Abstract

Waveguide gas lasers (CO2 ones especially) continue to be widely used. We have previously studied simple resonator designs with plane mirrors close to each end of the waveguide. Here we examine theoretical predictions concerning hybrid waveguide/free-space resonators with square-bore guides and curved mirrors. We show how resonator mode losses vary as functions of guide length and width, guide-to-mirror distance, mirror radius of curvature, and mirror tilt. We have tested a 7-W cw rf-excited CO2 laser with unusually good near-TEM00 transverse-mode quality; it is one of many promising resonator geometries not covered by earlier published research. The common case 3 reflector, sometimes viewed as guaranteeing near-TEM00 mode performance, is shown to be alarmingly sensitive to small misalignments for certain guide geometries.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Degnan, “The waveguide laser: a review,” Appl. Phys. 11, 1–33 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Abrams, “Waveguide gas lasers,” in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979), Vol. 3.
  3. D. R. Hall, C. A. Hill, “RF-excited CO2 waveguide lasers,” in Handbook of Molecular Lasers, P. K. Cheo, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1987).
  4. L. A. Newman, R. A. Hart, “Recent R&D advances in sealed-off CO2 lasers,” Laser Focus/Electro-Opt. 23, 80–96 (June1987).
  5. P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950–1952 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Gerlach, D. Wei, N. M. Amer, “Coupling efficiency of waveguide laser resonators formed by flat mirrors: analysis and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 948–963 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. A. Hill, “Transverse modes of plane-mirror waveguide resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1936–1946 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. A. Hill, A. D. Colley, “Misalignment effects in a CO2 waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 323–328 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Degnan, D. R. Hall, “Finite-aperture waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 901–910 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Banerji, A. R. Davies, R. W. J. Devereux, C. A. Hill, R. M. Jenkins, “Effects of curved mirror misalignment in a folded waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 29, 777–785 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Banerji, A. R. Davies, P. E. Jackson, R. M. Jenkins, “Transmission and coupling losses in a folded waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4637–4643 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. A. Hill, J. R. Redding, A. D. Colley, “Multimode treatment of misaligned CO2 waveguide lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 473–481 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. A. Hill, P. Monk, D. R. Hall, “Tunable rf-excited CO2 waveguide laser with variable guide width,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1968–1973 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. L. Abrams, A. N. Chester, “Resonator theory for hollow waveguide lasers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2117–2125 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. L. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 838–843 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. A. Hill, D. R. Hall, “Coupling loss theory of single-mode waveguide resonators,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1283–1290 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. D. Laakmann, W. H. Steier, “Waveguides: characteristic modes of hollow rectangular dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1334–1340 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Rebuffi, J. P. Crenn, “Radiation patterns of the HE11 mode and Gaussian approximations,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 291–311 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. A. Bennett, D. P. Hutchinson, “Far-field propagation of the truncated EH11 dielectric waveguide mode,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2581–2583 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J.-L. Boulnois, G. P. Agrawal, “Mode discrimination and coupling losses in rectangular waveguide resonators with conventional and phase-conjugate mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 853–860 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. He, D. R. Hall, “A 30-W radio frequency excited waveguide CO2 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 726–728 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

1990

C. A. Hill, A. D. Colley, “Misalignment effects in a CO2 waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 323–328 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, J. R. Redding, A. D. Colley, “Multimode treatment of misaligned CO2 waveguide lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 473–481 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Banerji, A. R. Davies, R. W. J. Devereux, C. A. Hill, R. M. Jenkins, “Effects of curved mirror misalignment in a folded waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 29, 777–785 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

C. A. Bennett, D. P. Hutchinson, “Far-field propagation of the truncated EH11 dielectric waveguide mode,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2581–2583 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Banerji, A. R. Davies, P. E. Jackson, R. M. Jenkins, “Transmission and coupling losses in a folded waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4637–4643 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rebuffi, J. P. Crenn, “Radiation patterns of the HE11 mode and Gaussian approximations,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 291–311 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950–1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

C. A. Hill, “Transverse modes of plane-mirror waveguide resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1936–1946 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

L. A. Newman, R. A. Hart, “Recent R&D advances in sealed-off CO2 lasers,” Laser Focus/Electro-Opt. 23, 80–96 (June1987).

C. A. Hill, P. Monk, D. R. Hall, “Tunable rf-excited CO2 waveguide laser with variable guide width,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1968–1973 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

R. Gerlach, D. Wei, N. M. Amer, “Coupling efficiency of waveguide laser resonators formed by flat mirrors: analysis and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 948–963 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. He, D. R. Hall, “A 30-W radio frequency excited waveguide CO2 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 726–728 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

1976

1974

1973

J. J. Degnan, D. R. Hall, “Finite-aperture waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 901–910 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

R. L. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 838–843 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, R. L.

R. L. Abrams, A. N. Chester, “Resonator theory for hollow waveguide lasers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2117–2125 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 838–843 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Abrams, “Waveguide gas lasers,” in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979), Vol. 3.

Agrawal, G. P.

Amer, N. M.

R. Gerlach, D. Wei, N. M. Amer, “Coupling efficiency of waveguide laser resonators formed by flat mirrors: analysis and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 948–963 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Baker, H. J.

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950–1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Banerji, J.

Bennett, C. A.

Boulnois, J.-L.

Chester, A. N.

Colley, A. D.

C. A. Hill, J. R. Redding, A. D. Colley, “Multimode treatment of misaligned CO2 waveguide lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 473–481 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, A. D. Colley, “Misalignment effects in a CO2 waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 323–328 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Crenn, J. P.

L. Rebuffi, J. P. Crenn, “Radiation patterns of the HE11 mode and Gaussian approximations,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 291–311 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. R.

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “The waveguide laser: a review,” Appl. Phys. 11, 1–33 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Degnan, D. R. Hall, “Finite-aperture waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 901–910 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Devereux, R. W. J.

Gerlach, R.

R. Gerlach, D. Wei, N. M. Amer, “Coupling efficiency of waveguide laser resonators formed by flat mirrors: analysis and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 948–963 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. R.

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950–1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, P. Monk, D. R. Hall, “Tunable rf-excited CO2 waveguide laser with variable guide width,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1968–1973 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, D. R. Hall, “Coupling loss theory of single-mode waveguide resonators,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1283–1290 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. He, D. R. Hall, “A 30-W radio frequency excited waveguide CO2 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 726–728 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Degnan, D. R. Hall, “Finite-aperture waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 901–910 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hall, C. A. Hill, “RF-excited CO2 waveguide lasers,” in Handbook of Molecular Lasers, P. K. Cheo, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1987).

Hart, R. A.

L. A. Newman, R. A. Hart, “Recent R&D advances in sealed-off CO2 lasers,” Laser Focus/Electro-Opt. 23, 80–96 (June1987).

He, D.

D. He, D. R. Hall, “A 30-W radio frequency excited waveguide CO2 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 726–728 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C. A.

C. A. Hill, A. D. Colley, “Misalignment effects in a CO2 waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 323–328 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, J. R. Redding, A. D. Colley, “Multimode treatment of misaligned CO2 waveguide lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 473–481 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Banerji, A. R. Davies, R. W. J. Devereux, C. A. Hill, R. M. Jenkins, “Effects of curved mirror misalignment in a folded waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 29, 777–785 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Hill, “Transverse modes of plane-mirror waveguide resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1936–1946 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, P. Monk, D. R. Hall, “Tunable rf-excited CO2 waveguide laser with variable guide width,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1968–1973 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, D. R. Hall, “Coupling loss theory of single-mode waveguide resonators,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1283–1290 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Hall, C. A. Hill, “RF-excited CO2 waveguide lasers,” in Handbook of Molecular Lasers, P. K. Cheo, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1987).

Hutchinson, D. P.

Jackson, P. E.

J. Banerji, A. R. Davies, P. E. Jackson, R. M. Jenkins, “Transmission and coupling losses in a folded waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4637–4643 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950–1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, R. M.

Laakmann, K. D.

Monk, P.

C. A. Hill, P. Monk, D. R. Hall, “Tunable rf-excited CO2 waveguide laser with variable guide width,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1968–1973 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Newman, L. A.

L. A. Newman, R. A. Hart, “Recent R&D advances in sealed-off CO2 lasers,” Laser Focus/Electro-Opt. 23, 80–96 (June1987).

Rebuffi, L.

L. Rebuffi, J. P. Crenn, “Radiation patterns of the HE11 mode and Gaussian approximations,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 291–311 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Redding, J. R.

C. A. Hill, J. R. Redding, A. D. Colley, “Multimode treatment of misaligned CO2 waveguide lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 473–481 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Wei, D.

R. Gerlach, D. Wei, N. M. Amer, “Coupling efficiency of waveguide laser resonators formed by flat mirrors: analysis and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 948–963 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

J. J. Degnan, “The waveguide laser: a review,” Appl. Phys. 11, 1–33 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950–1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. He, D. R. Hall, “A 30-W radio frequency excited waveguide CO2 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 726–728 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Gerlach, D. Wei, N. M. Amer, “Coupling efficiency of waveguide laser resonators formed by flat mirrors: analysis and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 948–963 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, “Transverse modes of plane-mirror waveguide resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1936–1946 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, A. D. Colley, “Misalignment effects in a CO2 waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 323–328 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Degnan, D. R. Hall, “Finite-aperture waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 901–910 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hill, P. Monk, D. R. Hall, “Tunable rf-excited CO2 waveguide laser with variable guide width,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1968–1973 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 838–843 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves

L. Rebuffi, J. P. Crenn, “Radiation patterns of the HE11 mode and Gaussian approximations,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 291–311 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

C. A. Hill, J. R. Redding, A. D. Colley, “Multimode treatment of misaligned CO2 waveguide lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 473–481 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Laser Focus/Electro-Opt.

L. A. Newman, R. A. Hart, “Recent R&D advances in sealed-off CO2 lasers,” Laser Focus/Electro-Opt. 23, 80–96 (June1987).

Other

R. L. Abrams, “Waveguide gas lasers,” in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979), Vol. 3.

D. R. Hall, C. A. Hill, “RF-excited CO2 waveguide lasers,” in Handbook of Molecular Lasers, P. K. Cheo, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1987).

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