Abstract

The simultaneous application of vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the two-dimensional (2D) UV laser Rayleigh technique is reported for the investigation of a highly turbulent swirl frame inside a contained technical combustor. The CARS technique has been used to determine accurate temperature values at one point within the 2D Rayleigh-probed combustion field. These values were necessary to normalize the Rayleigh data to overcome influences of absorption effects along the detection path of the Rayleigh-scattered light through the exhaust gas volume and by the sealing window of the combustion chamber. At several different downstream positions, 500 simultaneous measurements with the point and with the 2D technique were performed to cover the whole combustion field. These data can be used for both the evaluation of 2D temperature structures in single frames and for the calculation of temperature probability density functions from the Rayleigh data at one single camera pixel over 500 frames. With this information, characterization of a highly turbulent flame is possible.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. P. Tait, D. J. Bryce, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser fluorescence imaging of simulated fuel vapor mixing in a gas turbine sector,” in Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the British and German Section of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Cambridge, England, 1993), pp. 251–253.
  4. W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).
  5. M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. C. Fourgette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane-hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. B. Long, P. S. Levin, C. D. Fourgette, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane-hydrogen flame,” Opt. Lett. 10, 267–269 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Leipertz, G. Kowalewski, S. Kampmann, “Measurement of gas temperature and temperature structures in premixed flames by using laser Rayleigh techniques,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), pp. 685–690.
  9. S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, K. Döbbeling, J. Haumann, T. Sattelmayer, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in a technical combustor with laser Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6167–6172 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–110 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Klick, K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Broadband single-pulse CARS spectra in a fired international combustion engine,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1178–1181 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Alden, S. Wallin, “CARS experiments in a full-scale (10 × 10 m) industrial coal furnace,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3434–3437 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Sattelmayer, M. P. Felchlin, J. Haumann, J. Hellat, D. Styner, “Second generation low-emission combustors for ABB gas turbines: burner development and tests at atmospheric pressure,” ASME paper 90-GT-162 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1990).
  17. B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Gierulski, M. Noda, T. Yamamoto, G. Marowsky, A. Slenczka, “Pump-induced population changes in broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 12, 608–610 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, “Laser Rayleigh thermometry in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1498.
    [CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, K. Döbbeling, J. Haumann, T. Sattelmayer, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in a technical combustor with laser Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6167–6172 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

D. C. Fourgette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane-hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

Alden, M.

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Alden, S. Wallin, “CARS experiments in a full-scale (10 × 10 m) industrial coal furnace,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3434–3437 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andresen, P.

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, A.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Attal-Tretout, B.

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bloss, W. H.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

Boogaarts, M.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bornscheuer, W.

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bouchardy, P.

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braam, A.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bryce, D. J.

N. P. Tait, D. J. Bryce, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser fluorescence imaging of simulated fuel vapor mixing in a gas turbine sector,” in Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the British and German Section of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Cambridge, England, 1993), pp. 251–253.

Chryssostomou, A.

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Jongh, W.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dibble, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, “Laser Rayleigh thermometry in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1498.
[CrossRef]

Döbbeling, K.

Dobbs, G. M.

Eckbreth, A. C.

Felchlin, M. P.

T. Sattelmayer, M. P. Felchlin, J. Haumann, J. Hellat, D. Styner, “Second generation low-emission combustors for ABB gas turbines: burner development and tests at atmospheric pressure,” ASME paper 90-GT-162 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1990).

Fourgette, C. D.

Fourgette, D. C.

D. C. Fourgette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane-hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gierulski, A.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

N. P. Tait, D. J. Bryce, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser fluorescence imaging of simulated fuel vapor mixing in a gas turbine sector,” in Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the British and German Section of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Cambridge, England, 1993), pp. 251–253.

Haumann, J.

S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, K. Döbbeling, J. Haumann, T. Sattelmayer, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in a technical combustor with laser Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6167–6172 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sattelmayer, M. P. Felchlin, J. Haumann, J. Hellat, D. Styner, “Second generation low-emission combustors for ABB gas turbines: burner development and tests at atmospheric pressure,” ASME paper 90-GT-162 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1990).

Hellat, J.

T. Sattelmayer, M. P. Felchlin, J. Haumann, J. Hellat, D. Styner, “Second generation low-emission combustors for ABB gas turbines: burner development and tests at atmospheric pressure,” ASME paper 90-GT-162 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1990).

Hollenbach, R. E.

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, “Laser Rayleigh thermometry in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1498.
[CrossRef]

Kampmann, S.

S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, K. Döbbeling, J. Haumann, T. Sattelmayer, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in a technical combustor with laser Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6167–6172 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leipertz, G. Kowalewski, S. Kampmann, “Measurement of gas temperature and temperature structures in premixed flames by using laser Rayleigh techniques,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), pp. 685–690.

Klein-Douwel, R.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klick, T.

Koch, A.

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, J.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

Kowalewski, G.

A. Leipertz, G. Kowalewski, S. Kampmann, “Measurement of gas temperature and temperature structures in premixed flames by using laser Rayleigh techniques,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), pp. 685–690.

Kröll, S.

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lawrenz, W.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

Lefebvre, M.

Leipertz, A.

S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, K. Döbbeling, J. Haumann, T. Sattelmayer, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in a technical combustor with laser Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6167–6172 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leipertz, G. Kowalewski, S. Kampmann, “Measurement of gas temperature and temperature structures in premixed flames by using laser Rayleigh techniques,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), pp. 685–690.

Levin, P. S.

Long, M. B.

D. C. Fourgette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane-hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Long, P. S. Levin, C. D. Fourgette, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane-hydrogen flame,” Opt. Lett. 10, 267–269 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löström, C.

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Magre, P.

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maly, R.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maly, R. R.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

Marko, K. A.

Marowsky, G.

Meerts, W. L.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meier, F.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

Meijer, G.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Monkhouse, P.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Noda, M.

Parameswaran, T.

Pealat, M.

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfister, W.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rimai, L.

Sattelmayer, T.

S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, K. Döbbeling, J. Haumann, T. Sattelmayer, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in a technical combustor with laser Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6167–6172 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sattelmayer, M. P. Felchlin, J. Haumann, J. Hellat, D. Styner, “Second generation low-emission combustors for ABB gas turbines: burner development and tests at atmospheric pressure,” ASME paper 90-GT-162 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1990).

Sawchuk, R. A.

Slenczka, A.

Smallwood, G. J.

Snelling, D. R.

Stolz, W.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

Stufflebeam, J. H.

Styner, D.

T. Sattelmayer, M. P. Felchlin, J. Haumann, J. Hellat, D. Styner, “Second generation low-emission combustors for ABB gas turbines: burner development and tests at atmospheric pressure,” ASME paper 90-GT-162 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1990).

Suntz, R.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tait, N. P.

N. P. Tait, D. J. Bryce, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser fluorescence imaging of simulated fuel vapor mixing in a gas turbine sector,” in Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the British and German Section of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Cambridge, England, 1993), pp. 251–253.

Taran, J. P.

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellex, P. A.

ter Meulen, J. J.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thus, B.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Versluis, M.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, E.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

Wallin, S.

Wirth, R.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

Wolfrum, J.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Zahn, M.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

Zurn, R. M.

D. C. Fourgette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane-hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure and burning behaviour in an IC engine simulator by 2D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 472–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. de Jongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. C. Fourgette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane-hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, “Laser Rayleigh thermometry in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1498.
[CrossRef]

A. Leipertz, G. Kowalewski, S. Kampmann, “Measurement of gas temperature and temperature structures in premixed flames by using laser Rayleigh techniques,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), pp. 685–690.

T. Sattelmayer, M. P. Felchlin, J. Haumann, J. Hellat, D. Styner, “Second generation low-emission combustors for ABB gas turbines: burner development and tests at atmospheric pressure,” ASME paper 90-GT-162 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1990).

N. P. Tait, D. J. Bryce, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser fluorescence imaging of simulated fuel vapor mixing in a gas turbine sector,” in Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the British and German Section of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Cambridge, England, 1993), pp. 251–253.

W. Lawrenz, J. Köhler, F. Meier, W. Stolz, R. Wirth, W. H. Bloss, R. R. Maly, E. Wagner, M. Zahn, “Quantitative 2D LIF measurements of air/fuel ratios during the intake stroke in a transparent SI engine,” SAE paper 922320 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa, 1992).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configuration of the Maksutow Newton telescope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Accuracy of the Rayleigh probe when different detection optics were used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the test of the CARS system used inside a high-temperature oven.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental arrangement of the combined Rayleigh and CARS probe. OMA, optical multichannel analyzer; HV, high voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scheme of the combustor rig with optical access for 2D Rayleigh and CARS experiments.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Rayleigh and CARS temperature pdf’s after normalization. The pdf’s have been taken at the same local position within the 2D light sheet of the Rayleigh probe. The positions are always located within the high-temperature region (burnt gas) of the combustion field at the indicated downstream position z[(a)–(d)].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cross section within the displayed instantaneous Rayleigh temperature field. The position of the temperature field is indicated by the white line crossing the flame front.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time sequence of 25 simultaneous measured Rayleigh and CARS temperatures at one common position inside the combustion field.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Rayleigh-temperature distributions at different downstream positions inside the combustion field.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Rayleigh-temperature pfd’s at different characteristic points of the combustion field (z, downstream parameter; d, diameter of the burner’s exit).

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