Abstract

Free-space multichannel optical switches using polarization control are attracting interest for future telecommunication networks and interconnection networks in computers. We describe a switching architecture, the turnover type, for such free-space multichannel optical switches. The architecture makes it possible to realize a large-scale and transparent optical switch that is also compact. A 256 × 256 multichannel optical switch based on the architecture is designed and fabricated. To the authors’ knowledge, the channel number of the fabricated switch is the largest yet reported among rearrangeable optical switches. Switching operation and signal transmission at 400 Mbits/s are performed successfully with a prototype switch.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the 1991 European Conference on Optical Communication (Société des Electriciéns et des Electroniciéns, Paris, 1991), Part 1, pp. 165–168.
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  14. S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).
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  23. T. Matsomoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” in Proceedings of the 1990 International Conference on Computer Design (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 426–429.
  24. T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “Multiprocessor system using an automatically rearrangeable free-space multichannel optical switch: COSINE-2,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3690–3699 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, “Turnover-type free-space multichannel optical switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 138–141.
  26. A. M. Hill, “One-sided rearrangeable optical switching networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 785–789 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Kimura, N. Naito, S. Shirai, N. Yamauchi, “Design and evaluation of low-cross-talk twisted nematic liquid-crystal cells for optical switches,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1647–1649 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twisted angles ≤90°,” J. Phys. D 8, 1575–1584 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1993

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch (EARS) arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “Multiprocessor system using an automatically rearrangeable free-space multichannel optical switch: COSINE-2,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3690–3699 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Govindarajan, S. R. Forrest, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Optically powered 2 × 2 optoelectronic switch with polarization routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 3, 669–672 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. Sakano, K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “A multichannel crossover switching network using collimated lights,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. E73, 2017–2019 (1990).

H. S. Hinton, “Photonic switching fabrics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. (April1990), pp. 71–88.
[CrossRef]

1989

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, “Optical implementation and performance of one-dimensional trimmed inverse augmented data manipulator networks for multiprocessor computer systems” Opt. Eng. 28, 305–314 (1989).

1988

1987

A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar network” Computer 20(12), 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. W. Lohmann, W. Stork, G. Stucke, “Optical perfect shuffle,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1530–1531 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Hill, “One-sided rearrangeable optical switching networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 785–789 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

T.-Y. Feng, “A survey of interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C14(12), 12–27 (1981).

1975

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twisted angles ≤90°,” J. Phys. D 8, 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Amano, C.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch (EARS) arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Araki, S.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEP’s and microoptics,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference/11th Topical Meeting on Gradient Indexes, K. Goto, K. Nishizawa, eds. (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kanagawa, 1993), pp. 328–331.

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C. P.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Birch, M. J.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Brownjohn, N. A.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Caulfield, H. J.

Cheng, L.

M. Govindarajan, S. R. Forrest, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Optically powered 2 × 2 optoelectronic switch with polarization routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 3, 669–672 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, “Optical implementation and performance of one-dimensional trimmed inverse augmented data manipulator networks for multiprocessor computer systems” Opt. Eng. 28, 305–314 (1989).

Feng, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Feng, “A survey of interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C14(12), 12–27 (1981).

Forrest, S. R.

M. Govindarajan, S. R. Forrest, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Optically powered 2 × 2 optoelectronic switch with polarization routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 3, 669–672 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gooch, C. H.

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twisted angles ≤90°,” J. Phys. D 8, 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Govindarajan, M.

M. Govindarajan, S. R. Forrest, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Optically powered 2 × 2 optoelectronic switch with polarization routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 3, 669–672 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, “Optical implementation and performance of one-dimensional trimmed inverse augmented data manipulator networks for multiprocessor computer systems” Opt. Eng. 28, 305–314 (1989).

Hill, A. M.

A. M. Hill, “One-sided rearrangeable optical switching networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 785–789 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

H. S. Hinton, “Photonic switching fabrics,” IEEE Commun. Mag. (April1990), pp. 71–88.
[CrossRef]

Hogari, K.

T. Sakano, K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “A multichannel crossover switching network using collimated lights,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. E73, 2017–2019 (1990).

K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “Two-dimensional multichannel optical switch employing polarization control techniques,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 5 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper 13C-7.
[CrossRef]

Irita, Y.

S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).

Ito, H.

T. Nakagami, T. Yamamoto, H. Ito, “Multistage reconfigurable optical interconnection network using polarization switch arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 67–71.

Jahns, J.

Jenkins, B. K.

A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar network” Computer 20(12), 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. M.

Kasahara, K.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEP’s and microoptics,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference/11th Topical Meeting on Gradient Indexes, K. Goto, K. Nishizawa, eds. (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kanagawa, 1993), pp. 328–331.

Kawai, S.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEP’s and microoptics,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference/11th Topical Meeting on Gradient Indexes, K. Goto, K. Nishizawa, eds. (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kanagawa, 1993), pp. 328–331.

Kimura, K.

K. Kimura, N. Naito, S. Shirai, N. Yamauchi, “Design and evaluation of low-cross-talk twisted nematic liquid-crystal cells for optical switches,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1647–1649 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).

Kohda, S.

S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).

Kubota, K.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEP’s and microoptics,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference/11th Topical Meeting on Gradient Indexes, K. Goto, K. Nishizawa, eds. (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kanagawa, 1993), pp. 328–331.

Kung, S. Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kurita, H.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEP’s and microoptics,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference/11th Topical Meeting on Gradient Indexes, K. Goto, K. Nishizawa, eds. (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kanagawa, 1993), pp. 328–331.

Kurokawa, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch (EARS) arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, “Advances in SEED based free space switching systems,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 76–80.

Leonberger, F. I.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Matsomoto, T.

T. Matsomoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” in Proceedings of the 1990 International Conference on Computer Design (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 426–429.

Matsumoto, T.

T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “Multiprocessor system using an automatically rearrangeable free-space multichannel optical switch: COSINE-2,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3690–3699 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakano, K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “A multichannel crossover switching network using collimated lights,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. E73, 2017–2019 (1990).

K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “Two-dimensional multichannel optical switch employing polarization control techniques,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 5 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper 13C-7.
[CrossRef]

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the 1991 European Conference on Optical Communication (Société des Electriciéns et des Electroniciéns, Paris, 1991), Part 1, pp. 165–168.

Matsunaga, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, “New free-space optical switching network based on cascaded beam shifters,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 435–437 (1993).

Matsuo, S.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch (EARS) arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

Murdocca, M. J.

Naito, N.

K. Kimura, N. Naito, S. Shirai, N. Yamauchi, “Design and evaluation of low-cross-talk twisted nematic liquid-crystal cells for optical switches,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1647–1649 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).

Nakagami, T.

T. Nakagami, T. Yamamoto, H. Ito, “Multistage reconfigurable optical interconnection network using polarization switch arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 67–71.

Nakano, Y.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch (EARS) arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, K.

T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “Multiprocessor system using an automatically rearrangeable free-space multichannel optical switch: COSINE-2,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3690–3699 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakano, K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “A multichannel crossover switching network using collimated lights,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. E73, 2017–2019 (1990).

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the 1991 European Conference on Optical Communication (Société des Electriciéns et des Electroniciéns, Paris, 1991), Part 1, pp. 165–168.

T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, “Turnover-type free-space multichannel optical switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 138–141.

K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “Two-dimensional multichannel optical switch employing polarization control techniques,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 5 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper 13C-7.
[CrossRef]

T. Matsomoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” in Proceedings of the 1990 International Conference on Computer Design (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 426–429.

Numai, T.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEP’s and microoptics,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference/11th Topical Meeting on Gradient Indexes, K. Goto, K. Nishizawa, eds. (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kanagawa, 1993), pp. 328–331.

Proudley, G. M.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Putnam, R. S.

Raghavendra, C. S.

A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar network” Computer 20(12), 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Sakano, T.

T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “Multiprocessor system using an automatically rearrangeable free-space multichannel optical switch: COSINE-2,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3690–3699 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakano, K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “A multichannel crossover switching network using collimated lights,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. E73, 2017–2019 (1990).

T. Matsomoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” in Proceedings of the 1990 International Conference on Computer Design (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 426–429.

K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “Two-dimensional multichannel optical switch employing polarization control techniques,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 5 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper 13C-7.
[CrossRef]

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the 1991 European Conference on Optical Communication (Société des Electriciéns et des Electroniciéns, Paris, 1991), Part 1, pp. 165–168.

T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, “Turnover-type free-space multichannel optical switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 138–141.

Sawabe, T.

T. Matsomoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” in Proceedings of the 1990 International Conference on Computer Design (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 426–429.

Sawchuk, A. A.

M. Govindarajan, S. R. Forrest, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Optically powered 2 × 2 optoelectronic switch with polarization routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 3, 669–672 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar network” Computer 20(12), 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).

Shamir, J.

Shirai, S.

K. Kimura, N. Naito, S. Shirai, N. Yamauchi, “Design and evaluation of low-cross-talk twisted nematic liquid-crystal cells for optical switches,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1647–1649 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, “New free-space optical switching network based on cascaded beam shifters,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 435–437 (1993).

Stace, C.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Stork, W.

Stucke, G.

Surette, M. R.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Tarry, H. A.

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twisted angles ≤90°,” J. Phys. D 8, 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Varma, A.

A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar network” Computer 20(12), 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. C.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

White, H. J.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch (EARS) arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, “New free-space optical switching network based on cascaded beam shifters,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 435–437 (1993).

Yamamoto, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch (EARS) arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakagami, T. Yamamoto, H. Ito, “Multistage reconfigurable optical interconnection network using polarization switch arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 67–71.

Yamauchi, N.

K. Kimura, N. Naito, S. Shirai, N. Yamauchi, “Design and evaluation of low-cross-talk twisted nematic liquid-crystal cells for optical switches,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1647–1649 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).

Yukimatsu, K.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch (EARS) arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett

M. Govindarajan, S. R. Forrest, L. Cheng, A. A. Sawchuk, “Optically powered 2 × 2 optoelectronic switch with polarization routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 3, 669–672 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch (EARS) arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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T.-Y. Feng, “A survey of interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C14(12), 12–27 (1981).

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[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twisted angles ≤90°,” J. Phys. D 8, 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

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T. Sakano, K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Matsumoto, “A multichannel crossover switching network using collimated lights,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. E73, 2017–2019 (1990).

Other

K. Hogari, K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “Two-dimensional multichannel optical switch employing polarization control techniques,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 5 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper 13C-7.
[CrossRef]

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A 128 × 128-channel free-space optical switch using polarization multiplexing technique,” in Proceedings of the 1991 European Conference on Optical Communication (Société des Electriciéns et des Electroniciéns, Paris, 1991), Part 1, pp. 165–168.

A. L. Lentine, “Advances in SEED based free space switching systems,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 76–80.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEP’s and microoptics,” in Fourth Micro-Optics Conference/11th Topical Meeting on Gradient Indexes, K. Goto, K. Nishizawa, eds. (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kanagawa, 1993), pp. 328–331.

S. Shirai, K. Kimura, Y. Irita, N. Naito, T. Serikawa, S. Kohda, N. Yamauchi, M. Yamaguchi, “Optical beam shifter module with high extinction ratio for 1024-input-port optical switching network,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 328–334 (1993).

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, “New free-space optical switching network based on cascaded beam shifters,” in Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, A. M. Goncharenko, H. S. Hinton, A. M. Prokhorov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1807, 435–437 (1993).

T. Nakagami, T. Yamamoto, H. Ito, “Multistage reconfigurable optical interconnection network using polarization switch arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 67–71.

T. Matsomoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” in Proceedings of the 1990 International Conference on Computer Design (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 426–429.

T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, “Turnover-type free-space multichannel optical switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 138–141.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstratioin of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Architecture of a parallel computer using a multichannel optical switch as the processor network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Network configuration of a 16 × 16 turnover-type switching network.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of the optically implemented turnover-type switch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Configuration of a two-dimensional turnover-type free-space multichannel optical switch.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interconnects between a turnover-type optical switch and an electronic system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Application of the turnover-type optical switch to intraboard chip-to-chip interconnects.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Number of stages necessary to handle 2 n channels in the one-way-type and the turnover-type switches.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Analysis model for insertion loss and cross-talk evaluation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated insertion-loss characteristics of a 256 × 256 turnover-type optical switch.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated cross-talk characteristics of a 256 × 256 turnover-type optical switch.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Analysis model of the optical receiver.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Relationship between R DU and the cross-talk of the LCLM and the turning stage.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Relationship between R DU and the power penalty at signal speed equal to 1 Gbit/s and BER = 10−17

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Photograph of the fabricated poly-Si TFT twisted-nematic LCLM array.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Switching characteristics of one LCLM: 20 ms/division.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Photograph of a fabricated 256 × 256 turnover-type free-space multichannel optical switch.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Experimental result of the switching operation of the 256 × 256 switch.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Insertion-loss characteristics of the fabricated switch.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Cross-talk characteristics of the fabricated switch.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Experimental result of signal transmission through the fabricated switch at 400 Mbits/s.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of the Fabricated 256 × 256 Turnover-Type Free-Space Multichannel Optical Switch

Tables Icon

Table 2 Loss and Cross-Talk Characteristics a Devices Used in the Switch

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P t ( out ) = t L t P P t ( in ) ,
P c ( out ) = t L t P P c ( in ) + ( t P c L + c P t L ) P t ( in ) ,
t = t L t P ,
c = t P c L + c P t L .
P t f ( n + 1 ) = t n + 1 P t f ( 0 ) ,
P c f ( n + 1 ) = t n c ( n + 1 ) P t f ( 0 ) .
P t r ( 0 ) = t n + 1 t m P t f ( 0 ) ,
P c r ( 0 ) = t n [ c m t + t m c ( n + 1 ) ] P t f ( 0 ) ,
P t r ( n + 1 ) = t 2 ( n + 1 ) t m P t f ( 0 ) ,
P c r ( n + 1 ) = t 2 n + 1 [ c m t + 2 t m c ( n + 1 ) ] P t f ( 0 )
R DU = 10 log [ P c r ( n + 1 ) P r ( n + 1 ) ] ( dB ) .

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