Abstract

A new method has been applied to the determination of fluid bulk properties in small detection volumes. Through the use of an unfocused He–Ne laser beam and a cylindrical tube of capillary dimensions, relative refractive-index measurements are possible. The backscattered light from the illumination of a tube of capillary dimensions produces an interference pattern that is spatially defined and that contains information related to the bulk properties of the fluid contained in the tube. Positional changes in the intensity-modulated beam profile (interference fringes) are directly related to the refractive index of the fluid in the tube. The determination of dn/n at the 10−7 level is possible in probe volumes of 350 pL. The technique has been applied to tubes as small as 75 μm inner diameter and as large as 1.0 mm inner diameter. No modification of the simple optical bench is required for facilitating the determination of refractive index for the complete range of tube diameters.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. S. D. Woodruff, E. S. Yeung, “Refractive index and absorbance detector for liquid chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 54, 1174–1178 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. N. Sokkar, “Index profile of multilayer fibers of an elliptical cross-section,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1229–1233 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, M. Geiser, R. Dandliker, “Laser-based refractive index detection for capillary electrophoresis: ray-tracing interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 32, 956–965 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. McDonnell, J. Pawliszyn, “Capillary isotachophoresis with concentration gradient detection,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1884–1889 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Wu, J. Pawliszyn, “Dual detection for capillary isoelectric focusing with refractive index gradient and absorption imaging detectors,” Anal. Chem. 66, 867–873 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. E. Synovec, “Refractive index effects in cylindrical detector cell designs for microbore high-performance liquid chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2877–2884 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Ansari, Q.-Y. Chen, “Fiber optic refractive-index sensor for use in fresh concrete,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4056–4059 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. A. E. Bruno, D. J. Bornhop, “Use of refractive index matching fluids in a laser-based detector for capillary chromatography,” presented at the OSA meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, Incline Village, Nev., 1990.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. N. Munk, “Refractive index detectors,” in Liquid Chromatography Detectors, T. M. Vickery, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1983), Chap. 5.

1994

J. Wu, J. Pawliszyn, “Dual detection for capillary isoelectric focusing with refractive index gradient and absorption imaging detectors,” Anal. Chem. 66, 867–873 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

Z. N. Sokkar, “Index profile of multilayer fibers of an elliptical cross-section,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1229–1233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Lesko, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkear, K. L. Reifsnider, R. O. Claus, “Embedded Fabry–Perot fiber optic strain sensors in the macromodel composites,” Opt. Eng. 31, 13–21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. McDonnell, J. Pawliszyn, “Capillary isotachophoresis with concentration gradient detection,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1884–1889 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Ansari, Q.-Y. Chen, “Fiber optic refractive-index sensor for use in fresh concrete,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4056–4059 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

1987

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. micro-bore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Synovec, “Refractive index effects in cylindrical detector cell designs for microbore high-performance liquid chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2877–2884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

S. D. Woodruff, E. S. Yeung, “Refractive index and absorbance detector for liquid chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 54, 1174–1178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

N. J. Dovichi, J. M. Harris, “Laser induced thermal lens effect for calorimetric trace analysis,” Anal. Chem. 51, 728–731 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974

1973

1972

H. F. Hazenbroek, “A laser interferometric differential refractometer for detection of chromatographic effluent and measurement of volume elasticity of liquids,” J. Phys. E 5, 180–185 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, F.

Bornhop, D. J.

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. micro-bore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Bruno, D. J. Bornhop, “Use of refractive index matching fluids in a laser-based detector for capillary chromatography,” presented at the OSA meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, Incline Village, Nev., 1990.

D. J. Bornhop, “Optimization of the laser-based refractive index detector,” in Sub-Nanoliter Laser-Based Refractive Index for Micro-Column Liquid Chromatography, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo., 1987), Chap. 4.

D. J. Bornhop, “Laser-based refractive index detector using backscatter,” U.S. Patent5,325,170 (28June1994).

Bruno, A. E.

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, M. Geiser, R. Dandliker, “Laser-based refractive index detection for capillary electrophoresis: ray-tracing interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 32, 956–965 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Bruno, D. J. Bornhop, “Use of refractive index matching fluids in a laser-based detector for capillary chromatography,” presented at the OSA meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, Incline Village, Nev., 1990.

Chen, Q.-Y.

Claus, R. O.

J. J. Lesko, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkear, K. L. Reifsnider, R. O. Claus, “Embedded Fabry–Perot fiber optic strain sensors in the macromodel composites,” Opt. Eng. 31, 13–21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dandliker, R.

Dovichi, N. J.

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. micro-bore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Dovichi, J. M. Harris, “Laser induced thermal lens effect for calorimetric trace analysis,” Anal. Chem. 51, 728–731 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fogg, B. R.

J. J. Lesko, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkear, K. L. Reifsnider, R. O. Claus, “Embedded Fabry–Perot fiber optic strain sensors in the macromodel composites,” Opt. Eng. 31, 13–21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geiser, M.

Gupta, S.

Harris, J. M.

N. J. Dovichi, J. M. Harris, “Laser induced thermal lens effect for calorimetric trace analysis,” Anal. Chem. 51, 728–731 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hazenbroek, H. F.

H. F. Hazenbroek, “A laser interferometric differential refractometer for detection of chromatographic effluent and measurement of volume elasticity of liquids,” J. Phys. E 5, 180–185 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Horton, R.

Krattiger, B.

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, M. Geiser, R. Dandliker, “Laser-based refractive index detection for capillary electrophoresis: ray-tracing interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 32, 956–965 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lesko, J. J.

J. J. Lesko, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkear, K. L. Reifsnider, R. O. Claus, “Embedded Fabry–Perot fiber optic strain sensors in the macromodel composites,” Opt. Eng. 31, 13–21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

Maystre, F.

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McDonnell, T.

T. McDonnell, J. Pawliszyn, “Capillary isotachophoresis with concentration gradient detection,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1884–1889 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, W. V.

J. J. Lesko, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkear, K. L. Reifsnider, R. O. Claus, “Embedded Fabry–Perot fiber optic strain sensors in the macromodel composites,” Opt. Eng. 31, 13–21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Munk, M. N.

M. N. Munk, “Refractive index detectors,” in Liquid Chromatography Detectors, T. M. Vickery, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1983), Chap. 5.

Nolan, T. G.

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. micro-bore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pawliszyn, J.

J. Wu, J. Pawliszyn, “Dual detection for capillary isoelectric focusing with refractive index gradient and absorption imaging detectors,” Anal. Chem. 66, 867–873 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. McDonnell, J. Pawliszyn, “Capillary isotachophoresis with concentration gradient detection,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1884–1889 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Presby, M.

Reifsnider, K. L.

J. J. Lesko, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkear, K. L. Reifsnider, R. O. Claus, “Embedded Fabry–Perot fiber optic strain sensors in the macromodel composites,” Opt. Eng. 31, 13–21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saenger, K. L.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, “Image analysis,” in Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 11, pp. 345–363.

Sokkar, Z. N.

Synovec, R. E.

R. E. Synovec, “Refractive index effects in cylindrical detector cell designs for microbore high-performance liquid chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2877–2884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkear, A. M.

J. J. Lesko, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkear, K. L. Reifsnider, R. O. Claus, “Embedded Fabry–Perot fiber optic strain sensors in the macromodel composites,” Opt. Eng. 31, 13–21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Widmer, H. M.

B. Krattiger, A. E. Bruno, H. M. Widmer, M. Geiser, R. Dandliker, “Laser-based refractive index detection for capillary electrophoresis: ray-tracing interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 32, 956–965 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, W. J.

Woodruff, S. D.

S. D. Woodruff, E. S. Yeung, “Refractive index and absorbance detector for liquid chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 54, 1174–1178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, J. Pawliszyn, “Dual detection for capillary isoelectric focusing with refractive index gradient and absorption imaging detectors,” Anal. Chem. 66, 867–873 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, E. S.

S. D. Woodruff, E. S. Yeung, “Refractive index and absorbance detector for liquid chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 54, 1174–1178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

S. D. Woodruff, E. S. Yeung, “Refractive index and absorbance detector for liquid chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 54, 1174–1178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop, N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. McDonnell, J. Pawliszyn, “Capillary isotachophoresis with concentration gradient detection,” Anal. Chem. 63, 1884–1889 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, J. Pawliszyn, “Dual detection for capillary isoelectric focusing with refractive index gradient and absorption imaging detectors,” Anal. Chem. 66, 867–873 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Synovec, “Refractive index effects in cylindrical detector cell designs for microbore high-performance liquid chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 59, 2877–2884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Bruno, B. Krattiger, F. Maystre, H. M. Widmer, “On-column laser-based refractive index detector for capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2689–2697 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Dovichi, J. M. Harris, “Laser induced thermal lens effect for calorimetric trace analysis,” Anal. Chem. 51, 728–731 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Chromatogr.

D. J. Bornhop, T. G. Nolan, N. J. Dovichi, “Subnanoliter laser-based refractive index detector for 0.25 mm I.D. micro-bore liquid chromatography, reverse-phase separation of nanogram amounts of sugars,” J. Chromatogr. 384, 181–187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. E

H. F. Hazenbroek, “A laser interferometric differential refractometer for detection of chromatographic effluent and measurement of volume elasticity of liquids,” J. Phys. E 5, 180–185 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. J. Lesko, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkear, K. L. Reifsnider, R. O. Claus, “Embedded Fabry–Perot fiber optic strain sensors in the macromodel composites,” Opt. Eng. 31, 13–21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. J. Smith, “Image analysis,” in Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 11, pp. 345–363.

A. E. Bruno, D. J. Bornhop, “Use of refractive index matching fluids in a laser-based detector for capillary chromatography,” presented at the OSA meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, Incline Village, Nev., 1990.

D. J. Bornhop, “Optimization of the laser-based refractive index detector,” in Sub-Nanoliter Laser-Based Refractive Index for Micro-Column Liquid Chromatography, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo., 1987), Chap. 4.

D. J. Bornhop, “Laser-based refractive index detector using backscatter,” U.S. Patent5,325,170 (28June1994).

H. H. Hill, D. G. McMinn, eds., Detectors for Capillary Chromatography, Vol. 121 of Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1992).

M. N. Munk, “Refractive index detectors,” in Liquid Chromatography Detectors, T. M. Vickery, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1983), Chap. 5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental diagram: LASER, linearly polarized He–Ne laser; S, 250-μm slit; C, capillary tube (not shown in the tilted configuration), pd, signal photodetector; ELECTRONICS, 5.5-digit multimeter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beam profile as observed through a Mylar film, on a flat plane, at 40 cm from the capillary tube. Distance from He–Ne laser to 530-μm tube, 35 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam profiles for comparison of fringe pattern resulting from the change in the RI of the fluid contained in the capillary tube. Photographs taken as in Fig. 2.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Contrast Ratios and dn/n Detection Limits for Various Tube Diameters

Equations (1)

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CR = b m / b 0 ,

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