Abstract

Eyepieces often limit the overall optical performance of visual instruments and, because of the wide field-of-view and high-performance requirements, they present a well-known difficult design problem. Improvement of existing eyepieces is limited with the use of conventional design variables. We have designed and fabricated a hybrid diffractive–refractive wide-field (>60°) eyepiece that offers significant improvements over existing conventional eyepieces. The hybrid eyepiece consists of only three common-crown refractive elements and weighs 70% less than an Erfle-type eyepiece, while having enhanced optical performance such as a 50% decrease in pupil spherical aberration and a 25% reduction in distortion. Experimental modulation transfer function results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical performance.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 335–336.
  2. W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), pp. 87–88.
  3. For examples of wide-angle eyepiece designs, see A. Cox, A System of Optical Design (Focal, New York, 1964), pp. 563–575.
  4. H. Erfle, “Ocular,” U.S. patent1,478,704 (25December1923).
  5. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), pp. 404–407.
  6. Optical Design-Military Standardization Handbook MIL-HDBK-141 (Defense Supply Agency, Washington, D.C., 1962), p. 14–1.
  7. See, for example, T. Stone, N. George, “Hybrid diffractive-refractive lenses and achromats,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2960–2971 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. A. Kleinhans, “Aberrations of curved zone plates and Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1701–1704 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. C. Sweatt, “Describing holographic optical elements as lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.67, 803–808 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris, “Design of diffractive singlets for monochromatic imaging,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2151–2158 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Rosin, “Eyepieces and magnifiers,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. III of Optical Components, R. Kingslake, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 331–361.
  12. R. W. Wood, “Phase-reversal zone-plates and diffraction-telescopes,” Philos. Mag. 45, 511–522 (1898).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. J. Bennett, “Achromatic combinations of hologram optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 15, 542–545 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. W. Stone, “Hybrid diffractive-refractive telescope,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1212, 257–266 (1990).
  15. C. W. Chen, “Binocular eyepiece optical system employing refractive and diffractive optical elements,” U.S. patent5,151,823 (29September1992).
  16. R. E. Aldrich, “Ultra lightweight diffractive eyepiece,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 129.
  17. D. Williamson, “The eye in optical systems,” in Geometrical Optics, R. E. Fischer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.531, 136–147 (1985).
  18. D. Sinclair, “Designing diffractive optics using the Sweatt model,” Sinclair Opt. Des. Notes 1(1), 1–3 (1990).
  19. D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris, “Effects of diffraction efficiency on the modulation transfer function of diffractive lenses,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4389–4396 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. See, for example, D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris, J. R. Rogers, “Optical performance of holographic kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 28, 967–983 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Bowen, C. G. Blough, V. Wong, “Fabrication of optical surfaces by laser pattern generation,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of, 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 153–156.
  22. G. Blough, Rochester Photonics Corporation, 330 Clay Road, Rochester, NY 14627 (private communication).

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

D. Sinclair, “Designing diffractive optics using the Sweatt model,” Sinclair Opt. Des. Notes 1(1), 1–3 (1990).

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

1898 (1)

R. W. Wood, “Phase-reversal zone-plates and diffraction-telescopes,” Philos. Mag. 45, 511–522 (1898).
[CrossRef]

Aldrich, R. E.

R. E. Aldrich, “Ultra lightweight diffractive eyepiece,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 129.

Bennett, S. J.

Blough, C. G.

J. Bowen, C. G. Blough, V. Wong, “Fabrication of optical surfaces by laser pattern generation,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of, 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 153–156.

Blough, G.

G. Blough, Rochester Photonics Corporation, 330 Clay Road, Rochester, NY 14627 (private communication).

Bowen, J.

J. Bowen, C. G. Blough, V. Wong, “Fabrication of optical surfaces by laser pattern generation,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of, 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 153–156.

Buralli, D. A.

Chen, C. W.

C. W. Chen, “Binocular eyepiece optical system employing refractive and diffractive optical elements,” U.S. patent5,151,823 (29September1992).

Cox, A.

For examples of wide-angle eyepiece designs, see A. Cox, A System of Optical Design (Focal, New York, 1964), pp. 563–575.

Erfle, H.

H. Erfle, “Ocular,” U.S. patent1,478,704 (25December1923).

George, N.

Kingslake, R.

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 335–336.

Kleinhans, W. A.

Morris, G. M.

Rogers, J. R.

Rosin, S.

S. Rosin, “Eyepieces and magnifiers,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. III of Optical Components, R. Kingslake, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 331–361.

Sinclair, D.

D. Sinclair, “Designing diffractive optics using the Sweatt model,” Sinclair Opt. Des. Notes 1(1), 1–3 (1990).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), pp. 87–88.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), pp. 404–407.

Stone, T.

Stone, T. W.

T. W. Stone, “Hybrid diffractive-refractive telescope,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1212, 257–266 (1990).

Sweatt, W. C.

W. C. Sweatt, “Describing holographic optical elements as lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.67, 803–808 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, D.

D. Williamson, “The eye in optical systems,” in Geometrical Optics, R. E. Fischer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.531, 136–147 (1985).

Wong, V.

J. Bowen, C. G. Blough, V. Wong, “Fabrication of optical surfaces by laser pattern generation,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of, 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 153–156.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, “Phase-reversal zone-plates and diffraction-telescopes,” Philos. Mag. 45, 511–522 (1898).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Philos. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, “Phase-reversal zone-plates and diffraction-telescopes,” Philos. Mag. 45, 511–522 (1898).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair Opt. Des. Notes (1)

D. Sinclair, “Designing diffractive optics using the Sweatt model,” Sinclair Opt. Des. Notes 1(1), 1–3 (1990).

Other (14)

J. Bowen, C. G. Blough, V. Wong, “Fabrication of optical surfaces by laser pattern generation,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 13 of, 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 153–156.

G. Blough, Rochester Photonics Corporation, 330 Clay Road, Rochester, NY 14627 (private communication).

T. W. Stone, “Hybrid diffractive-refractive telescope,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1212, 257–266 (1990).

C. W. Chen, “Binocular eyepiece optical system employing refractive and diffractive optical elements,” U.S. patent5,151,823 (29September1992).

R. E. Aldrich, “Ultra lightweight diffractive eyepiece,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 129.

D. Williamson, “The eye in optical systems,” in Geometrical Optics, R. E. Fischer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.531, 136–147 (1985).

S. Rosin, “Eyepieces and magnifiers,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. III of Optical Components, R. Kingslake, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 331–361.

W. C. Sweatt, “Describing holographic optical elements as lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.67, 803–808 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 335–336.

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992), pp. 87–88.

For examples of wide-angle eyepiece designs, see A. Cox, A System of Optical Design (Focal, New York, 1964), pp. 563–575.

H. Erfle, “Ocular,” U.S. patent1,478,704 (25December1923).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), pp. 404–407.

Optical Design-Military Standardization Handbook MIL-HDBK-141 (Defense Supply Agency, Washington, D.C., 1962), p. 14–1.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Five-element Erfle eyepiece, 60° FOV.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wide-angle, hybrid diffractive–refractive eyepieces. (a) Three refractive elements, two diffractive elements, (b) three refractive elements, one diffractive element; 60° FOV. Note that refractive elements are drawn to scale, but diffractive elements are drawn schematically.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Percent distortion versus field angle for (a) Erfle eyepiece, (b) hybrid eyepiece in Fig. 2(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Longitudinal pupil spherical aberration (486, 588, 656 nm) versus field angle for (a) Erfle eyepiece, (b) hybrid eyepiece in Fig. 2(b). The data are scaled by the FL (F) of the eyepiece.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Primary lateral color and secondary lateral color versus field angle for (a) Erfle eyepiece, (b) hybrid eyepiece in Fig. 2(b). The data are scaled by the FL (F) of the eyepiece.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffraction efficiency of a diffractive lens with peak efficiency at λ0 = 0.555 μm for the m = 0, 1, 2 diffracted orders and the photopic visual response of the human eye.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of the mounted hybrid wide-field eyepiece depicted in Fig. 2(b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental and theoretical on-axis MTF’s for hybrid eyepiece in Fig. 2(b) with λ = 555 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental on-axis MTF’s for six-element Erfle eyepiece and hybrid eyepiece in Fig. 2(b) with λ = 555 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental and theoretical 30° full FOV MTF’s for hybrid eyepiece in Fig. 2(b) with λ = 555 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental 30° FOV MTF for six-element Erfle eyepiece and hybrid eyepiece in Fig. 2(b) with λ = 555 nm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental and theoretical 30° FOV MTF’s for hybrid eyepiece in Fig. 2(b) with λ = 486 nm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Experimental and theoretical 30° FOV MTF’s for hybrid eyepiece in Fig. 2(b) with λ = 656 nm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Lens Prescription Data for Hybrid Eyepiece shown in Fig. 2(a) a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Lens Prescription Data for Hybrid Eyepiece shown in Fig. 2(b) a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Characteristics and Performance Features for the Erfle Eyepiece and the Wide-Angle Hybrid Diffractive–Refractive Eyepieces in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) a

Equations (4)

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φ ( r ) = 2 π λ ( S 1 r 2 + S 2 r 4 + S 3 r 6 + S 4 r 8 + ) .
η int = 1 A pupil η local ( u , v ) d u d v ,
η m = sinc 2 ( α m ) .
α = ( λ 0 λ ) [ n ( λ ) 1 n ( λ 0 ) 1 ] ,

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