Abstract

The Wind Imaging Interferometer is a field-widened Michelson interferometer onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The characterization of the instrument required a pixel-by-pixel evaluation of the instrument performance. Some of the configurations, techniques, and results of the characterization are summarized. Throughput was excellent and equivalent to a total system quantum efficiency of ∼10%. Localized spatial noise in response has been attributed to scattering from residual surface effects on the CCD. Instrument visibility factors greater than 90% were measured with distinct distribution patterns over the field of view that were different for the night and day apertures. The instrument phase for zero wind was determined with laboratory airglow sources.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Bouchareine, P. Connes, “Interferometer with compensated field for Fourier transform spectroscopy.” J. Phys. Rad. 24, 134–138 (1963).
  2. D. J. Baker, A. J. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Ground observations of resolved hydroxyl (Δv = 2) airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8859–8863 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Baker, A. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Development of infrared interferometry for upper atmospheric emission studies.” Appl. Opt. 20, 1734–1746 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Ring, J. W. Schofield, “Field-compensated Michelson spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 11, 507–516 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. L. Hilliard, G. G. Shepherd, “Wide-angle Michelson interferometer for measuring Doppler line widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 362–369 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, “Defocusing a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2569–2571 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. M. Title, H. E. Ramsey, “Improvements in birefringent filters. 6: Analog birefringent elements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2046–2058 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1583 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. Waldorf, “Beam splitter for a wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1585–1588 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed-path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. A. Gault, S. F. Johnston, D. J. W. Kendall, “Optimization of a field-widened Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1604–1608 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, P. R. Kosteniuk, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, P. R. Kosteniuk, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (5)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1973 (1)

D. J. Baker, A. J. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Ground observations of resolved hydroxyl (Δv = 2) airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8859–8863 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

1966 (1)

1963 (1)

P. Bouchareine, P. Connes, “Interferometer with compensated field for Fourier transform spectroscopy.” J. Phys. Rad. 24, 134–138 (1963).

Baker, D.

Baker, D. J.

D. J. Baker, A. J. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Ground observations of resolved hydroxyl (Δv = 2) airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8859–8863 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bouchareine, P.

P. Bouchareine, P. Connes, “Interferometer with compensated field for Fourier transform spectroscopy.” J. Phys. Rad. 24, 134–138 (1963).

Brun, J. F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Connes, P.

P. Bouchareine, P. Connes, “Interferometer with compensated field for Fourier transform spectroscopy.” J. Phys. Rad. 24, 134–138 (1963).

Desaulniers, D. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, P. R. Kosteniuk, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1583 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Gault, S. F. Johnston, D. J. W. Kendall, “Optimization of a field-widened Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1604–1608 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Haslett, J. W.

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Hilliard, R. L.

Ho, F. C.

Johnston, S. F.

Kendall, D. J. W.

Kosteniuk, P. R.

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. W.

Pasturczyk, Z.

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, H. E.

Ring, J.

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, J. W.

Shepherd, G. G.

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Stair, A. T.

D. Baker, A. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Development of infrared interferometry for upper atmospheric emission studies.” Appl. Opt. 20, 1734–1746 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Baker, A. J. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Ground observations of resolved hydroxyl (Δv = 2) airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8859–8863 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Steed, A.

Steed, A. J.

D. J. Baker, A. J. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Ground observations of resolved hydroxyl (Δv = 2) airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8859–8863 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed-path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Title, A. M.

Waldorf, A.

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiens, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, P. R. Kosteniuk, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J. R.

Zwick, H. H.

Appl. Opt. (9)

H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, “Defocusing a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2569–2571 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Title, H. E. Ramsey, “Improvements in birefringent filters. 6: Analog birefringent elements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2046–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1583 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. Waldorf, “Beam splitter for a wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1585–1588 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed-path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Gault, S. F. Johnston, D. J. W. Kendall, “Optimization of a field-widened Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1604–1608 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Baker, A. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Development of infrared interferometry for upper atmospheric emission studies.” Appl. Opt. 20, 1734–1746 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ring, J. W. Schofield, “Field-compensated Michelson spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 11, 507–516 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

D. J. Baker, A. J. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Ground observations of resolved hydroxyl (Δv = 2) airglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8859–8863 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, P. R. Kosteniuk, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. F. Brun, P. Charlot, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII—the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,725–10,750(1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Rad. (1)

P. Bouchareine, P. Connes, “Interferometer with compensated field for Fourier transform spectroscopy.” J. Phys. Rad. 24, 134–138 (1963).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absolute transmittance (fraction): green-line filter, night aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absolute responsivity (counts per second per kilorayleigh): green-line filter, night aperture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Instrument visibility (fraction): green-line filter, night aperture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Zero-wind-phase difference (degrees): green-line lamp phase − krypton lamp phase lamp, night aperture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Test configuration of the transmittance characterization. SFT, split field telescope; IBA, inner baffle assembly; EOA, end optic assembly; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Test configuration of the absolute responsivity characterization.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Test configuration of the visibility characterization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Test configuration of the zero-wind-phase characterization (green line).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Characterization Tests

Tables Icon

Table 2 Characterization and System Accuracies

Metrics