Abstract

Liquid-crystal microprism arrays are shown to be useful for providing electrically controlled alignment of optical beams and fixed various free-space optical interconnections. They can deflect closely spaced micro-optical beams individually to any position with high transmittance (95%), high deflection angle (~10°), and low voltage (<2.8 Vrms). Various fixed optical interconnections can be made simply by changes in the voltages applied to the microprism.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Wolffer, V. Royer, P. Gravey, “Self-aligned connections between signal mode fibers with mutually pumped phase conjugation mirrors,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 177–186 (1993).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1993 (5)

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch 1EARS2 Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, T. Kurokawa, “Three-terminal operation analysis of exciton absorption reflection swtiches (EARS’s),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 775–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasahara, “VSTEP-based smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 757–768 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1989 (4)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

G. Pauliat, J. P. Herriau, A. Delboulbe, G. Roosen, J. P. Huignard, “Dynamic beam deflection using photorefractive gratings in B12SiO20 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 306–314 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Amano, C.

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, T. Kurokawa, “Three-terminal operation analysis of exciton absorption reflection swtiches (EARS’s),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 775–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch 1EARS2 Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bach, G. W.

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D. R.

Connely, S. W.

Cottrell, D. M.

Crisci, R. J.

Davis, J. A.

Delboulbe, A.

G. Pauliat, J. P. Herriau, A. Delboulbe, G. Roosen, J. P. Huignard, “Dynamic beam deflection using photorefractive gratings in B12SiO20 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 306–314 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Florence, J. M.

Friberg, A. T.

Fukushima, S.

H. Yamazaki, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Fukushima, T. Itoh, “Multi-channel non-blocking holographic switching with a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1993 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), p. 492.

Gately, M. T.

Gravey, P.

N. Wolffer, V. Royer, P. Gravey, “Self-aligned connections between signal mode fibers with mutually pumped phase conjugation mirrors,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 177–186 (1993).

Herriau, J. P.

G. Pauliat, J. P. Herriau, A. Delboulbe, G. Roosen, J. P. Huignard, “Dynamic beam deflection using photorefractive gratings in B12SiO20 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 306–314 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

Hirabayashi, K.

H. Yamazaki, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Fukushima, T. Itoh, “Multi-channel non-blocking holographic switching with a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1993 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), p. 492.

G. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, “Alignment for 8-channel micro optical beam array using LC microprism array,” presented at the 41st Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies, Tokyo, 30 March 1994.

Hornbeck, L. J.

Huang, A.

Huignard, J. P.

G. Pauliat, J. P. Herriau, A. Delboulbe, G. Roosen, J. P. Huignard, “Dynamic beam deflection using photorefractive gratings in B12SiO20 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 306–314 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

H. Yamazaki, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Fukushima, T. Itoh, “Multi-channel non-blocking holographic switching with a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1993 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), p. 492.

Jahns, J.

Kasahara, K.

K. Kasahara, “VSTEP-based smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 757–768 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, S.

S. Kawai, “Free-space multistage optical interconnection networks using microlens arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1774–1779 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kerbis, E.

Konforti, N.

Koyabu, K.

K. Koyabu, F. Ohira, G. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, “Novel high-density collimator module comprising two-dimensional fiber array,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 2–3.

Kurokawa, T.

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, T. Kurokawa, “Three-terminal operation analysis of exciton absorption reflection swtiches (EARS’s),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 775–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch 1EARS2 Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lilly, R. A.

Marom, E.

Matsuo, S.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch 1EARS2 Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, T. Kurokawa, “Three-terminal operation analysis of exciton absorption reflection swtiches (EARS’s),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 775–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Koyabu, F. Ohira, G. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, “Novel high-density collimator module comprising two-dimensional fiber array,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 2–3.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Murdocca, M. J.

Nakahara, T.

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, T. Kurokawa, “Three-terminal operation analysis of exciton absorption reflection swtiches (EARS’s),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 775–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch 1EARS2 Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nose, T.

S. Sato, T. Nose, R. Yamaguchi, S. Yanase, “Relationship between lens properties and director orientation in a liquid crystal lens,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1435–1442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

Ohira, F.

K. Koyabu, F. Ohira, G. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, “Novel high-density collimator module comprising two-dimensional fiber array,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 2–3.

Pauliat, G.

G. Pauliat, J. P. Herriau, A. Delboulbe, G. Roosen, J. P. Huignard, “Dynamic beam deflection using photorefractive gratings in B12SiO20 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 306–314 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Penz, P. A.

Roosen, G.

G. Pauliat, J. P. Herriau, A. Delboulbe, G. Roosen, J. P. Huignard, “Dynamic beam deflection using photorefractive gratings in B12SiO20 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 306–314 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Royer, V.

N. Wolffer, V. Royer, P. Gravey, “Self-aligned connections between signal mode fibers with mutually pumped phase conjugation mirrors,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 177–186 (1993).

Sampsell, J. B.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Sato, T. Nose, R. Yamaguchi, S. Yanase, “Relationship between lens properties and director orientation in a liquid crystal lens,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1435–1442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tervonen, E.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Westerholm, J.

Wolffer, N.

N. Wolffer, V. Royer, P. Gravey, “Self-aligned connections between signal mode fibers with mutually pumped phase conjugation mirrors,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1806, 177–186 (1993).

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch 1EARS2 Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamazaki, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Fukushima, T. Itoh, “Multi-channel non-blocking holographic switching with a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1993 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), p. 492.

G. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, “Alignment for 8-channel micro optical beam array using LC microprism array,” presented at the 41st Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies, Tokyo, 30 March 1994.

Yamaguchi, R.

S. Sato, T. Nose, R. Yamaguchi, S. Yanase, “Relationship between lens properties and director orientation in a liquid crystal lens,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1435–1442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, G.

G. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, “Alignment for 8-channel micro optical beam array using LC microprism array,” presented at the 41st Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies, Tokyo, 30 March 1994.

K. Koyabu, F. Ohira, G. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, “Novel high-density collimator module comprising two-dimensional fiber array,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 2–3.

Yamamoto, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Yukimatsu, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, Y. Nakano, T. Kurokawa, “Digital free-space photonic switch structure using exciton absorption reflection switch 1EARS2 Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1203–1206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, H.

H. Yamazaki, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Fukushima, T. Itoh, “Multi-channel non-blocking holographic switching with a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” in Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1993 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), p. 492.

Yanase, S.

S. Sato, T. Nose, R. Yamaguchi, S. Yanase, “Relationship between lens properties and director orientation in a liquid crystal lens,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1435–1442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yukimatsu, K.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Structure of a LC microprism array, (b) figure showing the principle of beam deflection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross section of the microprisms with an apex angle of 20°, (b) a LC microprism array with a flexible cable and variable resistors for controlling applied voltages.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup for measuring the performanceof a singleLC microprism array, two crossed arrays, and an LC macroprism, all with a single optical beam; (b) experimental setup for demonstrating optical interconnections with LC microprism arrays.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical beam profiles when the voltage was applied to a single microprism array. The left-column figures are for the X direction, the middle ones are for the Y direction, and the right-column ones are the optical beam spot images inferred from these two profiles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Applied-voltage dependence of the deflection angle, the beam diameter, the normalized transmittance, and the normalized Gaussian ratio of an LC microprism array with an apex angle of 30°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beam deflection angles as a function of apex angle (experimental versus simulated).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of a LC microprism array on beam diameter and a positioning tolerance.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Profiles of an optical beam passing through two crossed LC microprism arrays: (a) voltage applied to the front LC microprism array, (b) voltage applied to the back LC microprism. The right-column figures are the optical beam spot images inferred from these two profiles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CCD output for optical interconnection from one input to nine outputs obtained by two crossed LC microprism arrays.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of the LC microprism response time on the apex angle.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Optical interconnections obtained by a single LC micro-prism array (a) without and (b) with an objective lens.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Optical interconnection obtained by two crossed micro-prism arrays.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Coupling efficiency from the optical beam array to the multimode fiber with and without the LC microprism array.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Design concept for a multistage interconnection network using LC microprism arrays.

Equations (5)

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θ 2 = sin 1 [ ( n L / n a ) sin ( ϕ ) ] ,
θ 3 = sin 1 [ n a sin ( θ 2 ϕ ) ] ,
BW = w 0 [ 1 + ( 2 d k w 0 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
maximum scale number = [ d tan ( θ ) 2 B W ] 2
= [ tan ( θ ) ] 2 4 w 0 2 [ 1 d 2 + ( 2 k w 0 2 ) 2 ] .

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