsurface water parameters: optimization approach to their determination from remotely sensed water color data,” Appl. Opt. 15, 886–890 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Sathyendranath, A. Morel, “Light emerging from the sea: interpretation and uses in remote sensing,” in Remote Sensing Applications in Marine Science and Technology, A. P. Cracknell, ed. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1983), Chap. 16, pp. 323–357.
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particular materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. M. Stegmann, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, J. J. Cullen, “Primary production estimates from recordings of solar-stimulated fluorescence in the equatorial Pacific at 150° W,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 627–638 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, “Remote monitoring of organic carbon in surface waters,” Rep. No. EPA-80/4-81-001 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1981).
  26. R. E. Lange, P. E. LaViolette, R. A. Arnone, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll distribution across the Iceland–Faeroe front,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 135 (1990).
  27. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the North Atlantic Ocean: an active–passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, P. M. Holligan, “Remote sensing of oceanic biology in relation to global climate change,” J. Phycology 28, 579–590 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986); F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. W. A. Hovis, J. S. Knoll, “Characteristics of an internally illuminated calibration sphere,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4004–4007 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. B. Guenther, J. McLean, M. Leroy, P. Henry, “Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources: I. Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 31, 85–95 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. L. Mueller, “The second SeaWiFS intercalibration round-robin experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 16.
  33. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar to the mapping of chlorophyll and other organic pigments,” Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, J. W. Campbell, J. Thomas, eds., NASA Conference Publication 2188 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 349–374.
  34. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water-Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 rdat(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  36. F. E. Hoge, “Oceanic and terrestrial lidar measurements,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 409–503.
  37. F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, “Radiance-ratio algorithm wavelengths for remote oceanic chlorophyll determination,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2082–2091 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. P.G. Falkowski, R. M. Greene, R. J. Geider, “Physiological limitations on phytoplankton productivity in the ocean,” Oceanography 5, 84–91 (1992).
  39. M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, F. Furtek, “Use of water-Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in , Ocean Color Analysis by S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, eds. (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, San Diego, Calif., 1974), pp. 2-1–2-20.
  41. A. T. Mecheriklunnel, J. A. Gatlin, J. C. Richmond, “Data on total and spectral irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1354–1359 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  42. W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  43. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–183 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical classification and model of natural waters, 2,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500–509 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  45. S. Sathenydranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  46. F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  47. H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (3)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the North Atlantic Ocean: an active–passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 rdat(1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

P.G. Falkowski, R. M. Greene, R. J. Geider, “Physiological limitations on phytoplankton productivity in the ocean,” Oceanography 5, 84–91 (1992).

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, P. M. Holligan, “Remote sensing of oceanic biology in relation to global climate change,” J. Phycology 28, 579–590 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Stegmann, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, J. J. Cullen, “Primary production estimates from recordings of solar-stimulated fluorescence in the equatorial Pacific at 150° W,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 627–638 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

R. E. Lange, P. E. LaViolette, R. A. Arnone, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll distribution across the Iceland–Faeroe front,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 135 (1990).

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Guenther, J. McLean, M. Leroy, P. Henry, “Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources: I. Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 31, 85–95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, D. W. Creighton, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (5)

1986 (4)

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986); F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, J. H. Paul, G. A. Vargo, “Relationships between chlorophyll and ocean color constituents as they affect remote-sensing reflectance models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 403–413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms: an evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color bands,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3677–3682 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a redtide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr, 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1. Monte Carlo simulations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4172–4182 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Direct and inverse irradiance models in hydrologic optics,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 903–929 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).

1983 (4)

A. T. Mecheriklunnel, J. A. Gatlin, J. C. Richmond, “Data on total and spectral irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1354–1359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, J. S. Knoll, “Characteristics of an internally illuminated calibration sphere,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4004–4007 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical classification and model of natural waters, 2,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500–509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (5)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–183 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, F. Furtek, “Use of water-Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water-Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particular materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Aiken, J.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, P. M. Holligan, “Remote sensing of oceanic biology in relation to global climate change,” J. Phycology 28, 579–590 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

R. E. Lange, P. E. LaViolette, R. A. Arnone, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll distribution across the Iceland–Faeroe front,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 135 (1990).

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in , Ocean Color Analysis by S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, eds. (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, San Diego, Calif., 1974), pp. 2-1–2-20.

Baker, K. A.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical classification and model of natural waters, 2,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500–509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–183 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, R. E.

Blough, N. V.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, M.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, F. Furtek, “Use of water-Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, “Remote monitoring of organic carbon in surface waters,” Rep. No. EPA-80/4-81-001 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1981).

Broenkow, W. W.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bundy, D.

Campbell, J. W.

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, J. H. Paul, G. A. Vargo, “Relationships between chlorophyll and ocean color constituents as they affect remote-sensing reflectance models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 403–413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a redtide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr, 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creighton, D. W.

J. J. Walsh, D. W. Creighton, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, J. J.

P. M. Stegmann, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, J. J. Cullen, “Primary production estimates from recordings of solar-stimulated fluorescence in the equatorial Pacific at 150° W,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 627–638 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

P. M. Stegmann, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, J. J. Cullen, “Primary production estimates from recordings of solar-stimulated fluorescence in the equatorial Pacific at 150° W,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 627–638 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dirks, R. W. J.

R. W. J. Dirks, D. Spitzer, “On the radiative transfer in the sea, including fluorescence and stratification effects,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 943–953 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falkowski, P.G.

P.G. Falkowski, R. M. Greene, R. J. Geider, “Physiological limitations on phytoplankton productivity in the ocean,” Oceanography 5, 84–91 (1992).

Furtek, F.

Gatlin, J. A.

Geider, R. J.

P.G. Falkowski, R. M. Greene, R. J. Geider, “Physiological limitations on phytoplankton productivity in the ocean,” Oceanography 5, 84–91 (1992).

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1. Monte Carlo simulations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4172–4182 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, R. M.

P.G. Falkowski, R. M. Greene, R. J. Geider, “Physiological limitations on phytoplankton productivity in the ocean,” Oceanography 5, 84–91 (1992).

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B.

B. Guenther, J. McLean, M. Leroy, P. Henry, “Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources: I. Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 31, 85–95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Henry, P.

B. Guenther, J. McLean, M. Leroy, P. Henry, “Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources: I. Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 31, 85–95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the North Atlantic Ocean: an active–passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 rdat(1993).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Lange, P. E. LaViolette, R. A. Arnone, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll distribution across the Iceland–Faeroe front,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 135 (1990).

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, D. W. Creighton, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Ocean color spectral variability studies using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 26, 18–21 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, “Radiance-ratio algorithm wavelengths for remote oceanic chlorophyll determination,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2082–2091 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms: an evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color bands,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3677–3682 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986); F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water-Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar to the mapping of chlorophyll and other organic pigments,” Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, J. W. Campbell, J. Thomas, eds., NASA Conference Publication 2188 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 349–374.

F. E. Hoge, “Oceanic and terrestrial lidar measurements,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 409–503.

Holligan, P. M.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, P. M. Holligan, “Remote sensing of oceanic biology in relation to global climate change,” J. Phycology 28, 579–590 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis, J. S. Knoll, “Characteristics of an internally illuminated calibration sphere,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4004–4007 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, S. C.

Knoll, J. S.

W. A. Hovis, J. S. Knoll, “Characteristics of an internally illuminated calibration sphere,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4004–4007 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, R. E.

R. E. Lange, P. E. LaViolette, R. A. Arnone, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll distribution across the Iceland–Faeroe front,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 135 (1990).

LaViolette, P. E.

R. E. Lange, P. E. LaViolette, R. A. Arnone, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll distribution across the Iceland–Faeroe front,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 135 (1990).

Lazzara, L.

S. Sathenydranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, M.

B. Guenther, J. McLean, M. Leroy, P. Henry, “Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources: I. Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 31, 85–95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

P. M. Stegmann, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, J. J. Cullen, “Primary production estimates from recordings of solar-stimulated fluorescence in the equatorial Pacific at 150° W,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 627–638 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McLean, J.

B. Guenther, J. McLean, M. Leroy, P. Henry, “Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources: I. Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 31, 85–95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mecheriklunnel, A. T.

Miller, J. R.

Mitchell, B. G.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G. F.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, P. M. Holligan, “Remote sensing of oceanic biology in relation to global climate change,” J. Phycology 28, 579–590 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, A. Morel, “Light emerging from the sea: interpretation and uses in remote sensing,” in Remote Sensing Applications in Marine Science and Technology, A. P. Cracknell, ed. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1983), Chap. 16, pp. 323–357.
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, “The second SeaWiFS intercalibration round-robin experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 16.

Nielsen, D.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, F. Furtek, “Use of water-Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, “Remote monitoring of organic carbon in surface waters,” Rep. No. EPA-80/4-81-001 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1981).

Paul, J. H.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, J. H. Paul, G. A. Vargo, “Relationships between chlorophyll and ocean color constituents as they affect remote-sensing reflectance models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 403–413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pietrafesa, L. J.

J. J. Walsh, D. W. Creighton, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Direct and inverse irradiance models in hydrologic optics,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 903–929 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

S. Sathenydranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particular materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, J. C.

Sathenydranath, S.

S. Sathenydranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particular materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, A. Morel, “Light emerging from the sea: interpretation and uses in remote sensing,” in Remote Sensing Applications in Marine Science and Technology, A. P. Cracknell, ed. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1983), Chap. 16, pp. 323–357.
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical classification and model of natural waters, 2,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500–509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–183 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spitzer, D.

R. W. J. Dirks, D. Spitzer, “On the radiative transfer in the sea, including fluorescence and stratification effects,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 943–953 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stegmann, P. M.

P. M. Stegmann, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, J. J. Cullen, “Primary production estimates from recordings of solar-stimulated fluorescence in the equatorial Pacific at 150° W,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 627–638 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, J. H. Paul, G. A. Vargo, “Relationships between chlorophyll and ocean color constituents as they affect remote-sensing reflectance models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 403–413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a redtide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr, 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 rdat(1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the North Atlantic Ocean: an active–passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Lange, P. E. LaViolette, R. A. Arnone, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll distribution across the Iceland–Faeroe front,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 135 (1990).

J. J. Walsh, D. W. Creighton, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Ocean color spectral variability studies using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 26, 18–21 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, “Radiance-ratio algorithm wavelengths for remote oceanic chlorophyll determination,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2082–2091 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms: an evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color bands,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3677–3682 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986); F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water-Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar to the mapping of chlorophyll and other organic pigments,” Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, J. W. Campbell, J. Thomas, eds., NASA Conference Publication 2188 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 349–374.

Vargo, G. A.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, J. H. Paul, G. A. Vargo, “Relationships between chlorophyll and ocean color constituents as they affect remote-sensing reflectance models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 403–413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vodacek, A.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 rdat(1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. J.

J. J. Walsh, D. W. Creighton, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Whitledge, T. E.

J. J. Walsh, D. W. Creighton, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wright, C. W.

Yentsch, C. M.

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).

Yentsch, C. S.

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).

Yungel, J. Y.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 rdat(1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms: an evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color bands,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3677–3682 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, J. S. Knoll, “Characteristics of an internally illuminated calibration sphere,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4004–4007 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–183 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (11)

S. C. Jain, J. R. Miller, “Subsurface water parameters: optimization approach to their determination from remotely sensed water color data,” Appl. Opt. 15, 886–890 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, F. Furtek, “Use of water-Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water-Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Mecheriklunnel, J. A. Gatlin, J. C. Richmond, “Data on total and spectral irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1354–1359 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1. Monte Carlo simulations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4172–4182 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986); F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, “Radiance-ratio algorithm wavelengths for remote oceanic chlorophyll determination,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2082–2091 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Ocean color spectral variability studies using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 26, 18–21 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cont. Shelf Res. (1)

J. J. Walsh, D. W. Creighton, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. (1)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the North Atlantic Ocean: an active–passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phycology (1)

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, P. M. Holligan, “Remote sensing of oceanic biology in relation to global climate change,” J. Phycology 28, 579–590 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Stegmann, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, J. J. Cullen, “Primary production estimates from recordings of solar-stimulated fluorescence in the equatorial Pacific at 150° W,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 627–638 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 rdat(1993).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Direct and inverse irradiance models in hydrologic optics,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 903–929 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical classification and model of natural waters, 2,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500–509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr (1)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a redtide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr, 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (9)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, J. H. Paul, G. A. Vargo, “Relationships between chlorophyll and ocean color constituents as they affect remote-sensing reflectance models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 403–413 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particular materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathenydranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. W. J. Dirks, D. Spitzer, “On the radiative transfer in the sea, including fluorescence and stratification effects,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 943–953 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oceanogr. Mar. Ann. Rev. (1)

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).

Oceanography (1)

P.G. Falkowski, R. M. Greene, R. J. Geider, “Physiological limitations on phytoplankton productivity in the ocean,” Oceanography 5, 84–91 (1992).

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

B. Guenther, J. McLean, M. Leroy, P. Henry, “Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources: I. Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 31, 85–95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

R. E. Lange, P. E. LaViolette, R. A. Arnone, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll distribution across the Iceland–Faeroe front,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 135 (1990).

Other (6)

J. L. Mueller, “The second SeaWiFS intercalibration round-robin experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 16.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar to the mapping of chlorophyll and other organic pigments,” Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, J. W. Campbell, J. Thomas, eds., NASA Conference Publication 2188 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 349–374.

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in , Ocean Color Analysis by S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, eds. (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, San Diego, Calif., 1974), pp. 2-1–2-20.

F. E. Hoge, “Oceanic and terrestrial lidar measurements,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 409–503.

S. Sathyendranath, A. Morel, “Light emerging from the sea: interpretation and uses in remote sensing,” in Remote Sensing Applications in Marine Science and Technology, A. P. Cracknell, ed. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1983), Chap. 16, pp. 323–357.
[CrossRef]

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, “Remote monitoring of organic carbon in surface waters,” Rep. No. EPA-80/4-81-001 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1981).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Pigment-concentration profile established by airborne laser-induced and water Raman-normalized chlorophyll fluorescence, sphere calibrations, and noncontemporaneous shipboard extractions. (b) Sea-surface temperature as measured with a Barnes PRT-5 infrared radiometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Water-leaving radiance L w (443) calculated with the seminanalytical radiance model of ocean color.1 The phytoplankton absorption is obtained with the Baker–Smith44 model. For comparison, the concurrently observed water-leaving radiances at 443 nm are also shown. (b) Water-leaving radiances calculated with the semianalytic model can be seen to deviate from the observed radiances in the 1–6-mg/m3 region when the phytoplankton absorption is obtained with the Baker–Smith44 model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Water-leaving radiance L w (443) calculated with the semianalytical radiance model of ocean color.1 The phytoplankton absorption is obtained with the specific absorption model a p (443) = a*(443) C. For comparison, the concurrently observed water-leaving radiance at 443 nm is also shown. (b) Water-leaving radiances calculated with the semianalytic model agree well with the observed radiances over the entire pigment range when the phytoplankton absorption is obtained with the specific absorption model.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L w ( λ ) = F 0 t ( θ 0 ) cos ( θ 0 ) M ( l 1 X + l 2 X 2 ) ,
M = ( 1 - ρ ) ( 1 - ρ ¯ ) / m 2 ( 1 - r R ) ,
a = a w + a c + a ys + .
X = ( b bw + b bc + ) / [ ( b bw + b bc + ) + ( a w + a c + a ys + ) ] .
a = a w + a c * C + a ys ,
a ys = a ys ( λ t ) exp [ - 0.014 ( λ - λ r ) ] .
b b = b w + A C B ,
R / Q = 0.110 b b / K .
K = K w + K c + K ys .
K c = k c C exp { - [ k c log 10 ( C / C 0 ) ] 2 } + 0.001 C 2 ,
K ys ( λ ) = D 0 [ a ys ( 375 ) - 0.06 ] exp [ - 0.014 ( λ - 375 ) ] ,

Metrics