Abstract

The surface quality of bare substrates and preparation procedures take on an important role in optical coating performances. The most commonly used techniques of characterization generally give information about roughness and local defects. A photothermal deflection technique is used for mapping surface absorption of fused-silica and glass substrates. We show that absorption mapping gives specific information on surface contamination of bare substrates. We present experimental results concerning substrates prepared by different cleaning and polishing techniques. We show that highly polished surfaces lead to the lowest values of residual surface absorption. Moreover the cleaning behavior of surfaces of multicomponent glasses and their optical performance in terms of absorption are proved to be different from those of fused silica.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. H. Guenther, “The influence of the substrate surface on the performance of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 77, 239–251 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Liao, D. J. Smith, B. McIntyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1985).
  3. K. H. Guenther, “Nodular defects in dielectric multilayers and thick single layers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1034–1038 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1441, 154–172 (1990).
  5. P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Characterizations of optical surfaces by measurement of scattering distribution,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3561–3566 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. A. Temple, “Examination of laser damage sites of transparent surfaces and films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 568, 333–341 (1979).
  7. F. L. Williams, C. K. Carniglia, B. J. Pond, W. K. Stowell, “Investigation of thin films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 299–308 (1989).
  8. A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, W. Jackson, N. M. Amer, “Sensitive photothermal deflection technique for measuring absorption in optically thin media,” Opt. Lett. 5, 377–379 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Commandré, E. Pelletier, “Measurements of absorption losses in TiO2 films by a collinear photothermal deflection technique,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4276–4283 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1270, 82–93 (1990).
  11. M. Commandré, “Caractérisation de l’absorption dans les composants optiques en couches minces par déflexion photothermique,” Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat (Université d’Aix-Marseille, France, 1992), Chap. 5, pp. 81–118.
  12. T. Raj, D. E. McCready, C. K. Carniglia, “Substrate cleaning in vacuum by laser irradiation,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 152–165 (1988).
  13. R. C. Estier, N. S. Nogar, R. A. Schmell, “The detection, removal and effect on damage thresholds of cerium impurities on fused silica,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 183–188 (1988).
  14. R. S. Hockett, “Quantitative analysis of surface trace metal contamination on substrates and films by TXRF,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 239–253 (1989).
  15. Glass produced by Corning France.
  16. Very smooth surface finish (French Standard N F S 10-006); the rms roughness is approximately 0.3 nm.
  17. T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass, Translation Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chap. 2, pp. 15–55.
  18. K. Kinosita, “Surface deterioration of optical glasses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 85–143.
    [CrossRef]

1990

1989

F. L. Williams, C. K. Carniglia, B. J. Pond, W. K. Stowell, “Investigation of thin films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 299–308 (1989).

R. S. Hockett, “Quantitative analysis of surface trace metal contamination on substrates and films by TXRF,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 239–253 (1989).

1988

T. Raj, D. E. McCready, C. K. Carniglia, “Substrate cleaning in vacuum by laser irradiation,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 152–165 (1988).

R. C. Estier, N. S. Nogar, R. A. Schmell, “The detection, removal and effect on damage thresholds of cerium impurities on fused silica,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 183–188 (1988).

1984

1981

K. H. Guenther, “The influence of the substrate surface on the performance of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 77, 239–251 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, “Nodular defects in dielectric multilayers and thick single layers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1034–1038 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

1979

P. A. Temple, “Examination of laser damage sites of transparent surfaces and films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 568, 333–341 (1979).

Albrand, G.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1270, 82–93 (1990).

Amer, N. M.

Boccara, A. C.

Brown, N.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1441, 154–172 (1990).

Carniglia, C. K.

F. L. Williams, C. K. Carniglia, B. J. Pond, W. K. Stowell, “Investigation of thin films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 299–308 (1989).

T. Raj, D. E. McCready, C. K. Carniglia, “Substrate cleaning in vacuum by laser irradiation,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 152–165 (1988).

Commandré, M.

M. Commandré, E. Pelletier, “Measurements of absorption losses in TiO2 films by a collinear photothermal deflection technique,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4276–4283 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, “Caractérisation de l’absorption dans les composants optiques en couches minces par déflexion photothermique,” Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat (Université d’Aix-Marseille, France, 1992), Chap. 5, pp. 81–118.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1270, 82–93 (1990).

Estier, R. C.

R. C. Estier, N. S. Nogar, R. A. Schmell, “The detection, removal and effect on damage thresholds of cerium impurities on fused silica,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 183–188 (1988).

Fournier, D.

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, “The influence of the substrate surface on the performance of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 77, 239–251 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, “Nodular defects in dielectric multilayers and thick single layers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1034–1038 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hockett, R. S.

R. S. Hockett, “Quantitative analysis of surface trace metal contamination on substrates and films by TXRF,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 239–253 (1989).

Izumitani, T. S.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass, Translation Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chap. 2, pp. 15–55.

Jackson, W.

Kinosita, K.

K. Kinosita, “Surface deterioration of optical glasses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 85–143.
[CrossRef]

Liao, B.

B. Liao, D. J. Smith, B. McIntyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1985).

McCready, D. E.

T. Raj, D. E. McCready, C. K. Carniglia, “Substrate cleaning in vacuum by laser irradiation,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 152–165 (1988).

McIntyre, B.

B. Liao, D. J. Smith, B. McIntyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1985).

Nogar, N. S.

R. C. Estier, N. S. Nogar, R. A. Schmell, “The detection, removal and effect on damage thresholds of cerium impurities on fused silica,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 183–188 (1988).

Pelletier, E.

M. Commandré, E. Pelletier, “Measurements of absorption losses in TiO2 films by a collinear photothermal deflection technique,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4276–4283 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Characterizations of optical surfaces by measurement of scattering distribution,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3561–3566 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1270, 82–93 (1990).

Pond, B. J.

F. L. Williams, C. K. Carniglia, B. J. Pond, W. K. Stowell, “Investigation of thin films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 299–308 (1989).

Raj, T.

T. Raj, D. E. McCready, C. K. Carniglia, “Substrate cleaning in vacuum by laser irradiation,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 152–165 (1988).

Roche, P.

P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Characterizations of optical surfaces by measurement of scattering distribution,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3561–3566 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1270, 82–93 (1990).

Schmell, R. A.

R. C. Estier, N. S. Nogar, R. A. Schmell, “The detection, removal and effect on damage thresholds of cerium impurities on fused silica,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 183–188 (1988).

Smith, D. J.

B. Liao, D. J. Smith, B. McIntyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1985).

Stolz, C. J.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1441, 154–172 (1990).

Stowell, W. K.

F. L. Williams, C. K. Carniglia, B. J. Pond, W. K. Stowell, “Investigation of thin films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 299–308 (1989).

Taylor, J. R.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1441, 154–172 (1990).

Temple, P. A.

P. A. Temple, “Examination of laser damage sites of transparent surfaces and films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 568, 333–341 (1979).

Tesar, A. A.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1441, 154–172 (1990).

Williams, F. L.

F. L. Williams, C. K. Carniglia, B. J. Pond, W. K. Stowell, “Investigation of thin films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 299–308 (1989).

Appl. Opt.

Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979

P. A. Temple, “Examination of laser damage sites of transparent surfaces and films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 568, 333–341 (1979).

Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988

T. Raj, D. E. McCready, C. K. Carniglia, “Substrate cleaning in vacuum by laser irradiation,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 152–165 (1988).

R. C. Estier, N. S. Nogar, R. A. Schmell, “The detection, removal and effect on damage thresholds of cerium impurities on fused silica,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 775, 183–188 (1988).

Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989

R. S. Hockett, “Quantitative analysis of surface trace metal contamination on substrates and films by TXRF,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 239–253 (1989).

F. L. Williams, C. K. Carniglia, B. J. Pond, W. K. Stowell, “Investigation of thin films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 801, 299–308 (1989).

Opt. Lett.

Thin Solid Films

K. H. Guenther, “The influence of the substrate surface on the performance of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 77, 239–251 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Liao, D. J. Smith, B. McIntyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1985).

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1441, 154–172 (1990).

Glass produced by Corning France.

Very smooth surface finish (French Standard N F S 10-006); the rms roughness is approximately 0.3 nm.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass, Translation Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chap. 2, pp. 15–55.

K. Kinosita, “Surface deterioration of optical glasses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 85–143.
[CrossRef]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1270, 82–93 (1990).

M. Commandré, “Caractérisation de l’absorption dans les composants optiques en couches minces par déflexion photothermique,” Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat (Université d’Aix-Marseille, France, 1992), Chap. 5, pp. 81–118.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption mapping of the same area on a fused-silica bare substrate: (a) top view, (b) oblique perspective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simultaneous mappings of (a) absorption and (b) total integrated scattering (T.I.S.) of the same area on a BK7 bare substrate: absorption and scattering occur simultaneously in the central defect.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simultaneous mappings of (a) absorption and (b) total integrated scattering (T.I.S.) of the same area on a BK7 bare substrate: a defect can scatter but not absorb or can absorb and not scatter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption mapping of the same area on a BK7 bare substrate (a) before and (b) after cleaning using a conventional procedure through an automatic cleaning apparatus. Spatial distribution of absorption is completely modified whereas the average surface absorptance decreases from 54 to 40 ppm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption mapping of the same area on a BK7 bare substrate after three different successive cleaning procedures, (a), (b), and (c): these mappings are hardly ever correlated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Minimum, mean, and maximum surface absorptance for three BK7 substrates polished in different conditions and cleaned successively with increasingly effective cleaning procedures: soft manual cleaning (-----), soft (- - -), then ultrasonic (—) automatic cleaning. For each sample, measurements are performed on the same area: com. gr., commercial grade; the double asterisks refer to Ref. 16.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Minimum, mean, and maximum surface absorptance for three fused-silica substrates polished in different conditions and successively cleaned with increasingly effective cleaning procedures: soft manual cleaning (-----), then ultrasonic (—) automatic cleaning. For each sample, measurements are performed on the same area: com. gr., commercial grade; the double asterisks refer to Ref. 16.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Histograms of minimum, mean, and maximum values of surface absorptance for 52 fused-silica substrates, all T3 polished and cleaned using the same automatic procedure. Generally the defects of absorptance higher than some 100 ppm are likewise visible through a Nomarski microscope.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Histograms of minimum, mean, and maximum values of surface absorptance for 31 BK7 substrates, all T3 polished and cleaned using the same automatic procedure.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Minimum, mean, and maximum surface absorptance for four bare materials: fused silica, BK7, C20-36, and D20-50. The indicated values are averaged for the following sets: 52 fused silica, 31 BK7, 12 C20-36, and 5 D20-50 substrates. Each of these 100 samples was measured on a 750 × 550 μm2 area (165 points).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean Surface Absorptance Values (ppm) before and after Cleaning for BK7 and Fused-Silica Substrates, All T3 Polished

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